EW430_UserGuide

EW430_UserGuide - MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User...

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Unformatted text preview: MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide for Texas Instruments' MSP430 Microcontroller Family COPYRIGHT NOTICE Copyright 19962006 IAR Systems. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced without the prior written consent of IAR Systems. The software described in this document is furnished under a license and may only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of such a license. DISCLAIMER The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on any part of IAR Systems. While the information contained herein is assumed to be accurate, IAR Systems assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. In no event shall IAR Systems, its employees, its contractors, or the authors of this document be liable for special, direct, indirect, or consequential damage, losses, costs, charges, claims, demands, claim for lost profits, fees, or expenses of any nature or kind. TRADEMARKS IAR Systems, From Idea to Target, IAR Embedded Workbench, visualSTATE, IAR MakeApp and C-SPY are trademarks owned by IAR Systems AB. Texas Instruments is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments Incorporated. Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Adobe and Acrobat Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated. CodeWright is a registered trademark of Starbase Corporation. All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. EDITION NOTICE Fifth edition: March 2006 Part number: U430-5 This guide describes version 3.x of IAR Embedded Workbench for Texas Instruments' MSP430 microcontroller family. Brief contents Tables Figures Preface ................................................................................................................... xxiii ................................................................................................................ xxvii ................................................................................................................ xxxv ............................................................. 1 Part 1. Product overview Product introduction Installed files ........................................................................................ 3 ........................................................................................................ 15 .................................................................................... 23 ................................................................. 25 Part 2. Tutorials Creating an application project Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger ..................................... 37 Mixing C and assembler modules Using C++ Simulating an interrupt ............................................................ 49 ............................................................................................................ 53 .................................................................................. 57 .................................................................. 67 ............ 71 Working with library modules Part 3. Project management and building The development environment Managing projects Editing ................................................................. 73 ............................................................................................. 79 Building ................................................................................................................... 89 ..................................................................................................................... 95 .............................................................................. 105 ..................................................................... 107 Part 4. Debugging The IAR C-SPY Debugger iii Executing your application Using breakpoints ......................................................................... 117 Working with variables and expressions ............................................ 123 ........................................................................................... 129 ........................................................ 135 .......................................................... 143 Monitoring memory and registers Using the C-SPY macro system Analyzing your application ......................................................................... 151 .............................................. 157 Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator Simulator-specific debugging Simulating interrupts ..................................................................... 159 ..................................................................................... 177 ............................. 189 .......................... 191 Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET debugger Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger C-SPY FET-specific debugging .............................................................. 197 ....................... 229 Design considerations for in-circuit programming Part 7. Reference information C-SPY Debugger reference General options Compiler options ........................................... 235 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference ................................... 237 ................................................................... 313 .............................................................................................. 343 ........................................................................................... 351 ......................................................................................... 365 Assembler options Custom build options ................................................................................... 373 Build actions options Linker options .................................................................................... 375 .................................................................................................. 377 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE iv User Guide Brief contents Library builder options ................................................................................ 391 Debugger options ........................................................................................... 393 C-SPY macros reference Glossary Index ........................................................................ 397 .............................................................................................................. 425 ..................................................................................................................... 439 v MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE vi User Guide Contents Tables Figures Preface ................................................................................................................... xxiii ................................................................................................................ xxvii ................................................................................................................ xxxv Who should read this guide ........................................................... xxxv How to use this guide ....................................................................... xxxv What this guide contains ................................................................ xxxvi Other documentation ...................................................................... xxxix Document conventions ......................................................................... xl Part 1. Product overview Product introduction ............................................................. 1 ........................................................................................ 3 The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE .............................................. 3 An extensible and modular environment ............................................. 4 Features ................................................................................................ 4 Documentation ..................................................................................... 5 IAR C-SPY Debugger .............................................................................. 5 General C-SPY Debugger features ...................................................... 6 RTOS awareness .................................................................................. 8 Documentation ..................................................................................... 8 IAR C-SPY Debugger systems ............................................................ 8 IAR C-SPY Simulator .......................................................................... 9 IAR C-SPY FET Debugger .................................................................. 9 IAR C/C++ Compiler ............................................................................. 10 Features .............................................................................................. 10 Runtime environment ......................................................................... 11 Documentation ................................................................................... 11 IAR Assembler ......................................................................................... 11 Features .............................................................................................. 11 Documentation ................................................................................... 11 vii IAR XLINK Linker .................................................................................. 12 Features .............................................................................................. 12 Documentation ................................................................................... 12 IAR XAR Library Builder and IAR XLIB Librarian .................. 13 Features .............................................................................................. 13 Documentation ................................................................................... 13 Installed files ........................................................................................................ 15 Directory structure ................................................................................ 15 Root directory .................................................................................... 15 The 430 directory ............................................................................... 16 The common directory ....................................................................... 17 File types ..................................................................................................... 18 Documentation ........................................................................................ 20 The user and reference guides ............................................................ 20 Online help ......................................................................................... 21 IAR on the web .................................................................................. 21 Part 2. Tutorials .................................................................................... 23 ................................................................. 25 Creating an application project Setting up a new project ..................................................................... 25 Creating a Workspace window .......................................................... 25 Creating the new project .................................................................... 26 Adding files to the project .................................................................. 28 Setting project options ....................................................................... 29 Compiling and linking the application ........................................... 31 Compiling the source files ................................................................. 31 Viewing the list file ............................................................................ 32 Linking the application ...................................................................... 34 Viewing the map file .......................................................................... 35 Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger ..................................... 37 Debugging the application .................................................................. 37 Starting the debugger ......................................................................... 37 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE viii User Guide Contents Organizing the windows .................................................................... 37 Inspecting source statements .............................................................. 38 Inspecting variables ........................................................................... 40 Setting and monitoring breakpoints ................................................... 42 Debugging in disassembly mode ...................................................... 43 Monitoring registers ........................................................................... 44 Monitoring memory ........................................................................... 44 Viewing terminal I/O ......................................................................... 45 Reaching program exit ....................................................................... 46 Mixing C and assembler modules ............................................................ 49 Examining the calling convention .................................................... 49 Adding an assembler module to the project .............................. 50 Setting up the project ......................................................................... 50 Using C++ ............................................................................................................ 53 Creating a C++ application ................................................................. 53 Compiling and linking the C++ application ....................................... 53 Setting a breakpoint and executing to it ............................................. 54 Printing the Fibonacci numbers ......................................................... 56 Simulating an interrupt .................................................................................. 57 Adding an interrupt handler .............................................................. 57 The application--a brief description .................................................. 57 Writing an interrupt handler ............................................................... 58 Setting up the project ......................................................................... 58 Setting up the simulation environment ........................................ 58 Defining a C-SPY setup macro file .................................................... 59 Specifying C-SPY options ................................................................. 60 Building the project ............................................................................ 61 Starting the simulator ......................................................................... 61 Specifying a simulated interrupt ....................................................... 62 Setting an immediate breakpoint ........................................................ 63 Simulating the interrupt ...................................................................... 64 Executing the application ................................................................... 64 ix Using macros for interrupts and breakpoints ............................ 65 Working with library modules .................................................................. 67 Using libraries .......................................................................................... 67 Creating a new project ....................................................................... 68 Creating a library project ................................................................... 68 Using the library in your application project ..................................... 69 Part 3. Project management and building The development environment ............ 71 ................................................................. 73 The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE ............................................ 73 Running the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE .................................. 74 Exiting ................................................................................................ 75 Customizing the environment .......................................................... 75 Organizing the windows on the screen .............................................. 75 Customizing the IDE .......................................................................... 76 Communicating with external tools ................................................... 77 Managing projects ............................................................................................. 79 The project model .................................................................................. 79 How projects are organized ................................................................ 79 Creating and managing workspaces ................................................... 82 Navigating project files ........................................................................ 83 Viewing the workspace ...................................................................... 84 Displaying browse information .......................................................... 85 Source code control .............................................................................. 86 Interacting with source code control systems .................................... 86 Building ................................................................................................................... 89 Building your application ..................................................................... 89 Setting options .................................................................................... 89 Building a project ............................................................................... 91 Building multiple configurations in a batch ....................................... 91 Correcting errors found during build ................................................. 92 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE x User Guide Contents Building from the command line ....................................................... 92 Extending the tool chain ...................................................................... 93 Tools that can be added to the tool chain ........................................... 93 Adding an external tool ...................................................................... 93 Editing ..................................................................................................................... 95 Using the IAR Embedded Workbench editor ............................ 95 Editing a file ....................................................................................... 95 Using and adding code templates ....................................................... 99 Navigating in and between files ....................................................... 101 Searching .......................................................................................... 101 Customizing the editor environment .......................................... 101 Using an external editor ................................................................... 102 Part 4. Debugging .............................................................................. 105 ..................................................................... 107 The IAR C-SPY Debugger Debugger concepts .............................................................................. 107 IAR C-SPY Debugger and target systems ....................................... 107 Debugger .......................................................................................... 108 Target system ................................................................................... 108 User application ............................................................................... 108 IAR C-SPY Debugger systems ........................................................ 109 ROM-monitor program .................................................................... 109 Third-party debuggers ...................................................................... 109 The C-SPY environment ................................................................... 109 An integrated environment ............................................................... 109 Setting up the IAR C-SPY Debugger ........................................... 110 Choosing a debug driver .................................................................. 110 Executing from reset ....................................................................... 111 Using a setup macro file ................................................................... 111 Selecting a device description file ................................................... 111 Loading plugin modules ................................................................... 112 xi Starting the IAR C-SPY Debugger ................................................ 112 Redirecting debugger output to a file ............................................... 113 Adapting C-SPY to target hardware ............................................ 113 Device description file ..................................................................... 113 Executing your application ......................................................................... 117 Source and disassembly mode debugging ................................. 117 Executing .................................................................................................. 118 Step ................................................................................................... 118 Go ..................................................................................................... 120 Run to Cursor ................................................................................... 120 Highlighting ..................................................................................... 120 Using breakpoints to stop ................................................................. 120 Using the Break button to stop ......................................................... 121 Stop at program exit ......................................................................... 121 Call stack information ........................................................................ 121 Terminal input and output ............................................................... 122 Working with variables and expressions ............................................ 123 C-SPY expressions ............................................................................... 123 C symbols ......................................................................................... 123 Assembler symbols .......................................................................... 124 Macro functions .............................................................................. 124 Macro variables ................................................................................ 124 Limitations on variable information ............................................. 125 Effects of optimizations ................................................................... 125 Viewing variables and expressions ................................................ 126 Working with the windows .............................................................. 126 Using the trace system ..................................................................... 127 Viewing assembler variables ........................................................... 128 Using breakpoints ........................................................................................... 129 The breakpoint system ...................................................................... 129 Defining breakpoints ........................................................................... 129 Toggling a simple code breakpoint .................................................. 130 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xii User Guide Contents Setting a breakpoint in the Memory window ................................... 130 Defining breakpoints using the dialog box ...................................... 130 Defining breakpoints using system macros ..................................... 132 Viewing all breakpoints ...................................................................... 132 Using the Breakpoint Usage dialog box .......................................... 133 Monitoring memory and registers ........................................................ 135 Memory addressing .............................................................................. 135 Using the Memory window .............................................................. 136 Working with registers ...................................................................... 138 Register groups ................................................................................ 138 Using the Stack window .................................................................... 140 Graphical stack display .................................................................... 140 Detecting stack overflows ................................................................ 141 Viewing the stack contents .............................................................. 141 Using the C-SPY macro system .......................................................... 143 The macro system ................................................................................ 143 The macro language ......................................................................... 144 The macro file .................................................................................. 144 Setup macro functions ...................................................................... 145 Using C-SPY macros ........................................................................... 145 Using the Macro Configuration dialog box ..................................... 146 Registering and executing using setup macros and setup files ........ 147 Executing macros using Quick Watch ............................................ 148 Executing a macro by connecting it to a breakpoint ........................ 149 Analyzing your application ......................................................................... 151 Function-level profiling ...................................................................... 151 Using the profiler ............................................................................. 151 Code coverage ....................................................................................... 154 Using Code Coverage ...................................................................... 154 xiii Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator Simulator-specific debugging .............................................. 157 ..................................................................... 159 The IAR C-SPY Simulator introduction ..................................... 159 Features ............................................................................................ 159 Selecting the simulator driver .......................................................... 159 Simulator Setup ................................................................................ 160 Check for word access on odd address ............................................ 160 Simulator-specific menus .................................................................. 160 Simulator menu ................................................................................ 160 Using the trace system in the simulator .................................... 161 Trace window ................................................................................... 162 Trace toolbar .................................................................................... 163 Function Trace window ................................................................... 164 Trace Expressions window .............................................................. 164 Find In Trace window ...................................................................... 165 Find in Trace dialog box .................................................................. 166 Memory access checking ................................................................... 167 Memory Access setup dialog box .................................................... 168 Edit Memory Access dialog box ...................................................... 170 Using breakpoints ................................................................................. 170 Data breakpoints .............................................................................. 171 Immediate breakpoints ..................................................................... 173 Breakpoint Usage dialog box ........................................................... 175 Simulating interrupts ..................................................................................... 177 The C-SPY interrupt simulation system .................................... 177 Interrupt characteristics .................................................................... 178 Interrupt simulation states ................................................................ 179 Using the interrupt simulation system ....................................... 179 Target-adapting the interrupt simulation system ............................. 180 Interrupt Setup dialog box ................................................................ 180 Edit Interrupt dialog box .................................................................. 182 Forced interrupt window .................................................................. 183 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xiv User Guide Contents C-SPY system macros for interrupts ................................................ 184 Interrupt Log window ...................................................................... 185 Simulating a simple interrupt ......................................................... 186 Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET debugger Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger ............................. 189 .......................... 191 The FET C-SPY Debugger .............................................................. 191 Differences between the C-SPY drivers .......................................... 192 Hardware installation ......................................................................... 193 MSP-FET430X110 .......................................................................... 193 MSP-FET430Pxx0 ........................................................................... 193 IAR J-Link or TI USB FET interface module ................................. 193 Firmware upgrade ................................................................................ 194 Getting started ...................................................................................... 194 Running a demo application ............................................................ 195 C-SPY FET-specific debugging .............................................................. 197 Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger ...... 197 Setup ................................................................................................. 198 Breakpoints ...................................................................................... 200 Emulator menu ..................................................................................... 201 Using breakpoints ................................................................................. 203 Available breakpoints ...................................................................... 204 Customizing the use of breakpoints ................................................. 206 Range breakpoints ............................................................................ 206 Conditional breakpoints ................................................................... 209 Advanced trigger breakpoints .......................................................... 213 Breakpoint Usage dialog box ........................................................... 216 Using state storage .............................................................................. 216 State Storage Control window ......................................................... 218 State Storage Window ...................................................................... 220 Using the sequencer ............................................................................ 221 Sequencer Control window .............................................................. 223 xv Stepping .................................................................................................... 225 Programming flash ........................................................................... 225 Single-stepping with active interrupts .............................................. 225 C-SPY FET communication ............................................................. 225 Releasing JTAG ............................................................................... 226 Parallel port designators ................................................................... 226 Troubleshooting ............................................................................... 226 Design considerations for in-circuit programming ....................... 229 Bootstrap loader ................................................................................... 229 Device signals ......................................................................................... 229 External power ...................................................................................... 230 Signal connections for in-system programming ..................... 230 MSP-FET430X110 .......................................................................... 230 MSP-FET430Pxx0 (`P120, `P140, `P410, `P440) ........................... 232 Part 7. Reference information ........................................... 235 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference ................................... 237 Windows ................................................................................................... 237 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window ....................................... 238 Workspace window .......................................................................... 240 Editor window .................................................................................. 248 Source Browser window .................................................................. 253 Breakpoints window ........................................................................ 255 Build window ................................................................................... 261 Find in Files window ........................................................................ 262 Tool Output window ........................................................................ 263 Debug Log window .......................................................................... 264 Menus ......................................................................................................... 264 File menu .......................................................................................... 265 Edit menu ......................................................................................... 267 View menu ....................................................................................... 275 Project menu .................................................................................... 277 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xvi User Guide Contents Tools menu ....................................................................................... 286 Window menu .................................................................................. 308 Help menu ........................................................................................ 309 C-SPY Debugger reference ................................................................... 313 C-SPY windows ...................................................................................... 313 Editing in C-SPY windows .............................................................. 313 IAR C-SPY Debugger main window ............................................... 314 Disassembly window ....................................................................... 315 Memory window .............................................................................. 318 Register window .............................................................................. 321 Watch window ................................................................................. 322 Locals window ................................................................................. 323 Auto window .................................................................................... 324 Live Watch window ......................................................................... 324 Quick Watch window ....................................................................... 325 Call Stack window ........................................................................... 326 Terminal I/O window ....................................................................... 328 Code Coverage window ................................................................... 329 Profiling window .............................................................................. 330 Stack window ................................................................................... 332 LCD window .................................................................................... 335 C-SPY menus .......................................................................................... 336 Debug menu ..................................................................................... 