Zumdahl_chapt_16

Zumdahl_chapt_16 - Chapter 16 Spontaneity, Entropy and Free...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 16 Spontaneity, Entropy and Free Energy 16.1 Spontaneous Processes 16.2 Entropy and the 2 nd Law 16.3 Effect of Temperature 16.4 Free Energy 16.5 Entropy Changes and Reactions 16.6 Free Energy and Reactions 16.7 Effect of Pressure 16.8 Free Energy and Equilibrium 16.9 Free Energy and Work Which way is downhill? Which way is downhill? Which way is downhill? Elevation: 184 ft ~ Sea Level Chapter 12 vs Chapter 16 Elevation: 184 ft ~ Sea Level Chapter 12 vs Chapter 16 vs Chapter 16 Elevation: 184 ft ~ Sea Level Chapter 12 vs Chapter 16 Elevation: 184 ft ~ Sea Level Spontaneity As far as thermodynamics is concerned, getting to Santa Monica is all downhill. But thermodynamics cant tell you when you will get there or how much work you have to do! Spontaneity How do you tell if your watching a movie in reverse? Spontaneity How do you tell if your watching a movie in reverse? Balls roll uphill Coffee cups get warmer Professors grow hair The Arrow of Time Spontaneous Processes increase the entropy of the universe! The Arrow of Time Spontaneous Processes increase increase the entropy of the universe! the entropy of the universe! Occurs without outside intervention Does not mean Fast or slow, but rather eventually . The Arrow of Time Spontaneous Processes increase increase the entropy of the universe! Level I Measure of disorder Level II Measure of probability Level III Measure of distribution energy state patterns. The Arrow of Time Entropy Probability Spontaneity Most probable arrangement Maximum Likelihood The Arrow of Time Spontaneous Processes increase increase the entropy of the the entropy of the universe! system surroundings universe = system + surroundings Calculating Positional Entropy Level I 2 molecules partitioned between 2 boxes Calculating Positional Entropy Level I 2 molecules partitioned between 2 boxes Calculating Positional Entropy Level I 2 molecules partitioned between 2 boxes Calculating Positional Entropy Easy Exam Problem 2 molecules partitioned between 2 boxes Arrangement I 1 microstate Arrangement II 2 microstates Arrangement III 1 microstate Qualitative Positional Entropy Change of state S solid < < S liquid S gas Qualitative Positional Entropy Does entropy increase or decrease?...
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Zumdahl_chapt_16 - Chapter 16 Spontaneity, Entropy and Free...

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