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Unformatted text preview: PSY 101 Study Guide for Exam II This study guide is designed to help focus your attention on the important concepts of the material we have covered thus far, enabling you to maximize your study time. Remember that the exam items will come from the text, lecture, and video clips. The exam will begin at 8:00 am and will consist of 60 best answer, multiple-choice questions. Be on time & bring a pencil! No exam will be given if you are late and a completed exam has already been turned in. Chapter 5: Sensation- Terms and Definitions Sensation conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system o Converting energy into a neuro-response o The cause Psychophysics the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them o How physical energy relates to our psychological experience Absolute threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time Signal Detection Theory a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise) o Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a persons experience, expectations, and level of fatigue Subliminal below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness Priming the activation, often unconsciousciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing ones perception, memory, or response Difference Threshold the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time o We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference o Also called just noticeable difference or jnd Webers Law the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) Sensory Adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation Accommodation the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina Acuity the sharpness of vision- What is the difference between bottom-up processing and top-down processing ?...
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