337 General options .............................................................................................. 343 Target ........................................................................................................ 343 Device ............................................................................................. 343 Floating-point .................................................................................. 344 Position-independent code .............................................................. 344 Hardware multiplier ........................................................................ 344 Assembler-only project .................................................................... 344 Output ....................................................................................................... 345 Output file ........................................................................................ 345 Output directories ............................................................................. 345 xvii Library Configuration ......................................................................... 346 Library .............................................................................................. 346 Library file ....................................................................................... 346 Configuration file ............................................................................. 347 Library Options ..................................................................................... 347 Printf formatter ................................................................................. 347 Scanf formatter ................................................................................. 348 Stack/Heap .............................................................................................. 348 Override default ............................................................................... 348 Stack size .......................................................................................... 348 Heap size .......................................................................................... 348 MISRA C .................................................................................................. 349 Enable MISRA C ............................................................................ 349 Log MISRA C settings .................................................................... 349 Set active MISRA C rules ............................................................... 349 Compiler options ........................................................................................... 351 Language .................................................................................................. 351 Language .......................................................................................... 351 Require prototypes ........................................................................... 352 Language conformance .................................................................... 352 Plain 'char' is ................................................................................... 353 Enable multibyte support ................................................................. 353 Enable IAR migration preprocessor extensions ............................... 353 Code ........................................................................................................... 354 R4 utilization ................................................................................... 354 R5 utilization ................................................................................... 354 Reduce stack usage ......................................................................... 354 20-bit context save on interrupt ...................................................... 355 Optimizations ......................................................................................... 355 Optimizations ................................................................................... 355 Output ....................................................................................................... 356 Module type ..................................................................................... 357 Object module name ........................................................................ 357 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xviii User Guide Contents Generate debug information ............................................................. 357 List ............................................................................................................... 358 Output list file .................................................................................. 358 Output assembler file ....................................................................... 358 Preprocessor ........................................................................................... 359 Ignore standard include directories .................................................. 359 Additional include directories .......................................................... 359 Preinclude file .................................................................................. 360 Defined symbols .............................................................................. 360 Preprocessor output to file ............................................................... 360 Diagnostics .............................................................................................. 360 Enable remarks ................................................................................. 361 Suppress these diagnostics ............................................................... 361 Treat these as remarks ...................................................................... 361 Treat these as warnings .................................................................... 362 Treat these as errors ........................................................................ 362 Treat all warnings as errors .............................................................. 362 MISRA C .................................................................................................. 362 Override general MISRA C settings ............................................... 363 Set active MISRA C rules ............................................................... 363 Extra Options ......................................................................................... 363 Use command line options ............................................................... 363 Assembler options ......................................................................................... 365 Language .................................................................................................. 365 User symbols are case sensitive ....................................................... 365 Enable multibyte support ................................................................ 365 Macro quote characters .................................................................... 366 Output ....................................................................................................... 366 Generate debug information ............................................................. 367 List ............................................................................................................... 367 Include header .................................................................................. 367 Include listing ................................................................................... 368 Include cross-reference .................................................................... 368 xix Lines/page ........................................................................................ 368 Tab spacing ...................................................................................... 368 Preprocessor ........................................................................................... 369 Ignore standard include directories .................................................. 369 Additional include directories ......................................................... 369 Defined symbols .............................................................................. 370 Diagnostics .............................................................................................. 370 Max number of errors ...................................................................... 371 Extra Options ......................................................................................... 371 Use command line options ............................................................... 371 Custom build options ................................................................................... 373 Custom Tool Configuration ............................................................. 373 Build actions options .................................................................................... 375 Build Actions Configuration ............................................................ 375 Pre-build command line ................................................................... 375 Post-build command line ................................................................. 376 Linker options .................................................................................................. 377 Output ....................................................................................................... 377 Output file ....................................................................................... 377 Format .............................................................................................. 378 Extra Output .......................................................................................... 380 #define ....................................................................................................... 381 Define symbol ................................................................................. 381 Diagnostics .............................................................................................. 382 Always generate output .................................................................... 382 Segment overlap warnings ............................................................... 382 No global type checking .................................................................. 382 Range checks .................................................................................... 383 Warnings/Errors ............................................................................... 383 List ............................................................................................................... 384 Generate linker listing ...................................................................... 384 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xx User Guide Contents Config ......................................................................................................... 386 Linker command file ....................................................................... 386 Override default program entry ........................................................ 386 Search paths ..................................................................................... 387 Raw binary image ............................................................................ 387 Processing ................................................................................................ 388 Fill unused code memory ................................................................. 388 The checksum calculation ................................................................ 389 Extra Options ......................................................................................... 390 Use command line options ............................................................... 390 Library builder options ................................................................................ 391 Output ....................................................................................................... 391 Debugger options ........................................................................................... 393 Setup .......................................................................................................... 393 Driver ............................................................................................... 393 Run to .............................................................................................. 394 Setup macros ................................................................................... 394 Device description file .................................................................... 394 Extra Options ......................................................................................... 395 Use command line options ............................................................... 395 Plugins ....................................................................................................... 396 C-SPY macros reference ........................................................................ 397 The macro language ............................................................................ 397 Macro functions ............................................................................... 397 Predefined system macro functions ................................................. 397 Macro variables ................................................................................ 398 Macro statements ............................................................................. 399 Formatted output .............................................................................. 400 Setup macro functions summary .................................................. 402 C-SPY system macros summary ................................................... 402 Description of C-SPY system macros .......................................... 404 xxi Glossary Index .............................................................................................................. 425 ..................................................................................................................... 439 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxii User Guide Tables 1: Typographic conventions used in this guide .......................................................... xl 2: File types ............................................................................................................... 18 3: General settings for project1 ................................................................................. 29 4: Compiler options for project1 ............................................................................... 30 5: Compiler options for project2 ............................................................................... 50 6: Project options for Embedded C++ tutorial .......................................................... 54 7: Interrupts dialog box ............................................................................................. 62 8: Breakpoints dialog box ......................................................................................... 63 9: XLINK options for a library project ..................................................................... 68 10: Command shells .................................................................................................. 78 11: iarbuild.exe command line options ..................................................................... 92 12: C-SPY assembler symbols expressions ............................................................ 124 13: Handling name conflicts between hardware registers and assembler labels ..... 124 14: Project options for enabling profiling ............................................................... 151 15: Project options for enabling code coverage ...................................................... 154 16: Description of Simulator menu commands ....................................................... 161 17: Trace window columns ..................................................................................... 162 18: Trace toolbar commands ................................................................................... 163 19: Toolbar buttons in the Trace Expressions window .......................................... 165 20: Function buttons in the Memory Access Setup dialog box ............................... 169 21: Memory Access types ....................................................................................... 172 22: Breakpoint conditions ....................................................................................... 173 23: Memory Access types ....................................................................................... 174 24: Characteristics of a forced interrupt .................................................................. 183 25: Description of the Interrupt Log window .......................................................... 185 26: Timer interrupt settings ..................................................................................... 187 27: Simulator and FET differences ......................................................................... 192 28: Project options for FET C example ................................................................... 195 29: Project options for FET assembler example ..................................................... 196 30: Emulator menu commands ................................................................................ 202 31: Available hardware breakpoints ........................................................................ 204 xxiii 32: Range breakpoint start value types ................................................................... 207 33: Range breakpoint types ..................................................................................... 208 34: Range breakpoint access types .......................................................................... 208 35: Conditional break at location types ................................................................... 210 36: Conditional breakpoint types ............................................................................ 211 37: Conditional breakpoint condition operators ...................................................... 211 38: Conditional breakpoint access types ................................................................. 212 39: Conditional breakpoint condition types ............................................................ 212 40: Advanced triggers break at location types ........................................................ 213 41: Advanced trigger types ..................................................................................... 214 42: Advanced trigger condition operators ............................................................... 215 43: Columns in State Storage window .................................................................... 220 44: Sequencer settings - example ............................................................................ 222 45: State Storage Control settings - example .......................................................... 222 46: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE menu bar ....................................................... 238 47: Workspace window context menu commands .................................................. 242 48: Description of source code control commands ................................................. 243 49: Description of source code control states .......................................................... 244 50: Description of commands on the editor window context menu ........................ 250 51: Editor keyboard commands for insertion point navigation ............................... 251 52: Editor keyboard commands for scrolling .......................................................... 252 53: Editor keyboard commands for selecting text ................................................... 252 54: Information in Source Browser window ........................................................... 253 55: Source Browser window context menu commands .......................................... 254 56: Breakpoints window context menu commands ................................................. 255 57: Breakpoint conditions ....................................................................................... 258 58: Log breakpoint conditions ................................................................................. 259 59: Location types ................................................................................................... 260 60: File menu commands ........................................................................................ 265 61: Edit menu commands ........................................................................................ 267 62: Find dialog box options ..................................................................................... 270 63: Replace dialog box options ............................................................................... 270 64: Incremental Search function buttons ................................................................. 273 65: View menu commands ...................................................................................... 275 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxiv User Guide Tables 66: Project menu commands ................................................................................... 277 67: Argument variables ........................................................................................... 279 68: Configurations for project dialog box options .................................................. 280 69: New Configuration dialog box options ............................................................. 281 70: Description of Create New Project dialog box ................................................. 282 71: Project option categories ................................................................................... 283 72: Description of the Batch Build dialog box ........................................................ 284 73: Description of the Edit Batch Build dialog box ................................................ 285 74: Tools menu commands ..................................................................................... 286 75: External Editor options ..................................................................................... 287 76: Key Bindings page options ............................................................................... 289 77: Editor page options ........................................................................................... 291 78: Editor Colors and Fonts page options ............................................................... 295 79: Project page options .......................................................................................... 296 80: Debugger page options ...................................................................................... 297 81: Register Filter options ....................................................................................... 299 82: Terminal I/O options ......................................................................................... 300 83: Configure Tools dialog box options .................................................................. 304 84: Command shells ................................................................................................ 305 85: Window menu commands ................................................................................. 308 86: Help menu commands ....................................................................................... 309 87: Editing in C-SPY windows ............................................................................... 313 88: C-SPY menu ...................................................................................................... 314 89: Disassembly window operations ....................................................................... 316 90: Disassembly context menu commands ............................................................. 317 91: Memory window operations ............................................................................. 318 92: Commands on the memory window context menu ........................................... 319 93: Fill dialog box options ...................................................................................... 320 94: Memory fill operations ...................................................................................... 320 95: Watch window context menu commands ......................................................... 323 96: Effects of display format setting on different types of expressions .................. 323 97: Profiling window columns ................................................................................ 332 98: Stack window columns ..................................................................................... 334 99: LCD window settings ........................................................................................ 336 xxv 100: Debug menu commands .................................................................................. 337 101: Log file options ............................................................................................... 340 102: Assembler list file options ............................................................................... 368 103: XLINK range check options ........................................................................... 383 104: XLINK list file options ................................................................................... 384 105: XLINK list file format options ........................................................................ 385 106: XLINK checksum algorithms ......................................................................... 389 107: Examples of C-SPY macro variables .............................................................. 398 108: C-SPY setup macros ....................................................................................... 402 109: Summary of system macros ............................................................................ 402 110: __cancelInterrupt return values ....................................................................... 404 111: __disableInterrupts return values .................................................................... 405 112: __driverType return values ............................................................................. 406 113: __enableInterrupts return values ..................................................................... 406 114: __evaluate return values ................................................................................. 407 115: __openFile return values ................................................................................. 407 116: __readFile return values ................................................................................. 409 117: __setAdvancedTriggerBreak return values ..................................................... 413 118: __setCodeBreak return values ........................................................................ 414 119: __setConditionalBreak return values .............................................................. 415 120: __setDataBreak return values ......................................................................... 417 121: __setRangeBreak return values ...................................................................... 418 122: __setSimBreak return values .......................................................................... 419 123: __sourcePosition return values ....................................................................... 419 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxvi User Guide Figures 1: Directory structure ................................................................................................ 15 2: Create New Project dialog box ............................................................................. 26 3: Workspace window ............................................................................................... 27 4: New Workspace dialog box .................................................................................. 27 5: Adding files to project1 ......................................................................................... 28 6: Setting general options .......................................................................................... 29 7: Setting compiler options ....................................................................................... 30 8: Compilation message ............................................................................................ 31 9: Workspace window after compilation .................................................................. 32 10: Setting the option Scan for Changed Files .......................................................... 33 11: XLINK options dialog box for project1 .............................................................. 34 12: The C-SPY Debugger main window ................................................................... 38 13: Stepping in C-SPY .............................................................................................. 39 14: Using Step Into in C-SPY ................................................................................... 40 15: Inspecting variables in the Auto window ............................................................ 41 16: Watching variables in the Watch window .......................................................... 41 17: Setting breakpoints .............................................................................................. 42 18: Debugging in disassembly mode ........................................................................ 43 19: Register window .................................................................................................. 44 20: Monitoring memory ............................................................................................ 44 21: Displaying memory contents as 16-bit units ....................................................... 45 22: Output from the I/O operations ........................................................................... 46 23: Reaching program exit in C-SPY ........................................................................ 46 24: Assembler settings for creating a list file ............................................................ 51 25: Setting a breakpoint in CPPtutor.cpp .................................................................. 54 26: Inspecting the function calls ................................................................................ 55 27: Printing Fibonacci sequences .............................................................................. 56 28: Specifying setup macro file ................................................................................. 61 29: Inspecting the interrupt settings .......................................................................... 63 30: Printing the Fibonacci values in the Terminal I/O window ................................ 65 31: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window ........................................................... 74 xxvii 32: Configure Tools dialog box ................................................................................ 77 33: Customized Tools menu ...................................................................................... 78 34: Examples of workspaces and projects ................................................................. 80 35: Displaying a project in the Workspace window ................................................. 84 36: Workspace window--an overview ..................................................................... 85 37: General options ................................................................................................... 90 38: Editor window ..................................................................................................... 96 39: Parentheses matching in editor window .............................................................. 99 40: Editor window status bar ..................................................................................... 99 41: Editor window code template menu .................................................................. 100 42: Specifying external command line editor ......................................................... 102 43: External editor DDE settings ............................................................................ 103 44: IAR C-SPY Debugger and target systems ........................................................ 108 45: Viewing assembler variables in the Watch window ......................................... 128 46: Breakpoint on a function call ............................................................................ 130 47: Breakpoint Usage dialog box ............................................................................ 133 48: Zones in C-SPY ................................................................................................. 135 49: Memory window ............................................................................................... 136 50: Memory Fill dialog box .................................................................................... 137 51: Register window ................................................................................................ 138 52: Register Filter page ........................................................................................... 139 53: Stack window .................................................................................................... 140 54: Macro Configuration dialog box ....................................................................... 147 55: Quick Watch window ........................................................................................ 149 56: Profiling window ............................................................................................... 152 57: Graphs in Profiling window .............................................................................. 153 58: Function details window ................................................................................... 153 59: Code Coverage window .................................................................................... 155 60: Simulator menu ................................................................................................. 160 61: Trace window .................................................................................................... 162 62: Trace toolbar ..................................................................................................... 163 63: Function Trace window ..................................................................................... 164 64: Trace Expressions window ............................................................................... 164 65: Find In Trace window ....................................................................................... 165 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxviii User Guide Figures 66: Find in Trace dialog box ................................................................................... 166 67: Memory Access Setup dialog box ..................................................................... 168 68: Edit Memory Access dialog box ....................................................................... 170 69: Data breakpoints dialog box .............................................................................. 171 70: Immediate breakpoints page ............................................................................. 174 71: Breakpoint Usage dialog box ............................................................................ 175 72: Simulated interrupt configuration ..................................................................... 178 73: Simulation states - example 1 ........................................................................... 179 74: Simulation states - example 2 ........................................................................... 179 75: Interrupt Setup dialog box ................................................................................. 180 76: Edit Interrupt dialog box ................................................................................... 182 77: Forced Interrupt window ................................................................................... 183 78: Interrupt Log window ....................................................................................... 185 79: Communication overview ................................................................................. 192 80: FET debugger setup options .............................................................................. 198 81: FET debugger breakpoint options ..................................................................... 200 82: Emulator menu .................................................................................................. 201 83: Range breakpoints dialog box ........................................................................... 207 84: Conditional breakpoints dialog box .................................................................. 210 85: Advanced trigger dialog box ............................................................................. 213 86: Breakpoint Usage dialog box ............................................................................ 216 87: State Storage Control window .......................................................................... 218 88: State Storage window ........................................................................................ 220 89: Sequencer Control window (advanced setup) ................................................... 224 90: JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430X110) ................................................. 231 91: JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430Pxx0) .................................................. 233 92: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window ......................................................... 238 93: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE toolbar .......................................................... 239 94: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window status bar ........................................ 240 95: Workspace window ........................................................................................... 240 96: Workspace window context menu .................................................................... 241 97: Source Code Control menu ............................................................................... 243 98: Select Source Code Control Provider dialog box ............................................. 245 99: Check In File dialog box ................................................................................... 246 xxix 100: Check Out File dialog box .............................................................................. 247 101: Editor window ................................................................................................. 248 102: Editor window tab context menu .................................................................... 249 103: Editor window context menu .......................................................................... 249 104: Source Browser window ................................................................................. 253 105: Source Browser window context menu ........................................................... 254 106: Breakpoints window ........................................................................................ 255 107: Breakpoints window context menu ................................................................. 255 108: Code breakpoints page .................................................................................... 257 109: Log breakpoints page ...................................................................................... 258 110: Enter Location dialog box ............................................................................... 260 111: Build window (message window) ................................................................... 261 112: Build window context menu ........................................................................... 261 113: Find in Files window (message window) ........................................................ 262 114: Find in Files window context menu ................................................................ 262 115: Tool Output window (message window) ........................................................ 263 116: Tool Output window context menu ................................................................. 263 117: Debug Log window (message window) .......................................................... 264 118: Debug Log window context menu .................................................................. 264 119: File menu ......................................................................................................... 265 120: Edit menu ........................................................................................................ 267 121: Find in Files dialog box ................................................................................... 271 122: Incremental Search dialog box ........................................................................ 273 123: Template dialog box ........................................................................................ 274 124: View menu ...................................................................................................... 275 125: Project menu .................................................................................................... 277 126: Configurations for project dialog box ............................................................. 280 127: New Configuration dialog box ........................................................................ 281 128: Create New Project dialog box ....................................................................... 282 129: Batch Build dialog box .................................................................................... 284 130: Edit Batch Build dialog box ............................................................................ 285 131: Tools menu ...................................................................................................... 286 132: External Editor page with command line settings ........................................... 287 133: Common Fonts page ....................................................................................... 288 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxx User Guide Figures 134: Key Bindings page .......................................................................................... 289 135: Messages page ................................................................................................. 290 136: Editor page ...................................................................................................... 291 137: Configure Auto Indent dialog box .................................................................. 293 138: Editor Setup Files page ................................................................................... 294 139: Editor Colors and Fonts page .......................................................................... 295 140: Projects page ................................................................................................... 296 141: Debugger page ................................................................................................ 297 142: Register Filter page ......................................................................................... 298 143: Terminal I/O page ........................................................................................... 299 144: Source Code Control page .............................................................................. 300 145: Stack page ....................................................................................................... 301 146: Configure Tools dialog box ............................................................................ 303 147: Customized Tools menu .................................................................................. 305 148: Filename Extensions dialog box ..................................................................... 305 149: Filename Extension Overrides dialog box ...................................................... 306 150: Edit Filename Extensions dialog box .............................................................. 306 151: Configure Viewers dialog box ........................................................................ 307 152: Edit Viewer Extensions dialog box ................................................................. 307 153: Window menu ................................................................................................. 308 154: Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box ..................................................... 311 155: C-SPY debug toolbar ...................................................................................... 315 156: C-SPY Disassembly window .......................................................................... 316 157: Disassembly window context menu ................................................................ 317 158: Memory window ............................................................................................. 318 159: Memory window context menu ...................................................................... 319 160: Fill dialog box ................................................................................................. 320 161: Register window .............................................................................................. 321 162: Watch window ................................................................................................ 322 163: Watch window context menu .......................................................................... 322 164: Locals window ................................................................................................ 323 165: Auto window ................................................................................................... 324 166: Live Watch window ........................................................................................ 324 167: Quick Watch window ...................................................................................... 325 xxxi 168: Call Stack window .......................................................................................... 326 169: Call Stack window context menu .................................................................... 327 170: Terminal I/O window ...................................................................................... 328 171: Ctrl codes menu ............................................................................................... 328 172: Change Input Mode dialog box ....................................................................... 328 173: Code Coverage window .................................................................................. 329 174: Code coverage context menu .......................................................................... 330 175: Profiling window ............................................................................................. 331 176: Profiling context menu .................................................................................... 331 177: Stack window .................................................................................................. 333 178: Stack window context menu ........................................................................... 335 179: LCD window ................................................................................................... 335 180: LCD Settings dialog box ................................................................................. 336 181: Debug menu .................................................................................................... 337 182: Autostep settings dialog box ........................................................................... 338 183: Macro Configuration dialog box ..................................................................... 339 184: Log File dialog box ......................................................................................... 340 185: Terminal I/O Log File dialog box ................................................................... 341 186: Target options .................................................................................................. 343 187: Output options ................................................................................................. 345 188: Library Configuration options ......................................................................... 346 189: Library Options page ....................................................................................... 347 190: Stack/Heap page .............................................................................................. 348 191: MISRA C general options ............................................................................... 349 192: Compiler language options ............................................................................. 351 193: Compiler code options .................................................................................... 354 194: Compiler optimizations options ...................................................................... 355 195: Compiler output options .................................................................................. 356 196: Compiler list file options ................................................................................. 358 197: Compiler preprocessor options ....................................................................... 359 198: Compiler diagnostics options .......................................................................... 361 199: MISRA C compiler options ............................................................................ 362 200: Extra Options page for the compiler ............................................................... 363 201: Assembler language options ........................................................................... 365 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxxii User Guide Figures 202: Choosing macro quote characters ................................................................... 366 203: Assembler output options ................................................................................ 366 204: Assembler list file options ............................................................................... 367 205: Assembler preprocessor options ..................................................................... 369 206: Assembler diagnostics options ........................................................................ 370 207: Extra Options page for the assembler ............................................................. 371 208: Custom tool options ........................................................................................ 373 209: Build actions options ....................................................................................... 375 210: XLINK output file options .............................................................................. 377 211: XLINK extra output file options ..................................................................... 380 212: XLINK defined symbols options .................................................................... 381 213: XLINK diagnostics options ............................................................................. 382 214: XLINK list file options ................................................................................... 384 215: XLINK config options .................................................................................... 386 216: XLINK processing options ............................................................................. 388 217: Extra Options page for the linker .................................................................... 390 218: XAR output options ........................................................................................ 392 219: Generic C-SPY options ................................................................................... 393 220: Extra Options page for the C-SPY debugger .................................................. 395 221: C-SPY plugin options ..................................................................................... 396 xxxiii MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxxiv User Guide Preface Welcome to the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. The purpose of this guide is to help you fully utilize the features in MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench with its integrated Windows development tools for the MSP430 microcontroller. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment that allows you to develop and manage a complete embedded application project. The user guide includes product overviews and reference information, as well as tutorials that will help you get started. It also describes the processes of editing, project managing, building, and debugging. Who should read this guide You should read this guide if you want to get the most out of the features and tools available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. In addition, you should have a working knowledge of: The C or C++ programming language Application development for embedded systems The architecture and instruction set of the MSP430 microcontroller (refer to the chip manufacturer's documentation) The operating system of your host computer. Refer to the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide, MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide, and IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide for more information about the other development tools incorporated in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. How to use this guide If you are new to using this product, we suggest that you start by reading Part 1. Product overview to give you an overview of the tools and the functions that the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE can offer. xxxv What this guide contains If you already have had some experience using IAR Embedded Workbench, but need refreshing on how to work with the IAR development tools, Part 2. Tutorials is a good place to begin. The process of managing projects and building, as well as editing, can be found in Part 3. Project management and building, page 71, whereas information about how to use the C-SPY Debugger can be found in Part 4. Debugging, page 105. If you are an experienced user and need this guide only for reference information, see the reference chapters in Part 7. Reference information and the online help system available from the IAR Embedded Workbench Help menu. Finally, we recommend the Glossary if you should encounter any unfamiliar terms in the IAR Systems user and reference guides. What this guide contains Below is a brief outline and summary of the chapters in this guide. Part 1. Product overview This section provides a general overview of all the IAR development tools so that you can become familiar with them: Product introduction provides a brief summary and lists the features offered in each of the IAR Systems development tools--IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, IAR C/C++ Compiler, IAR Assembler, IAR XLINK Linker, IAR XAR Library Builder, IAR XLIB Librarian, and IAR C-SPY Debugger--for the MSP430 microcontroller. Installed files describes the directory structure and the types of files it contains. The chapter also includes an overview of the documentation supplied with the IAR development tools. Part 2. Tutorials The tutorials give you hands-on training in order to help you get started with using the tools: Creating an application project guides you through setting up a new project, compiling your application, examining the list file, and linking your application. The tutorial demonstrates a typical development cycle, which is continued with debugging in the next chapter. Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger explores the basic facilities of the debugger. Mixing C and assembler modules demonstrates how you can easily combine source modules written in C with assembler modules. The chapter also demonstrates how the compiler can be used for examining the calling convention. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxxvi User Guide Preface Using C++ shows how to create a C++ class, which creates two independent objects. The application is then built and debugged. Simulating an interrupt shows how you can add an interrupt handler to the project and how this interrupt can be simulated using C-SPY facilities for simulated interrupts, breakpoints, and macros. Working with library modules demonstrates how to create library modules. Part 3. Project management and building This section describes the process of editing and building your application: The development environment introduces you to the IAR Embedded Workbench development environment. The chapter also demonstrates the facilities available for customizing the environment to meet your requirements. Managing projects describes how you can create workspaces with multiple projects, build configurations, groups, source files, and options that helps you handle different versions of your applications. Building discusses the process of building your application. Editing contains detailed descriptions about the IAR Embedded Workbench editor, how to use it, and the facilities related to its usage. The final section also contains information about how to integrate an external editor of your choice. Part 4. Debugging This section gives conceptual information about C-SPY functionality and how to use it: The IAR C-SPY Debugger introduces some of the concepts that are related to debugging in general and to the IAR C-SPY Debugger in particular. It also introduces you to the C-SPY environment and how to setup, start, and configure C-SPY to reflect the target hardware. Executing your application describes how you initialize the IAR C-SPY Debugger, the conceptual differences between source and disassembly mode debugging, the facilities for executing your application, and finally, how you can handle terminal input and output. Working with variables and expressions defines the syntax of the expressions and variables used in C-SPY, as well as the limitations on variable information. The chapter also demonstrates the different methods for monitoring variables and expressions. Using breakpoints describes the breakpoint system and the different ways to define breakpoints. Monitoring memory and registers shows how you can examine memory and registers. Using the C-SPY macro system describes the C-SPY macro system, its features, for what purposes these features can be used, and how to use them. Analyzing your application presents facilities for analyzing your application. xxxvii What this guide contains Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator Simulator-specific debugging describes the functionality specific to the simulator. Simulating interrupts contains detailed information about the C-SPY interrupt simulation system and how to configure the simulated interrupts to make them reflect the interrupts of your target hardware. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET debugger Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger introduces you to the C-SPY Emulator Debugger. The chapter briefly shows the difference in functionality provided by the different debugger systems. C-SPY FET-specific debugging describes the additional options, menus, and features provided by the C-SPY FET driver. Design considerations for in-circuit programming describes the design considerations related to the bootstrap loader, device signals, and external power if you want to use C-SPY with your own hardware. Part 7. Reference information IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference contains detailed reference information about the development environment, such as details about the graphical user interface. C-SPY Debugger reference provides detailed reference information about the graphical user interface of the IAR C-SPY Debugger. General options specifies the target, output, library, heap, stack, and MISRA C options. Compiler options specifies compiler options for language, code, output, list file, preprocessor, diagnostics, and MISRA C. Assembler options describes the assembler options for language, output, list, preprocessor, and diagnostics. Custom build options describes the options available for custom tool configuration. Build actions options describes the options available for pre-build and post-build actions. Linker options describes the XLINK options for output, defining symbols, diagnostics, list generation, setting up the include paths, input, and processing. Library builder options describes the XAR options available in the Embedded Workbench. Debugger options gives reference information about generic C-SPY options. C-SPY macros reference gives reference information about C-SPY macros, such as a syntax description of the macro language, summaries of the available setup macro functions, and pre-defined system macros. Finally, a description of each system macro is provided. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xxxvii User Guide Preface Glossary The glossary contains definitions of programming terms. Other documentation The complete set of IAR development tools for the MSP430 microcontroller are described in a series of guides. For information about: Programming for the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler, refer to the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide Programming for the MSP430 IAR Assembler, refer to the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide Using the IAR XLINK Linker, the IAR XAR Library Builder, and the IAR XLIB Librarian, refer to the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide Using the IAR DLIB Library, refer to the DLIB Library Reference information, available in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help system. Using the IAR CLIB Library, refer to the IAR C Library Functions Reference Guide, available in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help system. Porting application code and projects created with a previous version of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, refer to the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench Migration Guide. Developing safety-critical applications using the MISRA C guidelines, refer to the IAR Embedded Workbench MISRA C Reference Guide. All of these guides are delivered in hypertext PDF or HTML format on the installation media. Some of them are also delivered as printed books. Note that additional documentation might be available on the Help menu depending on your product installation. Recommended web sites: The Texas Instruments web site, www.ti.com, contains information and news about the MSP430 microcontrollers. The IAR Systems web site, www.iar.com, holds application notes and other product information. Finally, the Embedded C++ Technical Committee web site, www.caravan.net/ec2plus, contains information about the Embedded C++ standard. xxxix Document conventions Document conventions This book uses the following typographic conventions: Style Used for computer parameter [option] {option} a|b|c bold reference ... Text that you type or that appears on the screen. A label representing the actual value you should type as part of a command. An optional part of a command. A mandatory part of a command. Alternatives in a command. Names of menus, menu commands, buttons, and dialog boxes that appear on the screen. A cross-reference within this guide or to another guide. An ellipsis indicates that the previous item can be repeated an arbitrary number of times. Identifies instructions specific to the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE interface. Identifies instructions specific to the command line interface. Identifies helpful tips and programming hints. Table 1: Typographic conventions used in this guide MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE xl User Guide Part 1. Product overview This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide includes the following chapters: Product introduction Installed files. 1 2 Product introduction The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment, that allows you to develop and manage complete embedded application projects. It is a development platform, with all the features you would expect to find in your everyday working place. This chapter describes the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE and provides a general overview of all the tools that are integrated in this product. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is the framework where all necessary tools are seamlessly integrated: The highly optimizing MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler The MSP430 IAR Assembler The versatile IAR XLINK Linker The IAR XAR Library Builder and the IAR XLIB Librarian A powerful editor A project manager A command line build utility IAR C-SPY debugger, a state-of-the-art high-level language debugger. IAR Embedded Workbench is available for a large number of microprocessors and microcontrollers in the 8-, 16-, and 32-bit segments, allowing you to stay within a well-known development environment also for your next project. It provides an easy-to-learn and highly efficient development environment with maximum code inheritance capabilities, comprehensive and specific target support. IAR Embedded Workbench promotes a useful working methodology, and thus a significant reduction of the development time can be achieved by using the IAR Systems tools. We call this concept "Different Architectures. One Solution." If you want detailed information about supported target processors, contact your software distributor or your IAR representative, or visit the IAR Systems web site www.iar.com for information about recent product releases. Part 1. Product overview 3 The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE AN EXTENSIBLE AND MODULAR ENVIRONMENT Although the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE provides all the features required for a successful project, we also recognize the need to integrate other tools. Therefore the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE can be easily adapted to work with your favorite editor and source code control system. The IAR XLINK Linker can produce a large number of output formats, allowing for debugging on most third-party emulators. Support for RTOS-aware debugging can also be added to the product. The compiler, assembler, and linker can also be run from a command line environment, if you want to use them as external tools in an already established project environment. FEATURES The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is a flexible integrated development environment, allowing you to develop applications for a variety of different target processors. It provides a convenient Windows interface for rapid development and debugging. Project management The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE comes with functions that will help you to stay in control of all project modules, for example, C or C++ source code files, assembler files, include files, and other related modules. You create workspaces and let them contain one or several projects. Files can be grouped, and options can be set on all levels--project, group, or file. Changes are tracked so that a request for rebuild will retranslate all required modules, making sure that no executable files contain out-of-date modules. The following list shows some additional features: Project templates to create a project that can be built and executed out of the box for a smooth development startup Hierarchical project representation Source browser with an hierarchical symbol presentation Options can be set globally, on groups of source files, or on individual source files The Make utility recompiles, reassembles, and links files only when necessary Text-based project files Custom Build utility to expand the standard tool chain in an easy way Command line build with the project file as input. Source code control Source code control (SCC)--or revision control--is useful for keeping track of different versions of your source code. IAR Embedded Workbench can identify and access any third-party source code control system that conforms to the SCC interface published by Microsoft. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 4 User Guide Product introduction Window management To give you full and convenient control of the placement of the windows, each window is dockable and you can optionally organize the windows in tab groups. The system of dockable windows also provides a space-saving way to keep many windows open at the same time. It also makes it easy to rearrange the size of the windows. The text editor The integrated text editor allows editing of multiple files in parallel, and provides all basic editing features expected from a modern editor, including unlimited undo/redo and automatic completion. In addition, it provides functions specific to software development, like coloring of keywords (C/C++, assembler, and user-defined), block indent, and function navigation within source files. It also recognizes C language elements like matching brackets. The following list shows some additional features: Context-sensitive help system that can display reference information for DLIB library functions Syntax of C or C++ programs and assembler directives shown using text styles and colors Powerful search and replace commands, including multi-file search Direct jump to context from error listing Multibyte character support Parenthesis matching Automatic indentation Bookmarks Unlimited undo and redo for each window. DOCUMENTATION The MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is documented in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide (this guide). There is also help and hypertext PDF versions of the user documentation available online. IAR C-SPY Debugger The IAR C-SPY Debugger is a high-level-language debugger for embedded applications. It is designed for use with the IAR Systems compilers and assemblers, and it is completely integrated in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, providing seamless switching between development and debugging. This will give you possibilities such as: Editing while debugging. During a debug session, corrections can be made directly into the same source code window that is used to control the debugging. Changes will be included in the next project rebuild. Part 1. Product overview 5 IAR C-SPY Debugger Setting source code breakpoints before starting the debugger. Breakpoints in source code will be associated with the same piece of source code even if additional code is inserted. The IAR C-SPY Debugger consists both of a general part which provides a basic set of C-SPY features, and of a driver. The C-SPY driver is the part that provides communication with and control of the target system. The driver also provides a user interface--special menus, windows, and dialog boxes--to the functions provided by the target system, for instance, special breakpoints. Contact your software distributor or IAR Systems representative for information about available C-SPY drivers. You can also find information on the IAR website, www.iar.com. Depending on your product installation, IAR C-SPY Debugger is available with a simulator driver and optional drivers for hardware debugger systems. For a brief overview of the available C-SPY drivers, see IAR C-SPY Debugger systems, page 8. GENERAL C-SPY DEBUGGER FEATURES Because IAR Systems provides an entire tool chain, the output provided by the compiler and linker can include extensive debug information for the debugger, resulting in good debugging possibilities for you. The IAR C-SPY Debugger offers the general features described in this section. Source and disassembly level debugging The IAR C-SPY Debugger allows you to switch between source and disassembly debugging as required, for both C or C++ and assembler source code. Debugging the C or C++ source code provides the quickest and easiest way of verifying the program logic of your application whereas disassembly debugging lets you focus on the critical sections of your application, and provides you with precise control over the hardware. In Mixed-Mode display, the debugger also displays the corresponding C/C++ source code interleaved with the disassembly listing. Single-stepping on a function call level Compared to traditional debuggers, where the finest granularity for source level stepping is line by line, C-SPY provides a finer level of control by identifying every statement and function call as a step point. This means that each function calls--inside expressions, as well as function calls being part of parameter lists to other functions--can be single-stepped. The latter is especially useful when debugging C++ code, where numerous extra function calls are made, for example to object constructors. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 6 User Guide Product introduction The debug information also presents inlined functions as if a call was made, making the source code of the inlined function available. Code and data breakpoints The C-SPY breakpoint system lets you set breakpoints of various kinds in the application being debugged, allowing you to stop at locations of particular interest. You can set a code breakpoint to investigate whether your program logic is correct. You can also set a data breakpoint, to investigate how and when the data changes. Finally, you can add conditions and connect actions to your breakpoints. Monitoring variables and expressions When you work with variables and expressions you are presented with a wide choice of facilities. Any variable and expression can be evaluated in one-shot views. You can easily both monitor and log values of a defined set of expressions during a longer period of time. You have instant control over local variables, and real-time data is displayed non-intrusively. Finally, the last referred variables are displayed automatically. Container awareness When you run your application in the IAR C-SPY Debugger, you can view the elements of library data types such as STL lists and vectors. This gives you a very good overview and premium debugging opportunities when you work with C++ STL containers. Call stack information The MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler generates extensive call stack information. This allows C-SPY to show, without any runtime penalty, the complete stack of function calls wherever the program counter is. You can select any function in the call stack, and for each function you get valid information for local variables and registers available. Powerful macro system The IAR C-SPY Debugger includes a powerful internal macro system, to allow you to define complex sets of actions to be performed. C-SPY macros can be used solely or in conjunction with complex breakpoints and--if you are using the simulator--the interrupt simulation system to perform a wide variety of tasks. Additional general C-SPY Debugger features This list shows some additional features: A modular and extensible architecture allowing third-party extensions to the debugger, for example, real-time operating systems, peripheral simulation modules, and emulator drivers Part 1. Product overview 7 IAR C-SPY Debugger systems Threaded execution keeps the IDE responsive while running the target application Automatic stepping Source browser provides easy navigation to functions, types and variables Extensive type recognition of variables Configurable registers (CPU and peripherals) and memory windows Dedicated Stack window Support for code coverage and function level profiling Optional terminal I/O emulation UBROF, Intel-extended, and Motorola input formats supported. RTOS AWARENESS The IAR C-SPY Debugger supports Real-time OS awareness debugging. RTOS plugin modules can be provided by IAR, as well as by third-party suppliers. Contact your software distributor or IAR representative, alternatively visit the IAR Systems web site, for information about supported RTOS modules. DOCUMENTATION The IAR C-SPY Debugger is documented in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide (this guide). Generic debugger features are described in Part 4. Debugging, whereas features specific to each debugger driver are described in Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator, and Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET debugger. There are also help and hypertext PDF versions of the documentation available online. IAR C-SPY Debugger systems At the time of writing this guide, the IAR C-SPY Debugger for the MSP430 microcontroller is available with drivers for the following target systems: Simulator FET Debugger Contact your software distributor or IAR representative for information about available C-SPY drivers. You can also find information on the IAR Systems web site, www.iar.com. For further details about the concepts that are related to the IAR C-SPY Debugger, see Debugger concepts, page 107. In the following sections you can find general descriptions of the different drivers. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 8 User Guide Product introduction IAR C-SPY SIMULATOR The C-SPY simulator driver simulates the functions of the target processor entirely in software. With this driver, the program logic can be debugged long before any hardware is available. Because no hardware is required, it is also the most cost-effective solution for many applications. Features In addition to the general features of the C-SPY Debugger the simulator driver also provides: Instruction-level simulation Memory configuration and validation Interrupt simulation Peripheral simulation, using the C-SPY macro system in conjunction with immediate breakpoints. For additional information about the IAR C-SPY Simulator, refer to Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator in this guide. IAR C-SPY FET DEBUGGER The IAR C-SPY Flash Emulation Tool Debugger is a JTAG debugger that supports all Texas Instruments' boards. It provides automatic flash download and takes advantage of on-chip debug facilities. The IAR C-SPY FET Debugger provides real-time debugging at a low cost. Features In addition to the general features of the IAR C-SPY Debugger, the FET Debugger driver also provides: Execution in real time with full access to the microcontroller High-speed communication through a JTAG interface Zero memory footprint on target system Hardware breakpoints for both code and data Built-in flash downloader. On devices with the Enhanced Emulation Module (EEM), you have access also to: State storage Sequencer Clock control Note: Code coverage and live watch are not supported by the C-SPY FET Debugger. Trace and data breakpoints are available if the device has support for it. Part 1. Product overview 9 IAR C/C++ Compiler For additional information about the IAR C-SPY Emulator, refer to Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET debugger in this guide. IAR C/C++ Compiler The MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler is a state-of-the-art compiler that offers the standard features of the C or C++ languages, plus many extensions designed to take advantage of the MSP430-specific facilities. The compiler is integrated with other IAR Systems software in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. FEATURES The MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler provides the following features: Code generation Generic and MSP430-specific optimization techniques produce very efficient machine code Comprehensive output options, including relocatable object code, assembler source code, and list files with optional assembler mnemonics The object code can be linked together with assembler routines Generation of extensive debug information. Language facilities Support for the C and C++ programming languages Support for IAR Extended EC++ with features such as full template support, namespace support, the cast operators static_cast, const_cast, and reinterpret_cast, as well as the Standard Template Library (STL) Placement of classes in different memory types Conformance to the ISO/ANSI C standard for a free-standing environment Target-specific language extensions, such as special function types, extended keywords, pragma directives, predefined symbols, intrinsic functions, absolute allocation, and inline assembler Standard library of functions applicable to embedded systems IEEE-compatible floating-point arithmetic Interrupt functions can be written in C or C++. Type checking Extensive type checking at compile time External references are type checked at link time Link-time inter-module consistency checking of the application. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 10 User Guide Product introduction RUNTIME ENVIRONMENT The MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench provides two sets of runtime libraries: The IAR DLIB Library, which supports ISO/ANSI C and C++. This library also supports floating-point numbers in IEEE 754 format, multi-byte characters, and locales. The IAR CLIB Library is a light-weight library, which is not fully compliant with ISO/ANSI C. Neither does it fully support floating-point numbers in IEEE 754 format or C++. There are several mechanisms available for customizing the runtime environment and the runtime libraries. For both sets of runtime libraries, library source code is included. DOCUMENTATION The MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler is documented in the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. IAR Assembler The MSP430 IAR Assembler is integrated with other IAR Systems software for the MSP430 microcontroller. It is a powerful relocating macro assembler (supporting the Intel/Motorola style) with a versatile set of directives and expression operators. The assembler features a built-in C language preprocessor and supports conditional assembly. The MSP430 IAR Assembler uses the same mnemonics and operand syntax as the Texas Instruments MSP430 Assembler, which simplifies the migration of existing code. For detailed information, see the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide. FEATURES The MSP430 IAR Assembler provides the following features: C preprocessor List file with extensive cross-reference output Number of symbols and program size limited only by available memory Support for complex expressions with external references Up to 65536 relocatable segments per module 255 significant characters in symbol names. DOCUMENTATION The MSP430 IAR Assembler is documented in the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide. Part 1. Product overview 11 IAR XLINK Linker IAR XLINK Linker The IAR XLINK Linker links one or more relocatable object files produced by the MSP430 IAR Assembler or MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler to produce machine code for the MSP430 microcontroller. It is equally well suited for linking small, single-file, absolute assembler applications as for linking large, relocatable, multi-module, C/C++, or mixed C/C++ and assembler applications. It can generate one out of more than 30 industry-standard loader formats, in addition to the IAR Systems proprietary debug format used by the IAR C-SPY Debugger--UBROF (Universal Binary Relocatable Object Format). An application can be made up of any number of UBROF relocatable files, in any combination of assembler and C or C++ applications. The final output produced by the IAR XLINK Linker is an absolute, target-executable object file that can be downloaded to the MSP430 microcontroller or to a hardware emulator. Optionally, the output file might or might not contain debug information depending on the output format you choose. The IAR XLINK Linker supports user libraries, and will load only those modules that are actually needed by the application you are linking. Before linking, the IAR XLINK Linker performs a full C-level type checking across all modules as well as a full dependency resolution of all symbols in all input files, independent of input order. It also checks for consistent compiler settings for all modules and makes sure that the correct version and variant of the C or C++ runtime library is used. FEATURES Full inter-module type checking Simple override of library modules Flexible segment commands allow detailed control of code and data placement Link-time symbol definition enables flexible configuration control Optional code checksum generation for runtime checking Removes unused code and data. DOCUMENTATION The IAR XLINK Linker is documented in the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 12 User Guide Product introduction IAR XAR Library Builder and IAR XLIB Librarian A library is a single file that contains a number of relocatable object modules, each of which can be loaded independently from other modules in the file as it is needed. The IAR XAR Library Builder assists you to build libraries easily. In addition the IAR XLIB Librarian enables you to manipulate the relocatable library object files produced by the IAR Systems assembler and compiler. A library file is no different from any other relocatable object file produced by the assembler or compiler, except that it includes a number of modules of the LIBRARY type. All C or C++ applications make use of libraries, and the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler is supplied with a number of standard library files. FEATURES The IAR XAR Library Builder and IAR XLIB Librarian both provide the following features: Modules can be combined into a library file Interactive or batch mode operation. The IAR XLIB Librarian provides the following additional features: Modules can be listed, added, inserted, replaced, or removed Modules can be changed between program and library type Segments can be listed Symbols can be listed. DOCUMENTATION The IAR XLIB Librarian and the IAR XAR Library Builder are documented in the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide, a PDF document available from the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE Help menu. Part 1. Product overview 13 IAR XAR Library Builder and IAR XLIB Librarian MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 14 User Guide Installed files This chapter describes which directories are created during installation and what file types are used. At the end of the chapter, there is a section that describes what information you can find in the various guides and online documentation. Refer to the QuickStart Card and the Installation and Licensing Guide, which are delivered with the product, for system requirements and information about how to install and register the IAR Systems products. Directory structure The installation procedure creates several directories to contain the different types of files used with the IAR Systems development tools. The following sections give a description of the files contained by default in each directory. ROOT DIRECTORY The root directory created by the default installation procedure is the x:\Program Files\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 4.n\ directory where x is the drive where Microsoft Windows is installed and 4.n is the version number of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Figure 1: Directory structure Part 1. Product overview 15 Directory structure Note: The installation path can be different from the one shown above depending on previously installed IAR products, and on your preferences. THE 430 DIRECTORY The 430 directory contains all product-specific subdirectories. The 430\bin directory The 430\bin subdirectory contains executable files for MSP430-specific components, such as the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler, the MSP430 IAR Assembler, and the MSP430 IAR C-SPY drivers. The 430\config directory The 430\config subdirectory contains files used for configuring the development environment and projects, for example: Linker command files (*.xcl) Special function register description files (*.sfr) The C-SPY device description files (*.ddf) Syntax coloring configuration files (*.cfg) Project templates for both application and library projects (*.ewp), and for the library projects, the corresponding library configuration files. The 430\doc directory The 430\doc subdirectory contains release notes with recent additional information about the MSP430 tools. We recommend that you read all of these files. The directory also contains online hypertext versions in hypertext PDF format of this user guide, and of the MSP430 reference guides, as well as online help files (CHM format). The 430\drivers directory The 430\drivers directory contains hardware debugger drivers. The 430\FET_examples directory The 430\FET_examples directory contains FET debugger example files. The 430\inc directory The 430\inc subdirectory holds include files, such as the header files for the standard C or C++ library. There are also specific header files defining special function registers (SFRs); these files are used by both the compiler and the assembler. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 16 User Guide Installed files The 430\lib directory The 430\lib subdirectory holds prebuilt libraries and the corresponding library configuration files, used by the compiler. The 430\plugins directory The 430\plugins subdirectory contains executable files and description files for components that can be loaded as plugin modules. The 430\src directory The 430\src subdirectory holds source files for some configurable library functions, and application code examples. This directory also holds the library source code. The 430\tutor directory The 430\tutor subdirectory contains the files used for the tutorials in this guide. THE COMMON DIRECTORY The common directory contains subdirectories for components shared by all IAR Embedded Workbench products. The common\bin directory The common\bin subdirectory contains executable files for components common to all IAR Embedded Workbench products, such as the IAR XLINK Linker, the IAR XLIB Librarian, the IAR XAR Library Builder, the editor and the graphical user interface components. The executable file for the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is also located here. The common\config directory The common\config subdirectory contains files used by IAR Embedded Workbench for holding settings in the development environment. The common\doc directory The common\doc subdirectory contains readme files with recent additional information about the components common to all IAR Embedded Workbench products, such as the linker and library tools. We recommend that you read these files. The directory also contains an online version in PDF format of the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. Part 1. Product overview 17 File types The common\plugins directory The common\plugins subdirectory contains executable files and description files for components that can be loaded as plugin modules. The common\src directory The common\src subdirectory contains source files for components common to all IAR Embedded Workbench products, such as a sample reader of the IAR XLINK Linker output format SIMPLE. File types The MSP430 versions of the IAR Systems development tools use the following default filename extensions to identify the IAR-specific file types: Ext. Type of file Output from Input to a43 asm c cfg cpp d43 dbg dbgt ddf dep dni ewd ewp eww Target application Assembler source code C source code Syntax coloring configuration Embedded C++ source code XLINK Text editor Text editor Text editor Text editor EPROM, C-SPY, etc. Assembler Compiler IAR Embedded Workbench Compiler C-SPY and other symbolic debuggers C-SPY and other symbolic debuggers C-SPY C-SPY Target application with debug information XLINK Target application with debug information XLINK Debugger desktop settings Device description file Dependency information Debugger initialization file Project settings for C-SPY IAR Embedded Workbench project (current version) Workspace file C-SPY Text editor IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench C-SPY C-SPY IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench Table 2: File types MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 18 User Guide Installed files Ext. Type of file Output from Input to fmt h i inc lst mac map pbd pbi pew prj r43 s43 sfr wsdt xcl xlb Formatting information for the Locals and IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Watch windows Workbench Workbench C/C++ or assembler header source Preprocessed source Assembler header source List output C-SPY macro definition List output Source browse information Source browse information IAR Embedded Workbench project (old project format) IAR Embedded Workbench project (old project format) Object module MSP430 assembler source code Special function register definitions Workspace desktop settings Extended command line Extended librarian batch command Text editor Compiler Text editor Compiler and assembler Text editor XLINK Compiler or assembler #include Compiler Assembler #include C-SPY IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench Compiler and assembler Text editor Text editor XLINK, XAR, and XLIB MSP430 IAR Assembler C-SPY IAR Embedded IAR Embedded Workbench Workbench Text editor Text editor Assembler, compiler, XLINK XLIB Table 2: File types (Continued) You can override the default filename extension by including an explicit extension when specifying a filename. Files with the extensions ini and dni are created dynamically when you run the IAR Embedded Workbench tools. These files, which contain information about your project configuration and other settings, are located in a settings directory under your project directory. Part 1. Product overview 19 Documentation Note: If you run the tools from the command line, the XLINK listings (map files) will by default have the extension lst, which might overwrite the list file generated by the compiler. Therefore, we recommend that you name XLINK map files explicitly, for example project1.map. Documentation This section briefly describes the information that is available in the MSP430 user and reference guides, in the online help, and on the Internet. You can access the MSP430 online documentation from the Help menu in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Help is also available via the F1 key in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. We recommend that you read the file readme.htm for recent information that might not be included in the user guides. It is located in the 430\doc directory. THE USER AND REFERENCE GUIDES The user and reference guides provided with IAR Embedded Workbench are as follows: MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide This guide. MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide This guide provides reference information about the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler. You should refer to this guide for information about: How to configure the compiler to suit your target processor and application requirements How to write efficient code for your target processor The assembler language interface and the calling convention The available data types The runtime libraries The IAR language extensions. MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide This guide provides reference information about the MSP430 IAR Assembler, including details of the assembler source format, and reference information about the assembler operators, directives, mnemonics, and diagnostics. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 20 User Guide Installed files IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide This online PDF guide provides reference information about the IAR linker and library tools: The IAR XLINK Linker reference sections provide information about XLINK options, output formats, environment variables, and diagnostics. The IAR XAR Library Builder reference sections provide information about XAR options and output. The IAR XLIB Librarian reference sections provide information about XLIB commands, environment variables, and diagnostics. DLIB Library Reference information This online documentation in HTML format provides reference information about the IAR DLIB library functions. It is available from the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help system. CLIB Library Reference Guide This online guide in hypertext PDF format contains reference information about the IAR CLIB Library. It is available from the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help system. IAR Embedded Workbench MISRA C Reference Guide This online guide in hypertext PDF format describes how IAR Systems has interpreted and implemented the rules given in Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software to enforce measures for stricter safety in the ISO standard for the C programming language [ISO/IEC 9899:1990]. ONLINE HELP The context-sensitive online help contains reference information about the menus and dialog boxes in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. There is also keyword reference information for the DLIB library functions. To obtain reference information for a function, select the function name in the editor window and press F1. Note: If you select a function name in the editor window and press F1 while using the CLIB library, you will get reference information for the DLIB library. IAR ON THE WEB The latest news from IAR Systems can be found at the web site www.iar.com, available from the Help menu in the Embedded Workbench IDE. Visit it for information about: Product announcements Part 1. Product overview 21 Documentation Updates and news about current versions Special offerings Evaluation copies of the IAR Systems products Technical Support, including technical notes Application notes Links to chip manufacturers and other interesting sites Distributors; the names and addresses of distributors in each country. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 22 User Guide Part 2. Tutorials This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide contains the following chapters: Creating an application project Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger Mixing C and assembler modules Using C++ Simulating an interrupt Working with library modules. 23 24 Creating an application project This chapter introduces you to the IAR Embedded Workbench integrated development environment (IDE). The tutorial demonstrates a typical development cycle and shows how you use the compiler and the linker to create a small application for the MSP430 microcontroller. For instance, creating a workspace, setting up a project with C source files, and compiling and linking your application. The development cycle continues in the next chapter, see Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger, page 37. Setting up a new project Using the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, you can design advanced project models. You create a workspace to which you add one or several projects. There are ready-made project templates for both application and library projects. Each project can contain a hierarchy of groups in which you collect your source files. For each project you can define one or several build configurations. For more details about designing project models, see the chapter Managing projects in this guide. Because the application in this tutorial is a simple application with very few files, the tutorial does not need an advanced project model. We recommend that you create a specific directory where you can store all your project files. In this tutorial we call the directory projects. You can find all the files needed for the tutorials in the 430\tutor directory. Make a copy of the tutor directory in your projects directory. Before you can create your project you must first create a workspace. CREATING A WORKSPACE WINDOW The first step is to create a new workspace for the tutorial application. When you start the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE for the first time, there is already a ready-made workspace, which you can use for the tutorial projects. If you are using that workspace, you can ignore the first step. Part 2. Tutorials 25 Setting up a new project Choose File>New>Workspace. Now you are ready to create a project and add it to the workspace. CREATING THE NEW PROJECT 1 To create a new project, choose Project>Create New Project. The Create New Project dialog box appears, which lets you base your new project on a project template. Figure 2: Create New Project dialog box 2 Make sure the Tool chain is set to MSP430, and click OK. 3 For this tutorial, select the project template Empty project, which simply creates an empty project that uses default project settings. 4 In the standard Save As dialog box that appears, specify where you want to place your project file, that is, in your newly created projects directory. Type project1 in the File name box, and click Save to create the new project. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 26 User Guide Creating an application project The project will appear in the Workspace window. Figure 3: Workspace window By default two build configurations are created: Debug and Release. In this tutorial only Debug will be used. You choose the build configuration from the drop-down menu at the top of the window. The asterisk in the project name indicates that there are changes that have not been saved. A project file--with the filename extension ewp--will be created in the projects directory, not immediately, but later on when you save the workspace. This file contains information about your project-specific settings, such as build options. 5 Before you add any files to your project, you should save the workspace. Choose File>Save Workspace and specify where you want to place your workspace file. In this tutorial, you should place it in your newly created projects directory. Type tutorials in the File name box, and click Save to create the new workspace. Figure 4: New Workspace dialog box Part 2. Tutorials 27 Setting up a new project A workspace file--with the filename extension eww--has now been created in the projects directory. This file lists all projects that you will add to the workspace. Information related to the current session, such as the placement of windows and breakpoints is located in the files created in the projects\settings directory. ADDING FILES TO THE PROJECT This tutorial uses the source files Tutor.c and Utilities.c. The Tutor.c application is a simple program using only standard features of the C language. It initializes an array with the ten first Fibonacci numbers and prints the result to stdout. The Utilities.c application contains utility routines for the Fibonacci calculations. Creating several groups is a possibility for you to organize your source files logically according to your project needs. However, because there are only two files in this project there is no need for creating a group. For more information about how to create complex project structures, see the chapter Managing projects. 1 In the Workspace window, select the destination to which you want to add a source file; a group or, as in this case, directly to the project. 2 Choose Project>Add Files to open a standard browse dialog box. Locate the files Tutor.c and Utilities.c, select them in the file selection list, and click Open to add them to the project1 project. Figure 5: Adding files to project1 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 28 User Guide Creating an application project SETTING PROJECT OPTIONS Now you will set the project options. For application projects, options can be set on all levels of nodes. First you will set the general options to suit the processor configuration in this tutorial. Because these options must be the same for the whole build configuration, they must be set on the project node. 1 Select the project folder icon project1 - Debug in the Workspace window and choose Project>Options. The Target options page in the General Options category is displayed. Figure 6: Setting general options Verify the following settings: Page Setting Target Output Device: msp430F149 Output file: Executable Library Configuration Library: CLIB Table 3: General settings for project1 Then set up the compiler options for the project. Part 2. Tutorials 29 Setting up a new project 2 Select C/C++ Compiler in the Category list to display the compiler option pages. Figure 7: Setting compiler options 3 Verify the following settings: Page Setting Optimizations Output List Optimizations, Size: None (Best debug support) Generate debug information Output list file Assembler mnemonics Table 4: Compiler options for project1 4 Click OK to set the options you have specified. Note: It is possible to customize the amount of information to be displayed in the Build messages window. In this tutorial, the default setting is not used. Thus, the contents of the Build messages window on your screen might differ from the screen shots. The project is now ready to be built. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 30 User Guide Creating an application project Compiling and linking the application You can now compile and link the application. You should also create a compiler list file and a linker map file and view both of them. COMPILING THE SOURCE FILES 1 To compile the file Utilities.c, select it in the Workspace window. 2 Choose Project>Compile. Alternatively, click the Compile button in the toolbar or choose the Compile command from the context menu that appears when you right-click on the selected file in the Workspace window. The progress will be displayed in the Build messages window. Figure 8: Compilation message 3 Compile the file Tutor.c in the same manner. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE has now created new directories in your project directory. Because you are using the build configuration Debug, a Debug directory has been created containing the directories List, Obj, and Exe: The List directory is the destination directory for the list files. The list files have the extension lst. The Obj directory is the destination directory for the object files from the compiler and the assembler. These files have the extension r43 and will be used as input to the IAR XLINK Linker. The Exe directory is the destination directory for the executable file. It has the extension d43 and will be used as input to the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Note that this directory will be empty until you have linked the object files. Part 2. Tutorials 31 Compiling and linking the application Click on the plus signs in the Workspace window to expand the view. As you can see, IAR Embedded Workbench has also created an output folder icon in the Workspace window containing any generated output files. All included header files are displayed as well, showing the dependencies between the files. Figure 9: Workspace window after compilation VIEWING THE LIST FILE Now examine the compiler list file and notice how it is automatically updated when you, as in this case, will investigate how different optimization levels affect the generated code size. 1 Open the list file Utilities.lst by double-clicking it in the Workspace window. Examine the list file, which contains the following information: The header shows the product version, information about when the file was created, and the command line version of the compiler options that were used The body of the list file shows the assembler code and binary code generated for each statement. It also shows how the variables are assigned to different segments The end of the list file shows the amount of stack, code, and data memory required, and contains information about error and warning messages that might have been generated. Notice the amount of generated code at the end of the file and keep the file open. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 32 User Guide Creating an application project 2 Choose Tools>Options to open the IDE Options dialog box and click the Editor tab. Select the option Scan for Changed Files. This option turns on the automatic update of any file open in an editor window, such as a list file. Click the OK button. Figure 10: Setting the option Scan for Changed Files 3 Select the file Utilities.c in the Workspace window. Open the C/C++ Compiler options dialog box by right-clicking on the selected file in the Workspace window. Click the Optimizations tab and select the Override inherited settings option. Choose High from the Optimizations drop-down list. Click OK. Notice that the options override on the file node is indicated in the Workspace window. 4 Compile the file Utilities.c. Now you will notice two things. First, note the automatic updating of the open list file due to the selected option Scan for Changed Files. Second, look at the end of the list file and notice the effect on the code size due to the increased optimization. 5 For this tutorial, the optimization level None should be used, so before linking the application, restore the default optimization level. Open the C/C++ Compiler options dialog box by right-clicking on the selected file in the Workspace window. Deselect the Override inherited settings option and click OK. Recompile the file Utilities.c. Part 2. Tutorials 33 Compiling and linking the application LINKING THE APPLICATION Now you should set up the options for the IAR XLINK Linker. 1 Select the project folder icon project1 - Debug in the Workspace window and choose Project>Options. Then select Linker in the Category list to display the XLINK option pages. Figure 11: XLINK options dialog box for project1 For this tutorial, default factory settings are used. However, pay attention to the choice of output format and linker command file. Output format It is important to choose the output format that suits your purpose. You might want to load it to a debugger--which means that you need output with debug information. In this tutorial you will use the default output options suitable for the C-SPY debugger--Debug information for C-SPY, With runtime control modules, and With I/O emulation modules--which means that some low-level routines will be linked that direct stdin and stdout to the Terminal I/O window in the C-SPY Debugger. You find these options on the Output page. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 34 User Guide Creating an application project Alternatively, in your real application project, you might want to load the output to a PROM programmer--in which case you need an output format without debug information, such as Intel-hex or Motorola S-records. Linker command file In the linker command file, the XLINK command line options for segment control are used for placing segments. It is important to be familiar with the linker command file and placement of segments. You can read more about this in the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. The linker command file templates supplied with the product can be used as is in the simulator, but when using them for your target system you might have to adapt them to your actual hardware memory layout. You can find supplied linker command files in the config directory. In this tutorial you will use the default linker command file, which you can see on the Config page. If you want to examine the linker command file, use a suitable text editor, such as the IAR Embedded Workbench editor, or print a copy of the file, and verify that the definitions match your requirements. Linker map file By default no linker map file is generated. To generate a linker map file, click the List tab and select the options Generate linker listing, Segment map, and Module map. 2 Click OK to save the XLINK options. Now you should link the object file, to generate code that can be debugged. 3 Choose Project>Make. The progress will as usual be displayed in the Build messages window. The result of the linking is a code file project1.d43 with debug information and a map file project1.map. VIEWING THE MAP FILE Examine the file project1.map to see how the segment definitions and code were placed in memory. These are the main points of interest in a map file: The header includes the options used for linking. The CROSS REFERENCE section shows the address of the program entry. The RUNTIME MODEL section shows the runtime model attributes that are used. The MODULE MAP shows the files that are linked. For each file, information about the modules that were loaded as part of your application, including segments and global symbols declared within each segment, is displayed. Part 2. Tutorials 35 Compiling and linking the application The SEGMENTS IN ADDRESS ORDER section lists all the segments that constitute your application. The project1.d43 application is now ready to be run in the IAR C-SPY Debugger. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 36 User Guide Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger This chapter continues the development cycle started in the previous chapter and explores the basic features of the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Note that, depending on what IAR product package you have installed, the IAR C-SPY Debugger may or may not be included. The tutorials assume that you are using the C-SPY Simulator. Debugging the application The project1.d43 application, created in the previous chapter, is now ready to be run in the IAR C-SPY Debugger where you can watch variables, set breakpoints, view code in disassembly mode, monitor registers and memory, and print the program output in the Terminal I/O window. STARTING THE DEBUGGER Before starting the IAR C-SPY Debugger you must set a few C-SPY options. 1 Choose Project>Options and then the Debugger category. On the Setup page, make sure that you have chosen Simulator from the Driver drop-down list and that Run to main is selected. Click OK. 2 Choose Project>Debug. Alternatively, click the Debugger button in the toolbar. The IAR C-SPY Debugger starts with the project1.d43 application loaded. In addition to the windows already opened in the Embedded Workbench, a set of C-SPY-specific windows are now available. ORGANIZING THE WINDOWS In the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, you can dock windows at specific places, and organize them in tab groups. You can also make a window floating, which means it is always on top of other windows. If you change the size or position of a floating window, other currently open windows are not affected. The status bar, located at the bottom of the Embedded Workbench main window, contains useful help about how to arrange windows. For further details, see Organizing the windows on the screen, page 75. Part 2. Tutorials 37 Debugging the application Make sure the following windows and window contents are open and visible on the screen: the Workspace window with the active build configuration tutorials project1, the editor window with the source files Tutor.c and Utilities.c, and the Debug Log window. Figure 12: The C-SPY Debugger main window INSPECTING SOURCE STATEMENTS 1 To inspect the source statements, double-click the file Tutor.c in the Workspace window. 2 With the file Tutor.c displayed in the editor window, first step over with the Debug>Step Over command. Alternatively, click the Step Over button on the toolbar. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 38 User Guide Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger The current position should be the call to the init_fib function. Figure 13: Stepping in C-SPY 3 Choose Debug>Step Into to step into the function init_fib. Alternatively, click the Step Into button on the toolbar. At source level, the Step Over and Step Into commands allow you to execute your application a statement or instruction at a time. Step Into continues stepping inside function or subroutine calls, whereas Step Over executes each function call in a single step. For further details, see Step, page 118. When Step Into is executed you will notice that the active window changes to Utilities.c as the function init_fib is located in this file. Part 2. Tutorials 39 Debugging the application 4 Use the Step Into command until you reach the for loop. Figure 14: Using Step Into in C-SPY 5 Use Step Over until you are back in the header of the for loop. You will notice that the step points are on a function call level, not on a statement level. You can also step on a statement level. Choose Debug>Next statement to execute one statement at a time. Alternatively, click the Next statement button on the toolbar. Notice how this command differs from the Step Over and the Step Into commands. INSPECTING VARIABLES C-SPY allows you to watch variables or expressions in the source code, so that you can keep track of their values as you execute your application. You can look at a variable in a number of ways; for example by pointing at it in the source window with the mouse pointer, or by opening one of the Locals, Watch, Live Watch, or Auto windows. For more information about inspecting variables, see the chapter Working with variables and expressions. Note: When optimization level None is used, all non-static variables will live during their entire scope and thus, the variables are fully debuggable. When higher levels of optimizations are used, variables might not be fully debuggable. Using the Auto window 1 Choose View>Auto to open the Auto window. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 40 User Guide Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger The Auto window will show the current value of recently modified expressions. Figure 15: Inspecting variables in the Auto window 2 Keep stepping to see how the values change. Setting a watchpoint Next you will use the Watch window to inspect variables. 3 Choose View>Watch to open the Watch window. Notice that it is by default grouped together with the currently open Auto window; the windows are located as a tab group. 4 Set a watchpoint on the variable i using the following procedure: Click the dotted rectangle in the Watch window. In the entry field that appears, type i and press the Enter key. You can also drag a variable from the editor window to the Watch window. 5 Select the root array in the init_fib function, then drag it to the Watch window. The Watch window will show the current value of i and root. You can expand the root array to watch it in more detail. Figure 16: Watching variables in the Watch window Part 2. Tutorials 41 Debugging the application 6 Execute some more steps to see how the values of i and root change. 7 To remove a variable from the Watch window, select it and press Delete. SETTING AND MONITORING BREAKPOINTS The IAR C-SPY Debugger contains a powerful breakpoint system with many features. For detailed information about the different breakpoints, see The breakpoint system, page 129. The most convenient way is usually to set breakpoints interactively, simply by positioning the insertion point in or near a statement and then choosing the Toggle Breakpoint command. 1 Set a breakpoint on the statement get_fib(i) using the following procedure: First, click the Utilities.c tab in the editor window and click in the statement to position the insertion point. Then choose Edit>Toggle Breakpoint. Alternatively, click the Toggle Breakpoint button on the toolbar. A breakpoint will be set at this statement. The statement will be highlighted and there will be an X in the margin to show that there is a breakpoint there. Figure 17: Setting breakpoints To view all defined breakpoints, choose View>Breakpoints to open the Breakpoints window. You can find information about the breakpoint execution in the Debug Log window. Executing up to a breakpoint 2 To execute your application until it reaches the breakpoint, choose Debug>Go. Alternatively, click the Go button on the toolbar. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 42 User Guide Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger The application will execute up to the breakpoint you set. The Watch window will display the value of the root expression and the Debug Log window will contain information about the breakpoint. 3 Select the breakpoint and choose Edit>Toggle Breakpoint to remove the breakpoint. DEBUGGING IN DISASSEMBLY MODE Debugging with C-SPY is usually quicker and more straightforward in C/C++ source mode. However, if you want to have full control over low-level routines, you can debug in disassembly mode where each step corresponds to one assembler instruction. C-SPY lets you switch freely between the two modes. 1 First reset your application by clicking the Reset button on the toolbar. 2 Choose View>Disassembly to open the Disassembly window, if it is not already open.You will see the assembler code corresponding to the current C statement. Figure 18: Debugging in disassembly mode Try the different step commands also in the Disassembly window. Part 2. Tutorials 43 Debugging the application MONITORING REGISTERS The Register window lets you monitor and modify the contents of the processor registers. 1 Choose View>Register to open the Register window. Figure 19: Register window 2 Step Over to execute the next instructions, and watch how the values change in the Register window. 3 Close the Register window. MONITORING MEMORY The Memory window lets you monitor selected areas of memory. In the following example, the memory corresponding to the variable root will be monitored. 1 Choose View>Memory to open the Memory window. 2 Make the Utilities.c window active and select root. Then drag it from the C source window to the Memory window. The memory contents in the Memory window corresponding to root will be selected. Figure 20: Monitoring memory MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 44 User Guide Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger 3 To display the memory contents as 16-bit data units, choose the x2 Units command from the drop-down arrow menu on the Memory window toolbar. Figure 21: Displaying memory contents as 16-bit units If not all of the memory units have been initialized by the init_fib function of the C application yet, continue to step over and you will notice how the memory contents will be updated. You can change the memory contents by editing the values in the Memory window. Just place the insertion point at the memory content that you want to edit and type the desired value. Close the Memory window. VIEWING TERMINAL I/O Sometimes you might need to debug constructions in your application that make use of stdin and stdout without the possibility of having hardware support. C-SPY lets you simulate stdin and stdout by using the Terminal I/O window. Note: The Terminal I/O window is only available in C-SPY if you have linked your project using the output option With I/O emulation modules. This means that some low-level routines will be linked that direct stdin and stdout to the Terminal I/O window, see Linking the application, page 34. Part 2. Tutorials 45 Debugging the application 1 Choose View>Terminal I/O to display the output from the I/O operations. Figure 22: Output from the I/O operations The contents of the window depends on how far you have executed the application. REACHING PROGRAM EXIT 1 To complete the execution of your application, choose Debug>Go. Alternatively, click the Go button on the toolbar. As no more breakpoints are encountered, C-SPY reaches the end of the application and a program exit reached message is printed in the Debug Log window. Figure 23: Reaching program exit in C-SPY All output from the application has now been displayed in the Terminal I/O window. If you want to start again with the existing application, choose Debug>Reset, or click the Reset button on the toolbar. 2 To exit from C-SPY, choose Debug>Stop Debugging. Alternatively, click the Stop Debugging button on the toolbar. The Embedded Workbench workspace is displayed. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 46 User Guide Debugging using the IAR C-SPY Debugger C-SPY also provides many other debugging facilities. Some of these--for example macros and interrupt simulation--are described in the following tutorial chapters. For further details about how to use C-SPY, see Part 4. Debugging. For reference information about the features of C-SPY, see Part 7. Reference information and the online help system. Part 2. Tutorials 47 Debugging the application MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 48 User Guide Mixing C and assembler modules In some projects it may be necessary to write certain pieces of source code in assembler language. The chapter first demonstrates how the compiler can be helpful in examining the calling convention, which you need to be familiar with when calling assembler modules from C/C++ modules or vice versa. Furthermore, this chapter demonstrates how you can easily combine source modules written in C with assembler modules, but the procedure is applicable to projects containing source modules written in C++, too. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE described in the previous tutorial chapters. Examining the calling convention When writing an assembler routine that will be called from a C routine, it is necessary to be aware of the calling convention used by the compiler. By creating skeleton code in C and letting the compiler produce an assembler output file from it, you can study the produced assembler output file and find the details of the calling convention. In this example you will make the compiler create an assembler output file from the file Utilities.c. 1 Create a new project in the workspace tutorials used in previous tutorials, and name the project project2. 2 Add the files Tutor.c and Utilities.c to the project. To display an overview of the workspace, click the Overview tab available at the bottom of the Workspace window. To view only the newly created project, click the project2 tab. For now, the project2 view should be visible. 3 To set options, choose Project>Options, and select the General Options category. On the Target page, choose msp430F149 from the Device drop-down menu. 4 To set options on file level node, in the Workspace window, select the file Utilities.c. Choose Project>Options. You will notice that only the C/C++ Compiler and Custom Build categories are available. Part 2. Tutorials 49 Adding an assembler module to the project 5 In the C/C++ Compiler category, select Override inherited settings and verify the following settings: Page Option Optimizations List Size: None (Best debug support) Output assembler file Include source Include runtime information (deselected). Table 5: Compiler options for project2 Note: In this example it is necessary to use a low optimization level when compiling the code to show local and global variable accesses. If a higher level of optimization is used, the required references to local variables can be removed. The actual function declaration is not changed by the optimization level. 6 Click OK and return to the Workspace window. 7 Compile the file Utilities.c. You can find the output file Utilities.s43 in the subdirectory projects\debug\list. 8 To examine the calling convention and to see how the C or C++ code is represented in assembler language, open the file Utilities.s43. You can now study where and how parameters are passed, how to return to the program location from where a function was called, and how to return a resulting value. You can also see which registers an assembler-level routine must preserve. To obtain the correct interface for your own application functions, you should create skeleton code for each function that you need. For more information about the calling convention used in the compiler, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. Adding an assembler module to the project This tutorial demonstrates how you can easily create a project containing both assembler modules and C modules. You will also compile the project and view the assembler output list file. SETTING UP THE PROJECT 1 Modify project2 by removing the file Utilities.c and adding the file Utilities.s43 instead.. Note: To view assembler files in the Add files dialog box, choose Project>Add Files and choose Assembler Files from the Files of type drop-down list. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 50 User Guide Mixing C and assembler modules 2 Select the project level node in the Workspace window, choose Project>Options. Use the default settings in the General Options, C/C++ Compiler, and Linker categories. Select the Assembler category, click the List tab, and select the option Output list file. Figure 24: Assembler settings for creating a list file Click OK. 3 Select the file Utilities.s43 in the Workspace window and choose Project>Compile to assemble it. Assuming that the source file was assembled successfully, the file Utilities.r43 will be created, containing the linkable object code. Viewing the assembler list file 4 Open the list file by double-clicking the file Utilities.lst available in the Output folder icon in the Workspace window. The end of the file contains a summary of errors and warnings that were generated. For further details of the list file format, see the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide. 5 Choose Project>Make to relink project2. Part 2. Tutorials 51 Adding an assembler module to the project 6 Start C-SPY to run the project2.d43 application and see that it behaves like in the previous tutorial. 7 Exit the debugger when you are done. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 52 User Guide Using C++ In this chapter, C++ is used to create a C++ class. The class is then used for creating two independent objects, and the application is built and debugged. We also show an example of how to set a conditional breakpoint. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE described in the previous tutorial chapters. Note that, depending on what IAR product package you have installed, support for C++ may or may not be included. This tutorial assumes that there is support for C++. Creating a C++ application This tutorial will demonstrate how to use the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench C++ features. The tutorial consists of two files: Fibonacci.cpp creates a class fibonacci that can be used to extract a series of Fibonacci numbers CPPtutor.cpp creates two objects, fib1 and fib2, from the class fibonacci and extracts two sequences of Fibonacci numbers using the fibonacci class. To demonstrate that the two objects are independent of each other, the numbers are extracted at different speeds. A number is extracted from fib1 each turn in the loop while a number is extracted from fib2 only every second turn. The object fib1 is created using the default constructor while the definition of fib2 uses the constructor that takes an integer as its argument. COMPILING AND LINKING THE C++ APPLICATION 1 In the workspace tutorials used in the previous chapters, create a new project, project3. 2 Add the files Fibonacci.cpp and CPPtutor.cpp to project3. Part 2. Tutorials 53 Creating a C++ application 3 Choose Project>Options and make sure the following options are selected: Category Page Option General Options Target Library Configuration Device: msp430F149 Library: Normal DLIB Embedded C++ C/C++ Compiler Language Table 6: Project options for Embedded C++ tutorial All you need to do to switch to the C++ programming language is to select the options Normal DLIB (C/EC++ Library) and Embedded C++. 4 Choose Project>Make to compile and link your application. Alternatively, click the Make button on the toolbar. The Make command compiles and links those files that have been modified. 5 Choose Project>Debug to start the IAR C-SPY Debugger. SETTING A BREAKPOINT AND EXECUTING TO IT 1 Open the CPPtutor.cpp window if it is not already open. 2 To see how the object is constructed, set a breakpoint on the C++ object fib1 on the following line: fibonacci fib1; Figure 25: Setting a breakpoint in CPPtutor.cpp MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 54 User Guide Using C++ 3 Choose Debug>Go, or click the Go button on the toolbar. The cursor should now be placed at the breakpoint. 4 To step into the constructor, choose Debug>Step Into or click the Step Into button in the toolbar. Then click Step Out again. 5 Step Over until the line: cout << fib1.next(); Step Into until you are in the function next in the file Fibonacci.cpp. 6 Use the Go to function button in the lower left corner of the editor window to find and go to the function nth by double-clicking the function name. Set a breakpoint on the function call nth(n-1)at the line value = nth(n-1) + nth(n-2); 7 It can be interesting to backtrace the function calls a few levels down and to examine the value of the parameter for each function call. By adding a condition to the breakpoint, the break will not be triggered until the condition is true, and you will be able to see each function call in the Call Stack window. To open the Breakpoints window, choose View>Breakpoints. Select the breakpoint in the Breakpoints window, right-click to open the context menu, and choose Edit to open the Edit Breakpoints dialog box. Set the value in the Skip count text box to 4 and click OK. Close the dialog box. Looking at the function calls 8 Choose Debug>Go to execute the application until the breakpoint condition is fulfilled. 9 When C-SPY stops at the breakpoint, choose View>Call Stack to open the Call Stack window. Figure 26: Inspecting the function calls Part 2. Tutorials 55 Creating a C++ application There are five instances of the function nth displayed on the call stack. Because the Call Stack window displays the values of the function parameters, you can see the different values of n in the different function instances. You can also open the Register window to see how it is updated as you trace the function calls by double-clicking on the function instances. PRINTING THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 1 Open the Terminal I/O window from the View menu. 2 Remove the breakpoints and run the application to the end and verify the Fibonacci sequences being printed. Figure 27: Printing Fibonacci sequences MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 56 User Guide Simulating an interrupt In this tutorial an interrupt handler for a serial port is added to the project. The Fibonacci numbers will be read from an on-chip communication peripheral device (USART0). This tutorial will show how the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler interrupt keyword and the #pragma vector directive can be used. The tutorial will also show how an interrupt can be simulated using the features that support interrupts, breakpoints, and macros. Notice that this example does not describe an exact simulation; the purpose is to illustrate a situation where C-SPY macros, breakpoints, and the interrupt system can be useful to simulate hardware. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE described in the previous tutorial chapters. Note that interrupt simulation is possible only when you are using the IAR C-SPY Simulator. Adding an interrupt handler This section will demonstrate how to write an interrupt in an easy way. It starts with a brief description of the application used in this project, followed by a description of how to set up the project. THE APPLICATION--A BRIEF DESCRIPTION The interrupt handler will read values from the serial communication port receive register (USART0), U0RXBUF. It will then print the value. The main program enables interrupts and starts printing periods (.) in the foreground process while waiting for interrupts. Part 2. Tutorials 57 Setting up the simulation environment WRITING AN INTERRUPT HANDLER The following lines define the interrupt handler used in this tutorial (the complete source code can be found in the file Interrupt.c supplied in the 430\tutor directory): /* define the interrupt handler */ #pragma vector=USART0RX_VECTOR __interrupt void uartRecieveHandler( void ) The #pragma vector directive is used for specifying the interrupt vector address--in this case the interrupt vector for the USART0 receive interrupt--and the keyword __interrupt is used for directing the compiler to use the calling convention needed for an interrupt function. For detailed information about the extended keywords and pragma directives used in this tutorial, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. SETTING UP THE PROJECT 1 Add a new project--project4--to the workspace tutorials used in previous tutorials. 2 Add the files Utilities.c and Interrupt.c to it. 3 In the Workspace window, select the project level node, and choose Project>Options. Select the General Options category, and click the Target tab. Choose msp430F149 from the Core drop-down menu. In addition, make sure the factory settings are used in the C/C++ Compiler and Linker categories. Next you will set up the simulation environment. Setting up the simulation environment The C-SPY interrupt system is based on the cycle counter. You can specify the amount of cycles to pass before C-SPY generates an interrupt. To simulate the input to USART0, values will be read from the file InputData.txt, which contains the Fibonacci series. You will set an immediate read breakpoint on the USART0 receive register, U0RXBUF, and connect a user-defined macro function to it (in this example the Access macro function). The macro reads the Fibonacci values from the text file. Whenever an interrupt is generated, the interrupt routine will read U0RXBUF and the breakpoint will be triggered, the Access macro function will be executed and the Fibonacci values will be fed into the USART0 receive register. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 58 User Guide Simulating an interrupt The immediate read breakpoint will trigger the break before the processor reads the U0RXBUF register, allowing the macro to store a new value in the register that is immediately read by the instruction. This section will demonstrate the steps involved in setting up the simulator for simulating a serial port interrupt. The steps involved are: Defining a C-SPY setup file which will open the file InputData.txt and define the Access macro function Specifying C-SPY options Building the project Starting the simulator Specifying the interrupt request Setting the breakpoint and associating the Access macro function to it. Note: For a simple example of a system timer interrupt simulation, see Simulating a simple interrupt, page 186. DEFINING A C-SPY SETUP MACRO FILE In C-SPY, you can define setup macros that will be registered during the C-SPY startup sequence. In this tutorial you will use the C-SPY macro file SetupSimple.mac, available in the 430\tutor directory. It is structured as follows: First the setup macro function execUserSetup is defined, which is automatically executed during C-SPY setup. Thus, it can be used to set up the simulation environment automatically. A message is printed in the Log window to confirm that this macro has been executed: execUserSetup() { __message "execUserSetup() called\n"; Then the file InputData.txt, which contains the Fibonacci series to be fed into USART0, will be opened: _fileHandle = __openFile( "$TOOLKIT_DIR$\\tutor\\InputData.txt", "r" ); Part 2. Tutorials 59 Setting up the simulation environment After that, the macro function Access is defined. It will read the Fibonacci values from the file InputData.txt, and assign them to the receive register address: Access() { __message "Access() called\n"; __var _fibValue; if( 0 == __readFile( _fileHandle, &_fibValue ) ) { U0RXBUF = _fibValue; } } You will have to connect the Access macro to an immediate read breakpoint. However, this will be done at a later stage in this tutorial. Finally, the file contains two macro functions for managing correct file handling at reset and exit. For detailed information about macros, see the chapters Using the C-SPY macro system and C-SPY macros reference. Next you will specify the macro file and set the other C-SPY options needed. SPECIFYING C-SPY OPTIONS 1 To select C-SPY options, choose Project>Options. In the Debugger category, click the Setup tab. 2 Use the Use macro file browse button to specify the macro file to be used: SetupSimple.mac Alternatively, use an argument variable to specify the path: $TOOLKIT_DIR$\tutor\SetupSimple.mac MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 60 User Guide Simulating an interrupt See Argument variables summary, page 279, for details. Figure 28: Specifying setup macro file 3 Set the Device description file option to msp430F149.ddf. This file provides interrupt definitions which are needed by the interrupt system. 4 Select Run to main and click OK. This will ensure that the debug session will start by running to the main function. The project is now ready to be built. BUILDING THE PROJECT 1 Compile and link the project by choosing Project>Make. Alternatively, click the Make button on the toolbar. The Make command compiles and links those files that have been modified. STARTING THE SIMULATOR 1 Start the IAR C-SPY Debugger to run the project4 project. The Interrupt.c window is displayed (among other windows). Click in it to make it the active window. Part 2. Tutorials 61 Setting up the simulation environment 2 Examine the Log window. Note that the macro file has been loaded and that the execUserSetup function has been called. SPECIFYING A SIMULATED INTERRUPT Now you will specify your interrupt to make it simulate an interrupt every 2000 cycles. 1 Choose Simulator>Interrupt Setup to display the Interrupt Setup dialog box. Click New to display the Edit Interrupt dialog box and make the following settings for your interrupt: Setting Value Description Interrupt Description First activation USART0RX_VECTOR Specifies which interrupt to use; the name is defined in the ddf file. As is 4000 The interrupt definition that the simulator uses to be able to simulate the interrupt correctly. Specifies the first activation moment for the interrupt. The interrupt is activated when the cycle counter has passed this value. Specifies the repeat interval for the interrupt, measured in clock cycles. Hold time, not used here. Specifies probability. 100% specifies that the interrupt will occur at the given frequency. Another percentage might be used for simulating a more random interrupt behavior. Time variance, not used here. Repeat Interval Hold time Probability % 2000 Infinite 100 Variance % 0 Table 7: Interrupts dialog box MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 62 User Guide Simulating an interrupt Figure 29: Inspecting the interrupt settings During execution, C-SPY will wait until the cycle counter has passed the activation time. When the current assembler instruction is executed, C-SPY will generate an interrupt which is repeated approximately every 2000 cycles. 2 When you have specified the settings, click OK to close the Edit Interrupt dialog box, and then click OK to close the Interrupt Setup dialog box. For information about how you can use the system macro __orderInterrupt in a C-SPY setup file to automate the procedure of defining the interrupt, see Using macros for interrupts and breakpoints, page 65. SETTING AN IMMEDIATE BREAKPOINT By defining a macro and connecting it to an immediate breakpoint, you can make the macro simulate the behavior of a hardware device, for instance an I/O port, as in this tutorial. The immediate breakpoint will not halt the execution, only temporarily suspend it to check the conditions and execute any connected macro. In this example, the input to the USART0 is simulated by setting an immediate read breakpoint on the U0RXBUF address and connecting the defined Access macro to it. The macro will simulate the input to the USART0. These are the steps involved: 1 Choose View>Breakpoints to open the Breakpoints window, right-click to open the context menu, choose New Breakpoint>Immediate to open the Immediate tab. 2 Add the following parameters for your breakpoint. Setting Value Description Break at Access Type U0RXBUF Read Receive buffer address. The breakpoint type (Read or Write) Table 8: Breakpoints dialog box Part 2. Tutorials 63 Simulating the interrupt Setting Value Description Action Access() The macro connected to the breakpoint. Table 8: Breakpoints dialog box (Continued) During execution, when C-SPY detects a read access from the U0RXBUF address, C-SPY will temporarily suspend the simulation and execute the Access macro. The macro will read a value from the file InputData.txt and write it to U0RXBUF. C-SPY will then resume the simulation by reading the receive buffer value in U0RXBUF. 3 Click OK to close the breakpoints dialog box. For information about how you can use the system macro __setSimBreak in a C-SPY setup file to automate the breakpoint setting, see Using macros for interrupts and breakpoints, page 65. Simulating the interrupt In this section you will execute your application and simulate the serial port interrupt. EXECUTING THE APPLICATION 1 Step through the application and stop when it reaches the while loop, where the application waits for input. 2 In the Interrupt.c source window, locate the function uartReciveHandler. 3 Place the insertion point on the ++callCount; statement in this function and set a breakpoint by choosing Edit>Toggle Breakpoint, or click the Toggle Breakpoint button on the toolbar. Alternatively, use the context menu. If you want to inspect the details of the breakpoint, choose Edit>Breakpoints. 4 Open the Terminal I/O window and run your application by choosing Debug>Go or clicking the Go button on the toolbar. The application should stop in the interrupt function. 5 Click Go again in order to see the next number being printed in the Terminal I/O window. Because the main program has an upper limit on the Fibonacci value counter, the tutorial application will soon reach the exit label and stop. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 64 User Guide Simulating an interrupt The Terminal I/O window will display the Fibonacci series. Figure 30: Printing the Fibonacci values in the Terminal I/O window Using macros for interrupts and breakpoints To automate the setting of breakpoints and the procedure of defining interrupts, the system macros __setSimBreak and __orderInterrupt, respectively, can be executed by the setup macro execUserSetup. The file SetupAdvanced.mac is extended with system macro calls for setting the breakpoint and specifying the interrupt: SimulationSetup() {... _interruptID = _ _orderInterrupt( "USART0RX_VECTOR", 4000, 2000, 0, 1, 0, 100 ); if( -1 == _interruptID ) { __message "ERROR: failed to order interrupt"; } _breakID = __setSimBreak( "U0RXBUF", "R", "Access()" ); } By replacing the file SetupSimple.mac, used in the previous tutorial, with the file SetupAdvanced.mac, setting the breakpoint and defining the interrupt will be automatically performed at C-SPY startup. Thus, you do not need to start the simulation by manually filling in the values in the Interrupts and Breakpoints dialog boxes. Part 2. Tutorials 65 Using macros for interrupts and breakpoints Note: Before you load the file SetupAdvanced.mac you should remove the previously defined breakpoint and interrupt. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 66 User Guide Working with library modules This tutorial demonstrates how to create library modules and how you can combine an application project with a library project. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE described in the previous tutorial chapters. Using libraries If you are working on a large project you will soon accumulate a collection of useful routines that are used by several of your applications. To avoid having to assemble a routine each time the routine is needed, you can store such routines as object files, that is, assembled but not linked. A collection of routines in a single object file is referred to as a library. It is recommended that you use library files to create collections of related routines, such as a device driver. Use the IAR XAR Library Builder to build libraries. The IAR XLIB Librarian lets you manipulate libraries. It allows you to: Change modules from PROGRAM to LIBRARY type, and vice versa Add or remove modules from a library file List module names, entry names, etc. The Main.s43 program The Main.s43 program uses a routine called r_shift to right-shift the contents of the register R4 the number of times of the value stored in register R5. The result is returned in R4. The EXTERN directive declares r_shift as an external symbol, to be resolved at link time. A copy of the program is provided in the 430\tutor directory. Part 2. Tutorials 67 Using libraries The library routines The two library routines will form a separately assembled library. It consists of the r_shift routine called by main, and a corresponding l_shift routine, both of which operate on the contents of the registers A and B and return the result in A. The file containing these library routines is called Shifts.s43, and a copy is provided with the product. The routines are defined as library modules by the MODULE directive, which instructs the IAR XLINK Linker to include the modules only if they are referenced by another module. The PUBLIC directive makes the r_shift and l_shift entry addresses public to other modules. For detailed information about the MODULE and PUBLIC directives, see the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide. CREATING A NEW PROJECT 1 In the workspace tutorials used in previous chapters, add a new project called project5. 2 Add the file Main.s43 to the new project. 3 To set options, choose Project>Options. Select the General Options category and click the Library Configuration tab. Choose None from the Library drop-down list, which means that a standard C/C++ library will not be linked. The default options are used for the other option categories. 4 To assemble the file Main.s43, choose Project>Compile. You can also click the Compile button on the toolbar. CREATING A LIBRARY PROJECT Now you are ready to create a library project. 1 In the same workspace tutorials, add a new project called tutor_library. 2 Add the file Shift.s43 to the project. 3 To set options, choose Project>Options. In the General Options category, verify the following settings: Page Option Output Output file: Library Table 9: XLINK options for a library project MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 68 User Guide Working with library modules Page Option Library Configuration Library: None Table 9: XLINK options for a library project (Continued) Note that Library Builder appears in the list of categories, which means that the IAR XAR Library Builder is added to the build tool chain. It is not necessary to set any XAR-specific options for this tutorial. Click OK. 4 Choose Project>Make. The library output file tutor_library.r43 has now been created. USING THE LIBRARY IN YOUR APPLICATION PROJECT You can now add your library containing the shift routine to project5. 1 In the Workspace window, click the project5 tab. Choose Project>Add Files and add the file tutor_library.r43 located in the projects\Debug\Exe directory. Click Open. 2 Click Make to build your project. 3 You have now combined a library with an executable project, and the application is ready to be executed. For information about how to manipulate the library, see the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. Part 2. Tutorials 69 Using libraries MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 70 User Guide Part 3. Project management and building This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide contains the following chapters: The development environment Managing projects Building Editing. 71 72 The development environment This chapter introduces you to the IAR Embedded Workbench development environment (IDE). The chapter also demonstrates how you can customize the environment to suit your requirements. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is the framework where all necessary tools are seamlessly integrated: a C/C++ compiler, an assembler, the IAR XLINK Linker, the IAR XAR Library Builder, the IAR XLIB Librarian, an editor, a project manager with Make utility, and the IAR C-SPY Debugger, a high-level language debugger. The compiler, assembler, and linker can also be run from a command line environment, if you want to use them as external tools in an already established project environment. Part 3. Project management and building 73 The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE This illustration shows the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window with different components. Menu bar Toolbar Editor window Workspace window Messages windows Status bar Figure 31: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window The window might look different depending on what additional tools you are using. RUNNING THE IAR EMBEDDED WORKBENCH IDE Click the Start button on the taskbar and choose All Programs>IAR Systems>IAR Embedded Workbench for MSP430 V3>IAR Embedded Workbench. The file IarIdePm.exe is located in the common\bin directory under your IAR installation, in case you want to start the program from the command line or from within Windows Explorer. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 74 User Guide The development environment Double-clicking the workspace filename The workspace file has the filename extension eww. If you double-click a workspace filename, the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE starts. If you have several versions of IAR Embedded Workbench installed, the workspace file will be opened by the most recently used version of your IAR Embedded Workbench that uses that file type. EXITING To exit the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose File>Exit. You will be asked whether you want to save any changes to editor windows, the projects, and the workspace before closing them. Customizing the environment The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is a highly customizable environment. This section demonstrates how you can work with and organize the windows on the screen, the possibilities for customizing the IDE, and how you can set up the environment to communicate with external tools. ORGANIZING THE WINDOWS ON THE SCREEN In the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, you can position the windows and arrange a layout according to your preferences. You can dock windows at specific places, and organize them in tab groups. You can also make a window floating, which means it is always on top of other windows. If you change the size or position of a floating window, other currently open windows are not affected. Each time you open a previously saved workspace, the same windows are open, and they have the same sizes and positions. For every project that is executed in the C-SPY environment, a separate layout is saved. In addition to the information saved for the workspace, information about all open debugger-specific windows is also saved. Using docked versus floating windows Each window that you open has a default location, which depends on other currently open windows. To give you full and convenient control of window placement, each window can either be docked or floating. Part 3. Project management and building 75 Customizing the environment A docked window is locked to a specific area in the Embedded Workbench main window, which you can decide. To keep many windows open at the same time, you can organize the windows in tab groups. This means one area of the screen is used for several concurrently open windows. The system also makes it easy to rearrange the size of the windows. If you rearrange the size of one docked window, the sizes of any other docked windows are adjusted accordingly. A floating window is always on top of other windows. Its location and size does not affect other currently open windows. You can move a floating window to any place on your screen, also outside of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE main window. Note: The editor window is always docked. When you open the editor window, its placement is decided automatically depending on other currently open windows. For more information about how to work with the editor window, see Using the IAR Embedded Workbench editor, page 95. Organizing windows To place a window as a separate window, drag it next to another open window. To place a window in the same tab group as another open window, drag the window you want to locate to the middle of the area and drop the window. To make a window floating, double-click on the window's title bar. The status bar, located at the bottom of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE main window, contains useful help about how to arrange windows. CUSTOMIZING THE IDE To customize the IDE, choose Tools>Options to get access to a vide variety of commands for: Configuring the editor Configuring the editor colors and fonts Configuring the project build command Organizing the windows in C-SPY Using an external editor Changing common fonts Changing key bindings Configuring the amount of output to the Messages window. In addition, you can increase the number of recognized filename extensions. By default, each tool in the build tool chain accepts a set of standard filename extensions. If you have source files with a different filename extension, you can modify the set of accepted filename extensions. Choose Tools>Filename Extensions to get access to the necessary commands. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 76 User Guide The development environment For reference information about the commands for customizing the IDE, see Tools menu, page 286. You can also find further information related to customizing the editor in the section Customizing the editor environment, page 101. For further information about customizations related to C-SPY, see Part 4. Debugging. COMMUNICATING WITH EXTERNAL TOOLS The Tools menu is a configurable menu to which you can add external tools for convenient access to these tools from within the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For this reason, the menu might look different depending on which tools you have preconfigured to appear as menu commands. To add an external tool to the menu, choose Tools>Configure Tools to open the Configure Tools dialog box. Figure 32: Configure Tools dialog box For reference information about this dialog box, see Configure Tools dialog box, page 303. Part 3. Project management and building 77 Customizing the environment After you have entered the appropriate information and clicked OK, the menu command you have specified is displayed on the Tools menu. Figure 33: Customized Tools menu Note: If you intend to add an external tool to the standard build tool chain, see Extending the tool chain, page 93. Adding command line commands Command line commands and calls to batch files must be run from a command shell. You can add command line commands to the Tools menu and execute them from there. 1 To add commands to the Tools menu, you must specify an appropriate command shell. Type one of the following command shells in the Command text box: System Command shell Windows 98/Me Windows NT/2000/XP Table 10: Command shells command.com cmd.exe (recommended) or command.com 2 Specify the command line command or batch file name in the Argument text box. The Argument text should be specified as: /C name where name is the name of the command or batch file you want to run. The /C option terminates the shell after execution, to allow the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE to detect when the tool has finished. Example To add the command Backup to the Tools menu to make a copy of the entire project directory to a network drive, you would specify Command either as command.cmd or as cmd.exe depending on your host environment, and Argument as: /C copy c:\project\*.* F: Alternatively, to use a variable for the argument to allow relocatable paths: /C copy $PROJ_DIR$\*.* F: MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 78 User Guide Managing projects This chapter discusses the project model used by the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. It covers how projects are organized and how you can specify workspaces with multiple projects, build configurations, groups, source files, and options that help you handle different versions of your applications. The chapter also describes the steps involved in interacting with an external third-party source code control system. The project model In a large-scale development project, with hundreds of files, you must be able to organize the files in a structure that is easily navigated and maintained by perhaps several engineers involved. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is a flexible environment for developing projects also with a number of different target processors in the same project, and a selection of tools for each target processor. HOW PROJECTS ARE ORGANIZED The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE has been designed to suit the way that software development projects are typically organized. For example, perhaps you need to develop related versions of an application for different versions of the target hardware, and you might also want to include debugging routines into the early versions, but not in the final application. Versions of your applications for different target hardware will often have source files in common, and you might want to be able to maintain only one unique copy of these files, so that improvements are automatically carried through to each version of the application. Perhaps you also have source files that differ between different versions of the application, such as those dealing with hardware-dependent aspects of the application. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE allows you to organize projects in a hierarchical tree structure showing the logical structure at a glance. In the following sections the different levels of the hierarchy are described. Part 3. Project management and building 79 The project model Projects and workspaces Typically you create a project which contains the source files needed for your embedded systems application. If you have several related projects, you can access and work with them simultaneously. To achieve this, you can organize related projects in workspaces. Each workspace you define can contain one or more projects, and each project must be part of at least one workspace. Consider this example: two related applications--for instance A and B--will be developed, requiring one development team each (team A and B). Because the two applications are related, parts of the source code can be shared between the applications. The following project model can be applied: Three projects--one for each application, and one for the common source code Two workspaces--one for team A and one for team B. It is both convenient and efficient to collect the common sources in a library project (compiled but not linked object code), to avoid having to compile it unnecessarily. Development team A Development team B Appl. A Project for application A Utility library Library project for common sources Appl. B Project for application B Workspace for team A Workspace for team B Project for application A Project for utility library Project for application B Project for utility library Figure 34: Examples of workspaces and projects MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 80 User Guide Managing projects For an example where a library project has been combined with an application project, see the chapter Working with library modules in Part 2. Tutorials. Projects and build configurations Often, you need to build several versions of your project. The Embedded Workbench lets you define multiple build configurations for each project. In a simple case, you might need just two, called Debug and Release, where the only differences are the options used for optimization, debug information, and output format. In the Release configuration, the preprocessor symbol NDEBUG is defined, which means the application will not contain any asserts. Additional build configurations can be useful, for instance, if you intend to use the application on different target devices. The application is the same, but hardware-related parts of the code differ. Thus, depending on which target device you intend to build for, appropriate source files can be excluded from the build configuration. The following build configurations might fulfil these requirements for Project A: Project A - Device 1:Release Project A - Device 1:Debug Project A - Device 2:Release Project A - Device 2:Debug Groups Normally, projects contain hundreds of files that are logically related. You can define each project to contain one or more groups, in which you can collect related source files. You can also define multiple levels of subgroups to achieve a logical hierarchy. By default, each group is present in all build configurations of the project, but you can also specify a group to be excluded from a particular build configuration. Source files Source files can be located directly under the project node or in a hierarchy of groups. The latter is convenient if the amount of files makes the project difficult to survey. By default, each file is present in all build configurations of the project, but you can also specify a file to be excluded from a particular build configuration. Only the files that are part of a build configuration will actually be built and linked into the output code. Once a project has been successfully built, all include files and output files are displayed in the structure below the source file that included or generated them. Part 3. Project management and building 81 The project model Note: The settings for a build configuration can affect which include files that will be used during compilation of a source file. This means that the set of include files associated with the source file after compilation can differ between the build configurations. CREATING AND MANAGING WORKSPACES This section describes the overall procedure for creating the workspace, projects, groups, files, and build configurations. The File menu provides the commands for creating workspaces. The Project menu provides commands for creating projects, adding files to a project, creating groups, specifying project options, and running the IAR Systems development tools on the current projects. For reference information about these menus, menu commands, and dialog boxes, see the chapter IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference. The steps involved for creating and managing a workspace and its contents are: Creating a workspace. An empty Workspace window appears, which is the place where you can view your projects, groups, and files. Adding new or existing projects to the workspace. When creating a new project, you can base it on a template project with preconfigured project settings. There are template projects available for C applications, C++ applications, assembler applications, and library projects. Creating groups. A group can be added either to the project's top node or to another group within the project. Adding files to the project. A file can be added either to the project's top node or to a group within the project. Creating new build configurations. By default, each project you add to a workspace will have two build configurations called Debug and Release. You can base a new configuration on an already existing configuration. Alternatively, you can choose to create a default build configuration. Note that you do not have to use the same tool chain for the new build configuration as for other build configurations in the same project. Excluding groups and files from a build configuration. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 82 User Guide Managing projects Note that the icon indicating the excluded group or file will change to white in the Workspace window. Removing items from a project. For a detailed example, see Creating an application project, page 25. Note: It might not be necessary for you to perform all of these steps. Drag and drop You can easily drag individual source files and project files from the Windows file explorer to the Workspace window. Source files dropped on a group will be added to that group. Source files dropped outside the project tree--on the Workspace window background--will be added to the active project. Source file paths The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE supports relative source file paths to a certain degree. If a source file is located in the project file directory or in any subdirectory of the project file directory, the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE will use a path relative to the project file when accessing the source file. Navigating project files There are two main different ways to navigate your project files: using the Workspace window or the Source Browser window. The Workspace window displays an hierarchical view of the source files, dependency files, and output files and how they are logically grouped. The Source Browser window, on the other hand, displays information about the build configuration that is currently active in the Workspace window. For that configuration, the Source Browser window displays a hierarchical view of all globally defined symbols, such as variables, functions, and type definitions. For classes, information about any base classes is also displayed. Part 3. Project management and building 83 Navigating project files VIEWING THE WORKSPACE The Workspace window is where you access your projects and files during the application development. 1 Choose which project you want to view by clicking its tab at the bottom of the Workspace window. Configuration drop-down menu Indicator for errors detected during build Indicator for option overrides on file node Tabs for choosing workspace display Figure 35: Displaying a project in the Workspace window For each file that has been built, an Output folder icon appears, containing generated files, such as object files and list files. The latter is generated only if the list file option is enabled. There is also an Output folder related to the project node that contains generated files related to the whole project, such as the executable file and the linker map file (if the list file option is enabled). Also, any included header files will appear, showing dependencies at a glance. 2 To display the project with a different build configuration, choose that build configuration from the drop-down list at the top of the Workspace window. The project and build configuration you have selected are displayed highlighted in the Workspace window. It is the project and build configuration that is selected from the drop-down list that will be built when you build your application. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 84 User Guide Managing projects 3 To display an overview of all projects in the workspace, click the Overview tab at the bottom of the Workspace window. An overview of all project members is displayed. Figure 36: Workspace window--an overview The current selection in the Build Configuration drop-down list is also highlighted when an overview of the workspace is displayed. DISPLAYING BROWSE INFORMATION To display browse information in the Source Browser window, choose Tools>Options>Project and select the option Generate browse information. To open the Source Browser window, choose View>Source Browser. The Source Browser window is by default docked with the Workspace window. Source browse information is displayed for the active build configuration. For reference information, see Source Browser window, page 253. Note that you can choose a file filter and a type filter from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the top pane of the window. To see the definition of a global symbol or a function, there are three alternative methods that you can use: In the Source Browser window, right-click on a symbol, or function, and choose the Go to definition command from the context menu that appears In the Source Browser window, double-click on a row In the editor window, right-click on a symbol, or function, and choose the Go to definition command from the context menu that appears. The definition of the symbol or function is displayed in the editor window. Part 3. Project management and building 85 Source code control The source browse information is continuously updated in the background. While you are editing source files, or when you open a new project, there will be a short delay before the information is up-to-date. Source code control IAR Embedded Workbench can identify and access any installed third-party source code control (SCC) systems that conform to the SCC interface published by Microsoft corporation. From within the IDE you can connect an IAR Embedded Workbench project to an external SCC project, and perform some of the most commonly used operations. To connect your IAR Embedded Workbench project to a source code control system you should be familiar with the source code control client application you are using. Note that some of the windows and dialog boxes that appear when you work with source code control in IAR Embedded Workbench originate from the SCC system and is not described in the documentation from IAR Systems. For information about details in the client application, refer to the documentation supplied with that application. Note: Different SCC systems use very different terminology even for some of the most basic concepts involved. It is important to keep this in mind when reading the description below. INTERACTING WITH SOURCE CODE CONTROL SYSTEMS In any SCC system, you use a client application to maintain a central archive. In this archive you keep the working copies of the files of your project. The SCC integration in IAR Embedded Workbench allows you to conveniently perform a few of the most common SCC operations directly from within the IDE. However, several tasks must still be performed in the client application. To connect an IAR Embedded Workbench project to a source code control system, you should: In the SCC client application, set up an SCC project In IAR Embedded Workbench, connect your project to the SCC project. Setting up an SCC project in the SCC client application Use your SCC client tools to set up a working directory for the files in your IAR Embedded Workbench project that you want to control using your SCC system. The files can be placed in one or more nested subdirectories, all located under a common root. Specifically, all the source files must reside in the same directory as the ewp project file, or nested in subdirectories of this directory. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 86 User Guide Managing projects For information about the steps involved, refer to the documentation supplied with the SCC client application. Connecting projects in IAR Embedded Workbench In IAR Embedded Workbench, connect your application project to the SCC project. 1 In the Workspace window, select the project for which you have created an SCC project. From the Project menu, choose Source Code Control>Add Project To Source Control. This command is also available from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Workspace window. Note: The commands on the Source Code Control submenu are available when there is at least one SCC client application available. 2 If you have source code control systems from different vendors installed, a dialog box will appear to let you choose which system you want to connect to. 3 An SCC-specific dialog box will appear where you can navigate to the proper SCC project that you have set up. Viewing the SCC states When your IAR Embedded Workbench project has been connected to the SCC project, a column that contains status information for source code control will appear in the Workspace window. Different icons will be displayed depending on whether: a file is checked out to you a file is checked out to someone else a file is checked in a file has been modified there is a new version of a file in the archive. There are also icons for some combinations of these states. Note that the interpretation of these states depends on the SCC client application you are using. For reference information about the icons and the different states they represent, see Source code control states, page 244. For reference information about the commands available for accessing the SCC system, see Source Code Control menu, page 243. Configuring the source code control system To customize the source code control system, choose Tools>Options and click the Source Code Control tab. For reference information about the available commands, see Terminal I/O page, page 299. Part 3. Project management and building 87 Source code control MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 88 User Guide Building This chapter briefly discusses the process of building your application, and describes how you can extend the chain of build tools with tools from third-party suppliers. Building your application The building process consists of the following steps: Setting project options Building the project Correcting any errors detected during the build procedure. To make the build process more efficient, you can use the Batch Build command. This gives you the possibility to perform several builds in one operation. In addition to use the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE for building projects, it is also possible to use the command line utility iarbuild.exe for building projects. For examples of building application and library projects, see Part 2. Tutorials in this guide. For further information about building library projects, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. SETTING OPTIONS To specify how your application should be built, you must define one or several build configurations. Every build configuration has its own settings, which are independent of the other configurations. All settings are indicated in a separate column in the Workspace window. For example, a configuration that is used for debugging would not be highly optimized, and would produce output that suits the debugging. Conversely, a configuration for building the final application would be highly optimized, and produce output that suits a flash or PROM programmer. For each build configuration, you can set options on the project level, group level, and file level. Many options can only be set on the project level because they affect the entire build configuration. Examples of such options are General Options (for example, Device and Output file), linker settings, and debug settings. Other options, such as compiler and assembler options, that you set on project level are default for the entire build configuration. Part 3. Project management and building 89 Building your application It is possible to override project level settings by selecting the required item, for instance a specific group of files, and selecting the option Override inherited settings. The new settings will affect all members of that group, that is, files and any groups of files. To restore all settings to the default factory settings, click the Factory Settings button. Note: There is one important restriction on setting options. If you set an option on file level (file level override), no options on higher levels that operate on files will affect that file. Using the Options dialog box The Options dialog box--available by choosing Project>Options--provides options for the building tools. You set these options for the selected item in the Workspace window. Options in the General Options, Linker, and Debugger categories can only be set for the entire build configuration, and not for individual groups and files. However, the options in the other categories can be set for the entire build configuration, a group of files, or an individual file. Figure 37: General options The Category list allows you to select which building tool to set options for. The tools available in the Category list depends on which tools are included in your product. If you select Library as output file on the Output page, Linker will be replaced by Library Builder in the category list. When you select a category, one or more pages containing options for that component are displayed. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 90 User Guide Building Click the tab corresponding to the type of options you want to view or change. To restore all settings to the default factory settings, click the Factory Settings button, which is available for all categories except General Options and Custom Build. Note that there are two sets of factory settings available: Debug and Release. Which one that will be used depends on your build configuration; see New Configuration dialog box, page 281. For information about each option and how to set options, see the chapters General options, Compiler options, Assembler options, Linker options, Library builder options, Custom build options, and Debugger options in Part 7. Reference information in this guide. For information about options specific to the debugger driver you are using, see the part of this book that corresponds to your driver. Note: If you add to your project a source file with a non-recognized filename extension, you cannot set options on that source file. However, you can add support for additional filename extensions. For reference information, see Filename Extensions dialog box, page 305. BUILDING A PROJECT You have access to the build commands both from the Project menu and from the context menu that appears if you right-click an item in the Workspace window. The three build commands Make, Compile, and Rebuild All run in the background, so you can continue editing or working with the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE while your project is being built. For further reference information, see Project menu, page 277. BUILDING MULTIPLE CONFIGURATIONS IN A BATCH Use the batch build feature when you want to build more than one configuration at once. A batch is an ordered list of build configurations. The Batch Build dialog box--available from the Project menu--lets you create, modify, and build batches of configurations. For workspaces that contain several configurations it is convenient to define one or several different batches. Instead of building the entire workspace, you can build only the appropriate build configurations, for instance Release or Debug configurations. For detailed information about the Batch Build dialog box, see Batch Build dialog box, page 284. Part 3. Project management and building 91 Building your application CORRECTING ERRORS FOUND DURING BUILD The compiler, assembler, and debugger are fully integrated with the development environment. So if there are errors in your source code, you can jump directly to the correct position in the appropriate source file by double-clicking the error message in the error listing in the Build message window, or selecting the error and pressing Enter. After you have resolved any problems reported during the build process and rebuilt the project, you can directly start debugging the resulting code at the source level. To specify the level of output to the Build message window, choose Tools>Options to open the IDE Options dialog box. Click the Messages tab and select the level of output in the Show build messages drop-down list. For reference information about the Build messages window, see Build window, page 261. BUILDING FROM THE COMMAND LINE It is possible to build the project from the command line by using the IAR Command Line Build Utility (iarbuild.exe) located in the common\bin directory. As input you use the project file, and the invocation syntax is: iarbuild project.ewp [-clean|-build|-make] <configuration> [-log errors|warnings|info|all] Parameter Description project.ewp -clean -build -make Your IAR Embedded Workbench IDE project file. Removes any intermediate files. Rebuilds and relinks all files in the current build configuration. Brings the current build configuration up to date by compiling, assembling, and linking only the files that have changed since the last build. The name of the configuration you want to build, which can either be one of the predefined configurations Debug or Release, or a name that you define yourself. For more information about build configurations, see Projects and build configurations, page 81. Displays build error messages. Displays build warning and error messages. Displays build warning messages and messages issued by the #pragma message preprocessor directive. Displays all messages generated from the build, for example compiler sign-on information and the full command line. configuration -log errors -log warnings -log info -log all Table 11: iarbuild.exe command line options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 92 User Guide Building If you run the application from a command shell without specifying a project file, you will get a sign-on message describing available parameters and their syntax. Extending the tool chain IAR Embedded Workbench provides a feature--Custom Build--which lets you extend the standard tool chain. This feature is used for executing external tools (not provided by IAR). You can make these tools execute each time specific files in your project have changed. By specifying custom build options, on the Custom tool configuration page, the build commands treat the external tool and its associated files in the same way as the standard tools within the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE and their associated files. The relation between the external tool and its input files and generated output files is similar to the relation between the C/C++ Compiler, c files, h files, and r43 files. See Custom build options, page 373, for details about available custom build options. You specify filename extensions of the files used as input to the external tool. If the input file has changed since you last built your project, the external tool is executed; just as the compiler executes if a c file has changed. In the same way, any changes in additional input files (for instance include files) are detected. You must specify the name of the external tool. You can also specify any necessary command line options needed by the external tool, as well as the name of the output files generated by the external tool. Note that it is possible to use argument variables for substituting file paths. For some of the file information, you can use argument variables. It is possible to specify custom build options to any level in the project tree. The options you specify are inherited by any sublevel in the project tree. TOOLS THAT CAN BE ADDED TO THE TOOL CHAIN Some examples of external tools, or types of tools, that you can add to the IAR Embedded Workbench tool chain are: Tools that generate files from a specification, such as Lex and YACC Tools that convert binary files--for example files that contain bitmap images or audio data--to a table of data in an assembler or C source file. This data can then be compiled and linked together with the rest of your application. ADDING AN EXTERNAL TOOL The following example demonstrates how to add the tool Flex to the tool chain. The same procedure can be used also for other tools. Part 3. Project management and building 93 Extending the tool chain In the example, Flex takes the file foo.lex as input. The two files foo.c and foo.h are generated as output. 1 Add the file you want to work with to your project, for example foo.lex. 2 Select this file in the Workspace window and choose Project>Options. Select Custom Build from the list of categories. 3 In the Filename extensions field, type the filename extension .lex. Remember to specify the leading period (.). 4 In the Command line field, type the command line for executing the external tool, for example flex $FILE_PATH$ -o$FILE_BPATH$.c During the build process, this command line will be expanded to: flex foo.lex -ofoo.c Note the usage of argument variables. For further details of these variables, see Argument variables summary, page 279. Take special note of the use of $FILE_BNAME$ which gives the base name of the input file, in this example appended with the c extension to provide a C source file in the same directory as the input file foo.lex. 5 In the Output files field, describe the output files that are relevant for the build. In this example, the tool Flex would generate two files--one source file and one header file. The text in the Output files text box for these two files would look like this: $FILE_BPATH$.c $FILE_BPATH$.h 6 If there are any additional files used by the external tool during the build, these should be added in the Additional input files field: for instance: $TOOLKIT_DIR$\inc\stdio.h This is important, because if the dependency files change, the conditions will no longer be the same and the need for a rebuild is detected. 7 Click OK. 8 To build your application, choose Project>Make. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 94 User Guide Editing This chapter describes in detail how to use the IAR Embedded Workbench editor. The final section describes how to customize the editor and how to use an external editor of your choice. Using the IAR Embedded Workbench editor The integrated text editor allows editing of multiple files in parallel, and provides all basic editing features expected from a modern editor. In addition, it provides features specific to software development. It also recognizes C or C++ language elements. EDITING A FILE The editor window is where you write, view, and modify your source code. You can open one or several text files, either from the File menu, or by double-clicking a file in the Workspace window. If you open several files, they are organized in a tab group. You can have several editor windows open at the same time. Part 3. Project management and building 95 Using the IAR Embedded Workbench editor Click the tab for the file that you want to display. All open files are also available from the drop-down menu at the upper right corner of the editor window. File drop-down menu Title bar with modification indicator Splitter control Bookmark Splitter control Go to function Figure 38: Editor window The name of the open source file is displayed on the tab. If a file is read-only, a padlock is visible at the bottom left corner of the editor window. If a file has been modified after it was last saved, an asterisk appears on the tab after the filename, for example Utilities.c *. The commands on the Window menu allow you to split the editor window into panes. On the Window menu you also find commands for opening multiple editor windows, as well as commands for moving files between different editor windows. For reference information about each command on the menu, see Window menu, page 308. For reference information about the editor window, see Editor window, page 248. Accessing reference information for DLIB library functions When you need to know the syntax for any C or Embedded C++ library function, select the function name in the editor window and press F1. The library documentation for the selected function appears in a help window. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 96 User Guide Editing Using and customizing editor commands and shortcut keys The Edit menu provides commands for editing and searching in editor windows. For instance, unlimited undo/redo by using the Edit>Undo and Edit>Redo commands, respectively. You can also find some of these commands on the context menu that appears when you right-click in the editor window. For reference information about each command, see Edit menu, page 267. There are also editor shortcut keys for: moving the insertion point scrolling text selecting text. For detailed information about these shortcut keys, see Editor key summary, page 251. To change the default shortcut key bindings, choose Tools>Options, and click the Key Bindings tab. For further details, see Key Bindings page, page 289. Splitting the editor window into panes You can split the editor window horizontally or vertically into multiple panes, to allow you to look at different parts of the same source file at once, or move text between two different panes. To split the window, double-click the appropriate splitter bar, or drag it to the middle of the window. Alternatively, you can split a window into panes using the Window>Split command. To revert to a single pane, double-click the splitter control or drag it back to the end of the scroll bar. Dragging and dropping of text You can easily move text within an editor window or between different editor windows. Select the text and drag it to the new location. Syntax coloring The IAR Embedded Workbench editor automatically recognizes the syntax of: C and C++ keywords C and C++ comments Assembler directives, comments, and mnemonics Preprocessor directives Strings. The different parts of source code are displayed in different text styles. Part 3. Project management and building 97 Using the IAR Embedded Workbench editor To change these styles, choose Tools>Options, and click the Editor Colors and Fonts tab in the IDE Options dialog box. For additional information, see Editor Colors and Fonts page, page 295. In addition, you can define your own set of keywords that should be syntax-colored automatically: 1 In a text file, list all the keywords that you want to be automatically syntax-colored. Separate each keyword with either a space or a new line. 2 Choose Tools>Options and click the Editor Setup Files tab. 3 Select the Use Custom Keyword File option and specify your newly created text file. A browse button is available for your convenience. 4 Click the Edit Colors and Fonts tab and choose User Keyword from the Syntax Coloring list. Specify the font, color, and type style of your choice. For additional information, see Editor Colors and Fonts page, page 295. 5 In the editor window, type any of the keywords you listed in your keyword file; see how the keyword is syntax-colored according to your specification. Automatic text indentation The text editor can perform different kinds of indentation. For assembler source files and normal text files, the editor automatically indents a line to match the previous line. If you want to indent a number of lines, select the lines and press the Tab key. Press Shift-Tab to move a whole block of lines to the left. For C/C++ source files, the editor indents lines according to the syntax of the C/C++ source code. This is performed whenever you: Press the Return key Type any of the special characters {, }, :, and # Have selected one or several lines, and choose the Edit>Auto Indent command. To enable or disable the indentation: 1 Choose Tools>Options 2 Click the Editor tab 3 Select or deselect the Auto indent option. To customize the C/C++ automatic indentation, click the Configure button. For additional information, see Configure Auto Indent dialog box, page 292. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 98 User Guide Editing Matching brackets and parentheses When the insertion point is located next to a parenthesis, the matching parenthesis is highlighted with a light gray color: Figure 39: Parentheses matching in editor window The highlight remains in place as long as the insertion point is located next to the parenthesis. To select all text between the brackets surrounding the insertion point, choose Edit>Match Brackets. Every time you choose Match Brackets after that, the selection will increase to the next hierarchic pair of brackets. Note: Both of these functions--automatic matching of corresponding parentheses and selection of text between brackets--apply to (), , and {}. Displaying status information As you are editing, the status bar--available by choosing View>Status Bar-- shows the current line and column number containing the insertion point, and the Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Overwrite status: Figure 40: Editor window status bar USING AND ADDING CODE TEMPLATES Code templates is a method for conveniently inserting frequently used source code sequences, for example for loops and if statements. The code templates are defined in a normal text file. By default, there are a few example templates provided. In addition, you can easily add your own code templates. Enabling code templates By default, code templates are enabled. To enable and disable the use of code templates: 1 Choose Tools>Options. 2 Go to the Editor Setup Files page. 3 Select or deselect the Use Code Templates option. Part 3. Project management and building 99 Using the IAR Embedded Workbench editor 4 In the text field, specify which template file you want to use; either the default file or one of your own template files. A browse button is available for your convenience. Inserting a code template in your source code To insert a code template in your source code, place the insertion point at the location where you want the template to be inserted and choose Edit>Insert Template. This command displays a list in the editor window from which you can choose a code template. Figure 41: Editor window code template menu If the code template you choose requires any type of field input, as in the for loop example which needs an end value and a count variable, an input dialog box appears. Adding your own code templates The source code templates are defined in a normal text file. The original template file CodeTemplates.txt is located in the common\config installation directory. The first time you use IAR Embedded Workbench, the original template file is copied to a directory for local settings, and this is the file that will be used by default if code templates are enabled. To use your own template file, follow the procedure described in Enabling code templates, page 99. To open the template file and define your own code templates, choose Edit>Code Templates>Edit Templates. The syntax for defining templates is described in the default template file. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 100 User Guide Editing NAVIGATING IN AND BETWEEN FILES The editor provides several functions for easy navigation within the files and between different files: Switching between source and header files If the insertion point is located on an #include line, you can choose the Open "header.h" command from the context menu, which opens the header file in an editor window. You can also choose the command Open Header/Source File, which opens the header or source file that corresponds to the current file, or activates it if it is already open. This command is available if the insertion point is located on any line except an #include line. Function navigation Click the Go to function button in the bottom left corner in an editor window to list all functions defined in the source file displayed in the window. You can then choose to go directly to one of the functions by double-clicking it in the list. Adding bookmarks Use the Edit>Toggle Bookmark command to add and remove bookmarks. To switch between the marked locations, choose Edit>Go to Bookmark. SEARCHING There are several standard search functions available in the editor: Quick search text box Find dialog box Replace dialog box Find in files dialog box Incremental Search dialog box. To use the Quick search text box on the toolbar, type the text you want to search for and press Enter. Press Esc to cancel the search. This is a quick method for searching for text in the active editor window. To use the Find, Replace, Find in Files, and Incremental Search functions, choose the corresponding command from the Edit menu. For reference information about each search function, see Edit menu, page 267. Customizing the editor environment The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE editor can be configured on the IDE Options pages Editor and Editor Colors and Fonts. Choose Tools>Options to access the pages. Part 3. Project management and building 101 Customizing the editor environment For details about these pages, see Tools menu, page 286. USING AN EXTERNAL EDITOR The External Editor page--available by choosing Tools>Options--lets you specify an external editor of your choice. 1 Select the option Use External Editor. 2 An external editor can be called in one of two ways, using the Type drop-down menu. Command Line calls the external editor by passing command line parameters. DDE calls the external editor by using DDE (Windows Dynamic Data Exchange). 3 If you use the command line, specify the command line to pass to the editor, that is, the name of the editor and its path, for instance: C:\WINNT\NOTEPAD.EXE. You can send an argument to the external editor by typing the argument in the Arguments field. For example, type $FILE_PATH$ to start the editor with the active file (in editor, project, or Messages window). Figure 42: Specifying external command line editor 4 If you use DDE, specify the editor's DDE service name in the Service field. In the Command field, specify a sequence of command strings to send to the editor. The service name and command strings depend on the external editor that you are using. Refer to the user documentation of your external editor to find the appropriate settings. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 102 User Guide Editing The command strings should be entered as: DDE-Topic CommandString DDE-Topic CommandString as in the following example, which applies to Codewright: Figure 43: External editor DDE settings The command strings used in this example will open the external editor with a dedicated file activated. The cursor will be located on the current line as defined in the context from where the file is open, for instance when searching for a string in a file, or when double-clicking an error message in the Message window. 5 Click OK. When you open a file by double-clicking it in the Workspace window, the file will be opened by the external editor. Variables can be used in the arguments. For more information about the argument variables that are available, see Argument variables summary, page 279. Part 3. Project management and building 103 Customizing the editor environment MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 104 User Guide Part 4. Debugging This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide contains the following chapters: The IAR C-SPY Debugger Executing your application Working with variables and expressions Using breakpoints Monitoring memory and registers Using the C-SPY macro system Analyzing your application. 105 106 The IAR C-SPY Debugger This chapter introduces you to the IAR C-SPY Debugger. First some of the concepts are introduced that are related to debugging in general and to the IAR C-SPY Debugger in particular. Then the debugger environment is presented, followed by a description of how to setup, start, and finally adapt C-SPY to target hardware. Debugger concepts This section introduces some of the concepts that are related to debugging in general and to the IAR C-SPY Debugger in particular. This section does not contain specific conceptual information related to the functionality of the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Instead, such information can be found in each chapter of this part of the guide. The IAR Systems user documentation uses the following terms when referring to these concepts. IAR C-SPY DEBUGGER AND TARGET SYSTEMS The IAR C-SPY Debugger can be used for debugging either a software target system or a hardware target system. Part 4. Debugging 107 Debugger concepts Figure 44, IAR C-SPY Debugger and target systems, shows an overview of C-SPY and possible target systems. IAR C-SPY DEBUGGER TARGET SYSTEM Simulator driver Embedded Workbench C-SPY ROM-monitor driver Emulator driver Simulator Application Software ROMmonitor Target hardware JTAG emulator Target hardware = Provided by IAR Figure 44: IAR C-SPY Debugger and target systems DEBUGGER The debugger, for instance C-SPY, is the program that you use for debugging your applications on a target system. TARGET SYSTEM The target system is the system on which you execute your application when you are debugging it. The target system can consist of hardware, either an evaluation board or your own hardware design. It can also be completely or partially simulated by software. Each type of target system needs a dedicated C-SPY driver. USER APPLICATION A user application is the software you have developed and which you want to debug using the IAR C-SPY Debugger. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 108 User Guide The IAR C-SPY Debugger IAR C-SPY DEBUGGER SYSTEMS The IAR C-SPY Debugger consists of both a general part which provides a basic set of C-SPY features, and a driver. The C-SPY driver is the part that provides communication with and control of the target system. The driver also provides the user interface--menus, windows, and dialog boxes--to the functions provided by the target system, for instance, special breakpoints. There are three main types of C-SPY drivers: Simulator driver ROM-monitor driver Emulator driver If you have more than one C-SPY driver installed on your computer you can switch between them by choosing the appropriate driver from within the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For an overview of the general features of IAR C-SPY Debugger, see IAR C-SPY Debugger, page 5. In that chapter you can also find an overview of the functionality provided by each driver. Contact your software distributor or IAR representative for information about available C-SPY drivers. You can also find information on the IAR Systems website, www.iar.com. ROM-MONITOR PROGRAM The ROM-monitor program is a piece of firmware that is loaded to non-volatile memory on your target hardware; it runs in parallel with your application. The ROM-monitor communicates with the debugger and provides services needed for debugging the application, for instance stepping and breakpoints. THIRD-PARTY DEBUGGERS It is possible to use a third-party debugger together with the IAR Systems tool chain as long as the third-party debugger can read any of the output formats provided by XLINK, such as UBROF, ELF/DWARF, COFF, Intel-extended, Motorola, or any other available format. For information about which format to use with third-party debuggers, see the user documentation supplied with that tool. The C-SPY environment AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT The IAR C-SPY Debugger is a high-level-language debugger for embedded applications. It is designed for use with the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler and MSP430 IAR Assembler, and is completely integrated in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, providing development and debugging within the same application. Part 4. Debugging 109 Setting up the IAR C-SPY Debugger All windows that are open in the Embedded Workbench workspace will stay open when you start the C-SPY Debugger. In addition, a set of C-SPY-specific windows will be opened. You can modify your source code in an editor window during the debug session, but changes will not take effect until you exit from the debugger and rebuild your application. The integration also makes it possible to set breakpoints in the text editor at any point during the development cycle. It is also possible to inspect and modify breakpoint definitions also when the debugger is not running. Breakpoints are highlighted in the editor windows and breakpoint definitions flow with the text as you edit. Your debug settings, such as watch properties, window layouts, and register groups will remain between your debug sessions. In addition to the features available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, the debugger environment consists of a set of C-SPY-specific items, such as a debugging toolbar, menus, windows, and dialog boxes. Reference information about each item specific to C-SPY can be found in the chapter C-SPY Debugger reference, page 313. For specific information about a C-SPY driver, see the part of the book corresponding to the driver. Setting up the IAR C-SPY Debugger Before you start the IAR C-SPY Debugger you should set options to set up the debugger system. These options are available on the Setup page of the Debugger category, available with the Project>Options command. On the Plugins page you can find options for loading plug-in modules. In addition to the options for setting up the debugger system, you can also set debugger-specific IDE options. These options are available with the Tools>Options command. For further information about these options, see Debugger page, page 297. For information about how to configure the debugger to reflect the target hardware, see Adapting C-SPY to target hardware, page 113. CHOOSING A DEBUG DRIVER Before starting C-SPY, you must choose a driver for the debugger system from the Driver drop-down list on the Setup page. If you choose a driver for a hardware debugger system, you also need to set hardware-specific options. For information about these options, see the chapter C-SPY FET-specific debugging and Part 7. Reference information. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 110 User Guide The IAR C-SPY Debugger Note: You can only choose a driver you have installed on your computer. EXECUTING FROM RESET Using the Run to option, you can specify a location you want C-SPY to run to when you start the debugger as well as after each reset. C-SPY will place a breakpoint at this location and all code up to this point will be executed prior to stopping at the location. The default location to run to is the main function. Type the name of the location if you want C-SPY to run to a different location. You can specify assembler labels or whatever can be evaluated to such, for instance function names. If you leave the check box empty, the program counter will then contain the regular hardware reset address at each reset. If there are no breakpoints available when C-SPY starts, a warning message appears notifying you that single stepping will be required and that this is time consuming. You can then continue execution in single step mode or stop at the first instruction. If you choose to stop at the first instruction, the debugger starts executing with the PC (program counter) at the default reset location instead of the location you typed in the Run to box. Note: This message will never be displayed in the C-SPY Simulator, where breakpoints are not limited. USING A SETUP MACRO FILE A setup macro file is a standard macro file that you choose to load automatically when C-SPY starts. You can define the setup macro file to perform actions according to your needs, by using setup macro functions and system macros. Thus, by loading a setup macro file you can initialize C-SPY to perform actions automatically. To register a setup macro file, select Use macro file and type the path and name of your setup macro file, for example Setup.mac. If you do not type a filename extension, the extension mac is assumed. A browse button is available for your convenience. For detailed information about setup macro files and functions, see The macro file, page 144. For an example about how to use a setup macro file, see the chapter Simulating an interrupt in Part 2. Tutorials. SELECTING A DEVICE DESCRIPTION FILE C-SPY handles several of the target-specific adaptations by using device description files. They contain device-specific information about for example, definitions of peripheral units and CPU registers, and groups of these. Part 4. Debugging 111 Starting the IAR C-SPY Debugger If you want to use the device-specific information provided in the device description file during your debug session, you must select the appropriate device description file. Device description files are provided in the 430\config directory and they have the filename extension ddf. By default, a suitable device description file is always selected. To load a different device description file, you must, before you start the C-SPY debugger, choose Project>Options and select the Debugger category. On the Setup page, enable the use of a description file and select a file using the Device description file browse button. For more information about device description files, see Adapting C-SPY to target hardware, page 113. For an example about how to use a setup macro file, see Simulating an interrupt in Part 2. Tutorials. LOADING PLUGIN MODULES On the Plugins page you can specify C-SPY plugin modules that are to be loaded and made available during debug sessions. Plugin modules can be provided by IAR, as well as by third-party suppliers. Contact your software distributor or IAR representative, or visit the IAR Systems web site, for information about available modules. For information about how to load plugin modules, see Plugins, page 396. The IAR C-SPY RTOS awareness plugin modules Provided that there is one or more real-time operating systems plugin modules supported for the IAR Embedded Workbench version you are using, you can load one for use with the IAR C-SPY Debugger. C-SPY RTOS awareness plugin modules give you a high level of control and visibility over an application built on top of a real-time operating system. It displays RTOS-specific items like task lists, queues, semaphores, mailboxes and various RTOS system variables. Task-specific breakpoints and task-specific stepping make it easier to debug tasks. A loaded plugin will add its own set of windows and buttons when a debug session is started (provided that the RTOS is linked with the application). For information about other RTOS awareness plugin modules, refer to the manufacturer of the plugin module. Starting the IAR C-SPY Debugger When you have setup the debugger, you can start it. To start the IAR C-SPY Debugger and load the current project, click the Debug button. Alternatively, choose the Project>Debug command. For information about how to execute your application and how to use the C-SPY features, see the remaining chapters in Part 4. Debugging. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 112 User Guide The IAR C-SPY Debugger Executable files built outside of the Embedded Workbench It is also possible to load C-SPY with a project that was built outside the Embedded Workbench, for example projects built on the command line. To be able to set C-SPY options for the externally built project, you must create a project within the Embedded Workbench. To load an externally built executable file, you must first create a project for it in your workspace. Choose Project>Create New Project, and specify a project name. To add the executable file to the project, choose Project>Add Files and make sure to choose All Files in the Files of type drop-down list. Locate the executable file (filename extension d43). To start the executable file, select the project in the Workspace window and click the Debug button. The project can be reused whenever you rebuild your executable file. The only project options that are meaningful to set for this kind of project are options in the General Options and Debugger categories. Make sure to set up the general project options in the same way as when the executable file was built. REDIRECTING DEBUGGER OUTPUT TO A FILE The Debug Log window--available from the View menu--displays debugger output, such as diagnostic messages and trace information. It can sometimes be convenient to log the information to a file where it can be easily inspected. The Log Files dialog box--available from the Debug menu--allows you to log output from C-SPY to a file. The two main advantages are: The file can be opened in another tool, for instance an editor, so you can navigate and search within the file for particularly interesting parts The file provides history about how you have controlled the execution, for instance, what breakpoints have been triggered etc. The information printed in the file is by default the same as the information listed in the Log window. However, you can choose what you want to log in the file: errors, warnings, system information, user messages, or all of these. For reference information about the Log File options, see Log File dialog box, page 340. Adapting C-SPY to target hardware This section describes how to configure the debugger to reflect the target hardware. The C-SPY device description file and its contents is described. DEVICE DESCRIPTION FILE C-SPY handles several of the target-specific adaptations by using device description files provided with the product. They contain device-specific information such as: Part 4. Debugging 113 Adapting C-SPY to target hardware Memory information for device-specific memory zones Definitions of memory-mapped peripheral units, device-specific CPU registers, and groups of these Definitions for interrupt simulation in the simulator. You can find device description files for each MSP430 device in the 430\config directory. For information about how to load a device description file, see Selecting a device description file, page 111. Memory zones Memory information for device-specific memory zones are defined in the device description files. By default there is only one address zone in the debugger, Memory. If you load a device description file, additional zones that adhere better to the specific device memory layout are defined. If your hardware does not have the same memory layout as any of the predefined device description files, you can define customized zones by adding them to the file. For further details about customizing the file, see Modifying a device description file, page 115. For information about memory zones, see Memory addressing, page 135. Registers For each device there is a hardwired group of CPU registers. Their contents can be displayed and edited in the Register window. Additional registers are defined in a specific register definition file--with the filename extension sfr--which is included from the register section of the device description file. These registers are the device-specific memory-mapped control and status registers for the peripheral units on the MSP430 microcontrollers. Due to the large amount of registers it is inconvenient to list all registers concurrently in the Register window. Instead the registers are divided into logical register groups. By default there is one register group in the MSP430 debugger, namely CPU Registers. For details about how to work with the Register window, view different register groups, and how to configure your own register groups to better suit the use of registers in your application, see the section Working with registers, page 138. Interrupts Device description files also contain a section that defines all device-specific interrupts, which makes it possible to simulate these interrupts in the C-SPY Simulator. You can read more about how to do this in Simulating interrupts, page 177. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 114 User Guide The IAR C-SPY Debugger Modifying a device description file There is normally no need to modify the device description file. However, if the predefinitions are not sufficient for some reason, you can edit the file. The syntax of the device descriptions is described in the files. Note, however, that the format of these descriptions might be updated in future upgrade versions of the product. Make a copy of the device description file that best suits your needs, and modify it according to the description in the file. Part 4. Debugging 115 Adapting C-SPY to target hardware MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 116 User Guide Executing your application The IAR C-SPY Debugger provides a flexible range of facilities for executing your application during debugging. This chapter contains information about: The conceptual differences between source mode and disassembly mode debugging Executing your application The call stack Handling terminal input and output. Source and disassembly mode debugging The IAR C-SPY Debugger allows you to switch seamlessly between source mode and disassembly mode debugging as required. Source debugging provides the fastest and easiest way of developing your application, without having to worry about how the compiler or assembler has implemented the code. In the editor windows you can execute the application one statement at a time while monitoring the values of variables and data structures. Disassembly mode debugging lets you focus on the critical sections of your application, and provides you with precise control over the hardware. You can open a disassembly window which displays a mnemonic assembler listing of your application based on actual memory contents rather than source code, and lets you execute the application exactly one instruction at a time. In Mixed-Mode display, the debugger also displays the corresponding C/C++ source code interleaved with the disassembly listing. Regardless of which mode you are debugging in, you can display registers and memory, and change their contents. For an example of a debug session both in C source mode and disassembly mode, see Debugging the application, page 37. Part 4. Debugging 117 Executing Executing The IAR C-SPY Debugger provides a flexible range of features for executing your application. You can find commands for executing on the Debug menu as well as on the toolbar. STEP C-SPY allows more stepping precision than most other debuggers in that it is not line-oriented but statement-oriented. The compiler generates detailed stepping information in the form of step points at each statement, as well as at each function call. That is, source code locations where you might consider whether to execute a step into or a step over command. Because the step points are located not only at each statement but also at each function call, the step functionality allows a finer granularity than just stepping on statements. There are four different step commands: Step Into Step Over Next Statement Step Out Consider this example and assume that the previous step has taken you to the f(i) function call (highlighted): int f(int n) { value = f(n-1) + f(n-2) + f(n-3); return value; } ... f(i); value ++; While stepping, you typically consider whether to step into a function and continue stepping inside the function or subroutine. The Step Into command takes you to the first step point within the subroutine, f(n-1): int f(int n) { value = f(n-1) + f(n-2) + f(n-3); return value; } ... f(i); value ++; The Step Into command executes to the next step point in the normal flow of control, regardless of whether it is in the same or another function. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 118 User Guide Executing your application The Step Over command executes to the next step point in the same function, without stopping inside called functions. The command would take you to the f(n-2) function call, which is not a statement on its own but part of the same statement as f(n-1). Thus, you can skip uninteresting calls which are parts of statements and instead focus on critical parts: int f(int n) { value = f(n-1) + f(n-2) + f(n-3); return value; } ... f(i); value ++; The Next Statement command executes directly to the next statement return value, allowing faster stepping: int f(int n) { value = f(n-1) + f(n-2) + f(n-3); return value; } ... f(i); value ++; When inside the function, you have the choice of stepping out of it before reaching the function exit, by using the Step Out command. This will take you directly to the statement immediately after the function call: int f(int n) { value = f(n-1) + f(n-2) f(n-3); return value; ... } ... f(i); value ++; The possibility of stepping into an individual function that is part of a more complex statement is particularly useful when you use C code containing many nested function calls. It is also very useful for Embedded C++, which tends to have many implicit function calls, such as constructors, destructors, assignment operators, and other user-defined operators. Part 4. Debugging 119 Executing This detailed stepping can in some circumstances be either invaluable or unnecessarily slow. For this reason, it is also possible to step only on statements, which means faster stepping. GO The Go command continues execution from the current position until a breakpoint or program exit is reached. RUN TO CURSOR The Run to Cursor command executes to the position in the source code where you have placed the cursor. The Run to Cursor command also works in the Disassembly window and in the Call Stack window. HIGHLIGHTING At each stop, C-SPY highlights the corresponding C or C++ source with a green color. For simple statements without function calls, the whole statement is typically highlighted. When stopping at a statement with function calls, C-SPY highlights the first call because this illustrates more clearly what Step Into and Step Over would mean at that time. Occasionally, you will notice that a statement in the source window is highlighted using a pale variant of the normal highlight color. This happens when the program counter is at an assembler instruction which is part of a source statement but not exactly at a step point. This is often the case when stepping in the Disassembly window. Only when the program counter is at the first instruction of the source statement, the ordinary highlight color is used. USING BREAKPOINTS TO STOP You can set breakpoints in the application to stop at locations of particular interest. These locations can be either at code sections where you want to investigate whether your program logic is correct, or at data accesses to investigate when and how the data is changed. Depending on which debugger system you are using you might also have access to additional types of breakpoints. For instance, if you are using C-SPY Simulator there is a special kind of breakpoint to facilitate simulation of simple hardware devices. See the chapter Simulator-specific debugging for further details. For a more advanced simulation, you can stop under certain conditions, which you specify. It is also possible to connect a C-SPY macro to the breakpoint. The macro can be defined to perform actions, which for instance can simulate specific hardware behavior. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 120 User Guide Executing your application All these possibilities provide you with a flexible tool for investigating the status of, for example, variables and registers at different stages during the application execution. For detailed information about the breakpoint system and how to use the different breakpoint types, see the chapter Using breakpoints. USING THE BREAK BUTTON TO STOP While your application is executing, the Break button on the debug toolbar is highlighted in red. You can stop the application execution by clicking the Break button, alternatively by choosing the Debug>Break command. STOP AT PROGRAM EXIT Typically, the execution of an embedded application is not intended to end, which means that the application will not make use of a traditional exit. However, there are situations where a controlled exit is necessary, such as during debug sessions. You can link your application with a special library that contains an exit label. A breakpoint will be automatically set on that label to stop execution when it gets there. Before you start C-SPY, choose Project>Options, and select the Linker category. On the Output page, select the option With runtime control modules (-r). Call stack information The MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler generates extensive backtrace information. This allows C-SPY to show, without any runtime penalty, the complete call chain at any time. Typically, this is useful for two purposes: Determining in what context the current function has been called Tracing the origin of incorrect values in variables and incorrect values in parameters, thus locating the function in the call chain where the problem occurred. The Call Stack window--available from the View menu--shows a list of function calls, with the current function at the top. When you inspect a function in the call chain, by double-clicking on any function call frame, the contents of all affected windows will be updated to display the state of that particular call frame. This includes the editor, Locals, Register, Watch and Disassembly windows. A function would normally not make use of all registers, so these registers might have undefined states and be displayed as dashes (---). For reference information about the Call Stack window, see Call Stack window, page 326. In the editor and Disassembly windows, a green highlight indicates the topmost, or current, call frame; a yellow highlight is used when inspecting other frames. Part 4. Debugging 121 Terminal input and output For your convenience, it is possible to select a function in the call stack and click the Run to Cursor command--available on the Debug menu, or alternatively on the context menu--to execute to that function. Assembler source code does not automatically contain any backtrace information. To be able to see the call chain also for your assembler modules, you can add the appropriate CFI assembler directives to the source code. For further information, see the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide. Terminal input and output Sometimes you might need to debug constructions in your application that use stdin and stdout without an actual hardware device for input and output. The Terminal I/O window--available on the View menu--lets you enter input to your application, and display output from it. This facility can be useful in two different contexts: If your application uses stdin and stdout For producing debug trace printouts. To use this window, you need to link your application with the option With I/O emulation modules. C-SPY will then direct stdin, stdout, and stderr to this window. For reference information, see Terminal I/O window, page 328. Directing stdin and stdout to a file You can also direct stdin and stdout directly to a file. You can then open the file in another tool, for instance an editor, to navigate and search within the file for particularly interesting parts. The Terminal I/O Log Files dialog box--available by choosing Debug>Logging--allows you to select a destination log file, and to log terminal I/O input and output from C-SPY to this file. For reference information, see Terminal I/O Log File dialog box, page 341. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 122 User Guide Working with variables and expressions This chapter defines the variables and expressions used in C-SPY. It also demonstrates the different methods for examining variables and expressions. C-SPY expressions C-SPY lets you examine the C variables, C expressions, and assembler symbols that you have defined in your application code. In addition, C-SPY allows you to define C-SPY macro variables and macro functions and use them when evaluating expressions. Expressions that are built with these components are called C-SPY expressions and there are several methods for monitoring these in C-SPY. C-SPY expressions can include any type of C expression, except function calls. The following types of symbols can be used in expressions: C/C++ symbols Assembler symbols (register names and assembler labels) C-SPY macro functions C-SPY macro variables Examples of valid C-SPY expressions are: i + j i = 42 #asm_label #R2 #PC my_macro_func(19) C SYMBOLS C symbols are symbols that you have defined in the C source code of your application, for instance variables, constants, and functions. C symbols can be referenced by their names. Using sizeof According to the ISO/ANSI C standard, there are two syntactical forms of sizeof: sizeof(type) sizeof expr Part 4. Debugging 123 C-SPY expressions The former is for types and the latter for expressions. In C-SPY, do not use parentheses around an expression when you use the sizeof operator. For example, use sizeof x+2 instead of sizeof (x+2). ASSEMBLER SYMBOLS Assembler symbols can be assembler labels or register names. That is, general purpose registers, such as R4R15, and special purpose registers, such as the program counter and the status register. If a device description file is used, all memory-mapped peripheral units, such as I/O ports, can also be used as assembler symbols in the same way as the CPU registers. See Device description file, page 113. Assembler symbols can be used in C-SPY expressions if they are prefixed by #. Example What it does #pc++ Increments the value of the program counter. myptr = #label7 Sets myptr to the integral address of label7 within its zone. Table 12: C-SPY assembler symbols expressions In case of a name conflict between a hardware register and an assembler label, hardware registers have a higher precedence. To refer to an assembler label in such a case, you must enclose the label in back quotes ` (ASCII character 0x60). For example: Example What it does #pc #`pc` Refers to the program counter. Refers to the assembler label pc. Table 13: Handling name conflicts between hardware registers and assembler labels Which processor-specific symbols are available by default can be seen in the Register window, using the CPU Registers register group. See Register groups, page 138. MACRO FUNCTIONS Macro functions consist of C-SPY variable definitions and macro statements which are executed when the macro is called. For details of C-SPY macro functions and how to use them, see The macro language, page 144. MACRO VARIABLES Macro variables are defined and allocated outside your application, and can be used in a C-SPY expression. In case of a name conflict between a C symbol and a C-SPY macro variable, the C-SPY macro variable will have a higher precedence than the C variable. Assignments to a macro variable assigns both its value and type. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 124 User Guide Working with variables and expressions For details of C-SPY macro variables and how to use them, see The macro language, page 397. Limitations on variable information The value of a C variable is valid only on step points, that is, the first instruction of a statement and on function calls. This is indicated in the editor window with a bright green highlight color. In practice the value of the variable is accessible and correct more often than that. When the program counter is inside a statement, but not at a step point, the statement or part of the statement is highlighted with a pale variant of the ordinary highlight color. EFFECTS OF OPTIMIZATIONS The compiler is free to optimize the application software as much as possible, as long as the expected behavior remains. Depending on your project settings, a high level of optimization results in smaller or faster code, but also in increased compile time. Debugging might be more difficult because it will be less clear how the generated code relates to the source code. Typically, using a high optimization level can affect the code in a way that will not allow you to view a value of a variable as expected. Consider this example: foo() { int i = 42; ... x = bar(i); //Not until here the value of i is known to C-SPY ... } From the point where the variable i is declared until it is actually used there is no need for the compiler to waste stack or register space on it. The compiler can optimize the code, which means C-SPY will not be able to display the value until it is actually used. If you try to view a value of a variable that is temporarily unavailable, C-SPY will display the text: Unavailable If you need full information about values of variables during your debugging session, you should make sure to use the lowest optimization level during compilation, that is, None. Part 4. Debugging 125 Viewing variables and expressions Viewing variables and expressions There are several methods for looking at variables and calculating their values: Tooltip watch provides the simplest way of viewing the value of a variable or more complex expressions. Just point at the variable with the pointer. The value will be displayed next to the variable. The Auto window--available from the View menu--automatically displays a useful selection of variables and expressions in, or near, the current statement. The Locals window--available from the View menu--automatically displays the local variables, that is, auto variables and function parameters for the active function. The Watch window--available from the View menu--allows you to monitor the values of C-SPY expressions and variables. The Live Watch window--available from the View menu--repeatedly samples and displays the value of expressions while your application is executing. Variables in the expressions must be statically located, such as global variables. The Quick Watch window, see Using the Quick Watch window, page 126. The Trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. For reference information about the different windows, see C-SPY windows, page 313. WORKING WITH THE WINDOWS All the windows are easy to use. You can add, modify, and remove expressions, and change the display format. A context menu containing useful commands is available in all windows if you right-click in each window. Convenient drag-and-drop between windows is supported, except for in the Locals window and the Quick Watch window where it is not applicable. To add a value you can also click in the dotted rectangle and type the expression you want to examine. To modify the value of an expression, click in the Value field and modify its content. To remove an expression, select it and press the Delete key. Using the Quick Watch window The Quick Watch window--available from the View menu--lets you watch the value of a variable or expression and evaluate expressions. The Quick Watch window is different from the Watch window in the following ways: The Quick Watch window offers a fast method for inspecting and evaluating expressions. Right-click on the expression you want to examine and choose Quick Watch from the context menu that appears. The expression will automatically appear in the Quick Watch window. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 126 User Guide Working with variables and expressions In contrast to the Watch window, the Quick Watch window gives you precise control over when to evaluate the expression. For single variables this might not be necessary, but for expressions with side effects, such as assignments and C-SPY macro functions, it allows you to perform evaluations under controlled conditions. USING THE TRACE SYSTEM A trace is a recorded sequence of events in the target system, typically executed machine instructions. Depending on what C-SPY driver you are using, additional types of trace data can be recorded. For example, read and write accesses to memory, as well as the values of C-SPY expressions. By using the trace system, you can trace the program flow up to a specific state, for instance an application crash, and use the trace information to locate the origin of the problem. Trace information can be useful for locating programming errors that have irregular symptoms and occur sporadically. Trace information can also be useful as test documentation. You can save the trace information to a file to be analyzed later. The trace system is only supported by the simulator driver and not by the FET debugger driver. For detailed information about the trace system and the components provided by the simulator, see Simulator-specific debugging, page 159. The Trace window and its browse mode The type of information that is displayed in the Trace window depends on the C-SPY driver you are using. The different trace data is displayed in separate columns, but the Trace column is always available regardless of what driver you are using. The corresponding source code can also be shown. You can follow the execution history by simply looking and scrolling in the Trace window. Alternatively, you can enter browse mode. To enter browse mode, double-click an item in the Trace window, or click the Browse toolbar button. The selected item turns yellow and the source and disassembly windows will highlight the corresponding location. You can now move around in the Trace window by using the up and down arrow keys, or by scrolling and clicking; the source and Disassembly windows will be updated to show the corresponding location. Double-click again to leave browse mode. Searching in the trace data You can perform advanced searches in the recorded trace data. You specify the search criteria in the Find in Trace dialog box and view the result in the Find in Trace window. The Find in Trace window is very similar to the Trace window, showing the same columns and data, but only those rows that match the specified search criteria. Double-clicking an item in the Find in Trace window brings up the same item in the Trace window. Part 4. Debugging 127 Viewing variables and expressions VIEWING ASSEMBLER VARIABLES An assembler label does not convey any type information at all, which means C-SPY cannot easily display data located at that label without getting extra information. To view data conveniently, C-SPY treats, by default, all data located at assembler labels as variables of type int. However, in the Watch, Quick Watch, and Live Watch windows, you can select a different interpretation to better suit the declaration of the variables. In this figure, you can see four variables in the Watch window and their corresponding declarations in the assembler source file to the left: Figure 45: Viewing assembler variables in the Watch window Note that asmvar4 is displayed as an int, although the original assembler declaration probably intended for it to be a single byte quantity. From the context menu you can make C-SPY display the variable as, for example, an 8-bit unsigned variable. This has already been specified for the asmvar3 variable. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 128 User Guide Using breakpoints This chapter describes the breakpoint system and different ways to create and monitor breakpoints. The breakpoint system The C-SPY breakpoint system lets you set various kinds of breakpoints in the application you are debugging, allowing you to stop at locations of particular interest. You can set a breakpoint at a code location to investigate whether your program logic is correct, or to get trace printouts. In addition to code breakpoints, and depending on what C-SPY driver you are using, additional breakpoint types might be available. For example, you might be able to set a data breakpoint, to investigate how and when the data changes. If you are using the simulator driver you can also set immediate breakpoints. All your breakpoints are listed in the Breakpoints window where you can conveniently monitor, enable, and disable them. For a more advanced simulation, you can stop under certain conditions, which you specify. It is also possible to let the breakpoint trigger a side effect, for instance executing a C-SPY macro function, without stopping the execution. The macro function can be defined to perform a wide variety of actions, for instance, simulating hardware behavior. You can set breakpoints while you edit your code even if no debug session is active. The breakpoints will then be validated when the debug session starts. Breakpoints are preserved between debug sessions. C-SPY provides different ways of defining breakpoints. All these possibilities provide you with a flexible tool for investigating the status of your application. Defining breakpoints The breakpoints you define will appear in the Breakpoints window. From this window you can conveniently view all breakpoints, enable and disable breakpoints, and open a dialog box for defining new breakpoints. For more details, see Breakpoints window, page 255. Breakpoints are set with a higher precision than single lines, in analogy with the step mechanism; for more details about the step precision, see Step, page 118. Part 4. Debugging 129 Defining breakpoints You can set a breakpoint in several different ways: using the Toggle Breakpoint command, from the Memory window, from a dialog box, or using predefined system macros. The different methods allow different levels of complexity and automation. TOGGLING A SIMPLE CODE BREAKPOINT Toggling a code breakpoint is a quick method of setting a breakpoint. The following methods are available, either in the editor window, the Disassembly window, or both: Double-click in the gray left-side margin of the editor window Place the insertion point in the C source statement or assembler instruction where you want the breakpoint, and click the Toggle Breakpoint button in the toolbar Choose Edit>Toggle Breakpoint Right-click and choose Toggle Breakpoint from the context menu. The breakpoint is marked with a red X in the left margin of the editor window: Figure 46: Breakpoint on a function call If the red X does not appear, make sure the option Show bookmarks is selected, see Editor page, page 291. SETTING A BREAKPOINT IN THE MEMORY WINDOW For information about how to set breakpoints using the Memory window, see Setting a breakpoint in the Memory window, page 137. DEFINING BREAKPOINTS USING THE DIALOG BOX The advantage of using the dialog box is that it provides you with a graphical interface where you can interactively fine tune the characteristics of the breakpoints. You can set the options and quickly test whether the breakpoint works according to your intentions. To define a new breakpoint: 1 Choose View>Breakpoints to open the Breakpoints window. 2 In the Breakpoints window, right-click to open the context menu. 3 On the context menu, choose New Breakpoint. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 130 User Guide Using breakpoints 4 On the submenu, choose the breakpoint type you want to set. Depending on the C-SPY driver you are using, different breakpoint types might be available. To modify an existing breakpoint: 1 Choose View>Breakpoints to open the Breakpoints window. 2 In the Breakpoints window, select the breakpoint you want to modify and right-click to open the context menu. 3 On the context menu, choose Edit. A breakpoint dialog box appears. Specify the breakpoint settings and click OK. The breakpoint will be displayed in the Breakpoints window. All breakpoints you define using a breakpoint dialog box are preserved between debug sessions. For reference information about code and log breakpoints, see Code breakpoints dialog box, page 256 and Log breakpoints dialog box, page 258, respectively. For details about any additional breakpoint types, see the driver-specific documentation. Tracing incorrect function arguments If a function with a pointer argument is sometimes incorrectly called with a NULL argument, it is useful to put a breakpoint on the first line of the function with a condition that is true only when the parameter is 0. The breakpoint will then not be triggered until the problematic situation actually occurs. Performing a task with or without stopping execution You can perform a task when a breakpoint is triggered with or without stopping the execution. You can use the Action text box to associate an action with the breakpoint, for instance a C-SPY macro function. When the breakpoint is triggered and the execution of your application has stopped, the macro function will be executed. If you instead want to perform a task without stopping the execution, you can set a condition which returns 0 (false). When the breakpoint is triggered, the condition will be evaluated and since it is not true execution will continue. Consider the following example where the C-SPY macro function performs a simple task: __var my_counter; count() { my_counter += 1; Part 4. Debugging 131 Viewing all breakpoints return 0; } To use this function as a condition for the breakpoint, type count() in the Expression text box under Conditions. The task will then be performed when the breakpoint is triggered. Because the macro function count returns 0, the condition is false and the execution of the program will resume automatically, without any stop. DEFINING BREAKPOINTS USING SYSTEM MACROS You can define breakpoints not only by using the Breakpoints dialog box but also by using built-in C-SPY system macros. When you use macros for defining breakpoints, the breakpoint characteristics are specified as function parameters. Macros are useful when you have already specified your breakpoints so that they fully meet your requirements. You can define your breakpoints in a macro file by using built-in system macros and execute the file at C-SPY startup. The breakpoints will then be set automatically each time you start C-SPY. Another advantage is that the debug session will be documented, and that several engineers involved in the development project can share the macro files. If you use system macros for setting breakpoints it is still possible to view and modify them in the Breakpoints window. In contrast to using the dialog box for defining breakpoints, all breakpoints that are defined using system macros will be removed when you exit the debug session. The following breakpoint macros are available: __setCodeBreak __setDataBreak __setSimBreak __clearBreak For details of each breakpoint macro, see the chapter C-SPY macros reference. Defining breakpoints at C-SPY startup using a setup macro file You can use a setup macro file to define breakpoints at C-SPY startup. Follow the procedure described in Registering and executing using setup macros and setup files, page 147. Viewing all breakpoints To view breakpoints, you can use the Breakpoints window and the Breakpoints Usage dialog box. For information about the Breakpoints window, see Breakpoints window, page 255. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 132 User Guide Using breakpoints USING THE BREAKPOINT USAGE DIALOG BOX The Breakpoint Usage dialog box--available from C-SPY driver-specific menus, for example the Simulator menu--lists all active breakpoints. Figure 47: Breakpoint Usage dialog box The Breakpoint Usage dialog box lists all breakpoints currently set in the target system, both the ones you have defined and the ones used internally by C-SPY. For each breakpoint in the list, the address and access type are shown. Each breakpoint can also be expanded to show its originator. The format of the items in this dialog box depends on which C-SPY driver you are using. The dialog box gives a low-level view of all breakpoints, related but not identical to the list of breakpoints shown in the Breakpoints dialog box. Exceeding the number of available low-level breakpoints will cause the debugger to single step. This will significantly reduce the execution speed. Therefore, in a debugger system with a limited amount of breakpoints, the Breakpoint Usage dialog box can be useful for: Identifying all consumers of breakpoints Checking that the number of active breakpoints is supported by the target system Configuring the debugger to utilize the available breakpoints in a better way, if possible. For information about the available number of breakpoints in the debugger system you are using and how to use the available breakpoints in a better way, see the section about breakpoints in the part of this book that corresponds to the debugger system you are using. Part 4. Debugging 133 Viewing all breakpoints Breakpoint consumers There are several consumers of breakpoints in a debugger system. User breakpoints--the breakpoints you define by using the Breakpoints dialog box or by toggling breakpoints in the editor window--often consume one low-level breakpoint each, but this can vary greatly. Some user breakpoints consume several low-level breakpoints and conversely, several user breakpoints can share one low-level breakpoint. User breakpoints are displayed in the same way both in the Breakpoint Usage dialog box and in the Breakpoints dialog box, for example Data @[R] callCount. C-SPY itself also consumes breakpoints. C-SPY will set a breakpoint if: the C-SPY option Run to has been selected, and any step command is used. These are temporary breakpoints which are only set when the debugger system is running. This means that they are not visible in the Breakpoint Usage window. the linker options With I/O emulation modules has been selected. These types of breakpoint consumers are displayed in the Breakpoint Usage dialog box, for example, C-SPY Terminal I/O & libsupport module. In addition, C-SPY plugin modules, for example modules for real-time operating systems, can consume additional breakpoints. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 134 User Guide Monitoring memory and registers This chapter describes how to use the features available in the IAR C-SPY Debugger for examining memory and registers: The Memory window The Register window Predefined and user-defined register groups The Stack window. Memory addressing In C-SPY, the term zone is used for a named memory area. A memory address, or location, is a combination of a zone and a numerical offset into that zone. The MSP430 architecture has only one zone, Memory, which covers the whole MSP430 memory range. If you load a device description file, additional zones that adhere better to the specific device memory layout are defined. 0x0000 0x0000 0x0200 RAM 0x0A00 0x1100 Flash 0xFFFF Default zone Memory Figure 48: Zones in C-SPY SFR 0xFFFF Additional zones for MSP430F149 Part 4. Debugging 135 Using the Memory window Memory zones are used in several contexts, perhaps most importantly in the Memory and Disassembly windows. The Zone box in these windows allows you to choose which memory zone to display. Memory zones are defined in the device description files. For further information, see Device description file, page 113. Using the Memory window The Memory window--available from the View menu--gives an up-to-date display of a specified area of memory and allows you to edit it. You can open several instances of this window, which is very convenient if you want to monitor different memory or register areas. Zone display Go to memory address Figure 49: Memory window The window consists of three columns. The left-most part displays the addresses currently being viewed. The middle part of the window displays the memory contents in the format you have chosen. Finally, the right-most part displays the memory contents in ASCII format. You can edit the contents of the Memory window, both in the hexadecimal part and the ASCII part of the window. You can easily view the memory contents for a specific variable by dragging the variable to the Memory window. The memory area where the variable is located will appear. Memory window operations At the top of the window there are commands for navigation and configuration. These commands are also available on the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Memory window. In addition, commands for editing, opening the Fill dialog box, and setting breakpoints are available. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 136 User Guide Monitoring memory and registers For reference information about each command, see Memory window, page 318. Memory Fill The Fill dialog box allows you to fill a specified area of memory with a value. Figure 50: Memory Fill dialog box For reference information about the dialog box, see Fill dialog box, page 320. Setting a breakpoint in the Memory window It is possible to set breakpoints directly on a memory location in the Memory window. Right-click in the window and choose the breakpoint command from the context menu that appears. To set the breakpoint on a range, select a portion of the memory contents. The breakpoint is not highlighted; you can see, edit, and remove it by using the Breakpoints window, which is available from the View menu. The breakpoints you set in this window will be triggered for both read and write access. All breakpoints defined in the Memory window are preserved between debug sessions. Note: Setting different types of breakpoints in the Memory window is only supported if the driver you use supports these types of breakpoints. Part 4. Debugging 137 Working with registers Working with registers The Register window--available from the View menu--gives an up-to-date display of the contents of the processor registers, and allows you to edit them. Figure 51: Register window Every time C-SPY stops, a value that has changed since the last stop is highlighted. To edit the contents of a register, click it, and modify the value. Some registers are expandable, which means that the register contains interesting bits or subgroups of bits. You can change the display format by changing the Base setting on the Register Filter page--available by choosing Tools>Options. REGISTER GROUPS Due to the large amount of registers--memory-mapped peripheral unit registers and CPU registers--it is inconvenient to list all registers concurrently in the Register window. Instead you can divide registers into register groups. By default there is only one register group in the debugger: CPU Registers. In addition to the CPU Registers there are additional register groups predefined in the device description files--available in the 430\config directory--that make all SFR registers available in the register window. The device description file contains a section that defines the special function registers and their groups. You can select which register group to display in the Register window using the drop-down list. You can conveniently keep track of different register groups simultaneously, as you can open several instances of the Register window. Enabling predefined register groups To use any of the predefined register groups, select a device description file that suits your device, see Selecting a device description file, page 111. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 138 User Guide Monitoring memory and registers The available register groups will be listed on the Register Filter page available if you choose the Tools>Options command when C-SPY is running. Defining application-specific groups In addition to the predefined register groups, you can design your own register groups that better suit the use of registers in your application. To define new register groups, choose Tools>Options and click the Register Filter tab. This page is only available when the IAR C-SPY Debugger is running. Figure 52: Register Filter page For reference information about this dialog box, see Register Filter page, page 298. Part 4. Debugging 139 Using the Stack window Using the Stack window The Stack window is a memory window that displays the contents of the stack. In addition, some integrity checks of the stack can be performed to detect and warn about problems with stack overflow. For example, the Stack window is useful for determining the optimal size of the stack. Before you can open the Stack window you must make sure it is enabled; Choose Project>Options>Debugger>Plugins and select Stack from the list of plugins. In C-SPY, you can then open a Stack window by choosing View>Stack. You can open several Stack windows, each showing a different stack--if several stacks are available--or the same stack with different display settings. Stack view Current stack pointer Used stack memory, in dark gray Unused stack memory, in light gray The graphical stack bar Current stack pointer Figure 53: Stack window For detailed reference information about the Stack window, and the method used for computing the stack usage and its limitations, see Stack window, page 332. For reference information about the options specific to the window, see Stack page, page 301. GRAPHICAL STACK DISPLAY At the top of the window, a stack bar displays the state of the stack graphically. To view the stack bar you must make sure it is enabled: choose Tools>Options>Stack and select the option Enable stack checks. The left end of the stack bar represents the bottom of the stack, in other words, the position of the stack pointer when the stack is empty. The right end represents the end of the memory space reserved for the stack. A green line represents the current value of the stack pointer. The part of the stack memory that has been used during execution is displayed in a dark-gray color, and the unused part in a light-gray color. The graphical stack bar turns red when the stack usage exceeds a threshold that you can specify. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 140 User Guide Monitoring memory and registers Place the mouse pointer over the stack bar to get tool tip information about stack usage. DETECTING STACK OVERFLOWS If you have selected the option Enable stack checks, available by choosing Tools>Options>Stack, you have also enabled the functionality needed to detect stack overflows. This means that C-SPY can issue warnings for stack overflow when the application stops executing. Warnings are issued either when the stack usage exceeds a threshold that you can specify, or when the stack pointer is outside the stack memory range. VIEWING THE STACK CONTENTS The main part of the Stack window displays the contents of the stack, which can be useful in many contexts. Some examples are: Investigating the stack usage when assembler modules are called from C modules and vice versa Investigating whether the correct elements are located on the stack Investigating whether the stack is restored properly. Part 4. Debugging 141 Using the Stack window MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 142 User Guide Using the C-SPY macro system The IAR C-SPY Debugger includes a comprehensive macro system which allows you to automate the debugging process and to simulate peripheral devices. Macros can be used in conjunction with complex breakpoints and interrupt simulation to perform a wide variety of tasks. This chapter describes the macro system, its features, for what purpose these features can be used, and how to use them. The macro system C-SPY macros can be used solely or in conjunction with complex breakpoints and interrupt simulation to perform a wide variety of tasks. Some examples where macros can be useful: Automating the debug session, for instance with trace printouts, printing values of variables, and setting breakpoints. Hardware configuring, such as initializing hardware registers. Developing small debug utility functions, for instance calculating the stack depth. Simulating peripheral devices, see the chapter Simulating interrupts. This only applies if you are using the simulator driver. The macro system has several features: The similarity between the macro language and the C language, which lets you write your own macro functions. Predefined system macros which perform useful tasks such as opening and closing files, setting breakpoints and defining simulated interrupts. Reserved setup macro functions which can be used for defining at which stage the macro function should be executed. You define the function yourself, in a setup macro file. The option of collecting your macro functions in one or several macro files. A dialog box where you can view, register, and edit your macro functions and files. Alternatively, you can register and execute your macro files and functions using either the setup functionality or system macros. Part 4. Debugging 143 The macro system Many C-SPY tasks can be performed either by using a dialog box or by using macro functions. The advantage of using a dialog box is that it provides you with a graphical interface where you can interactively fine-tune the characteristics of the task you want to perform, for instance setting a breakpoint. You can add parameters and quickly test whether the breakpoint works according to your intentions. Macros, on the other hand, are useful when you already have specified your breakpoints so that they fully meet your requirements. You can set up your simulator environment automatically by writing a macro file and executing it, for instance when you start C-SPY. Another advantage is that the debug session will be documented, and if there are several engineers involved in the development project you can share the macro files within the group. THE MACRO LANGUAGE The syntax of the macro language is very similar to the C language. There are macro statements, which are similar to C statements. You can define macro functions, with or without parameters and return values. You can use built-in system macros, similar to C library functions. Finally, you can define global and local macro variables. For a detailed description of the macro language components, see The macro language, page 397. Example Consider this example of a macro function which illustrates the different components of the macro language: CheckLatest(value) { oldvalue; if (oldvalue != value) { __message "Message: Changed from ", oldvalue, " to ", value; oldvalue = value; } } Note: Reserved macro words begin with double underscores to prevent name conflicts. THE MACRO FILE You collect your macro variables and functions in one or several macro files. To define a macro variable or macro function, first create a text file containing the definition. You can use any suitable text editor, such as the editor supplied with IAR Embedded Workbench. Save the file with a suitable name using the filename extension mac. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 144 User Guide Using the C-SPY macro system Setup macro file It is possible to load a macro file at C-SPY startup; such a file is called a setup macro file. This is especially convenient if you want to make C-SPY perform actions before you load your application software, for instance to initialize some CPU registers or memory-mapped peripheral units. Other reasons might be if you want to automate the initialization of C-SPY, or if you want to register multiple setup macro files. An example of a C-SPY setup macro file SetupSimple.mac can be found in the 430\tutor directory. For information about how to load a setup macro file, see Registering and executing using setup macros and setup files, page 147. For an example of how to use setup macro files, see the chapter Simulating an interrupt in Part 2. Tutorials. SETUP MACRO FUNCTIONS The setup macro functions are reserved macro function names that will be called by C-SPY at specific stages during execution. The stages to choose between are: After communication with the target system has been established but before downloading the application software Once after your application software has been downloaded Each time the reset command is issued Once when the debug session ends. To define a macro function to be called at a specific stage, you should define and register a macro function with the name of a setup macro function. For instance, if you want to clear a specific memory area before you load your application software, the macro setup function execUserPreload is suitable. This function is also suitable if you want to initialize some CPU registers or memory mapped peripheral units before you load your application software. For detailed information about each setup macro function, see Setup macro functions summary, page 402. As with any macro function, you collect your setup macro functions in a macro file. Because many of the setup macro functions execute before main is reached, you should define these functions in a setup macro file. Using C-SPY macros If you decide to use C-SPY macros, you first need to create a macro file in which you define your macro functions. C-SPY needs to know that you intend to use your defined macro functions, and thus you must register (load) your macro file. During the debug session you might need to list all available macro functions as well as execute them. Part 4. Debugging 145 Using C-SPY macros To list the registered macro functions, you can use the Macro Configuration dialog box. There are various ways to both register and execute macro functions: You can register a macro interactively by using the Macro Configuration dialog box. You can register and execute macro functions at the C-SPY startup sequence by defining setup macro functions in a setup macro file. A file containing macro function definitions can be registered using the system macro __ registerMacroFile. This means that you can dynamically select which macro files to register, depending on the runtime conditions. Using the system macro also lets you register multiple files at the same moment. For details about the system macro, see __registerMacroFile, page 412. The Quick Watch window lets you evaluate expressions, and can thus be used for executing macro functions. A macro can be connected to a breakpoint; when the breakpoint is triggered the macro will be executed. USING THE MACRO CONFIGURATION DIALOG BOX The Macro Configuration dialog box--available by choosing Debug>Macros--lets you list, register, and edit your macro files and functions. The dialog box offers you an interactive interface for registering your macro functions which is convenient when you develop macro functions and continuously want to load and test them. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 146 User Guide Using the C-SPY macro system Macro functions that have been registered using the dialog box will be deactivated when you exit the debug session, and will not automatically be registered at the next debug session. Figure 54: Macro Configuration dialog box For reference information about this dialog box, see Macro Configuration dialog box, page 338. REGISTERING AND EXECUTING USING SETUP MACROS AND SETUP FILES It can be convenient to register a macro file during the C-SPY startup sequence, especially if you have several ready-made macro functions. C-SPY can then execute the macros before main is reached. You achieve this by specifying a macro file which you load before starting the debugger. Your macro functions will be automatically registered each time you start the C-SPY Debugger. If you define the macro functions by using the setup macro function names you can define exactly at which stage you want the macro function to be executed. Part 4. Debugging 147 Using C-SPY macros Follow these steps: 1 Create a new text file where you can define your macro function. For example: execUserSetup() { ... _ _registerMacroFile(MyMacroUtils.mac); _ _registerMacroFile(MyDeviceSimulation.mac); } This macro function registers the macro files MyMacroUtils.mac and MyDeviceSimulation.mac. Because the macro function is defined with the execUserSetup function name, it will be executed directly after your application has been downloaded. 2 Save the file using the filename extension mac. 3 Before you start C-SPY, choose Project>Options and click the Setup tab in the Debugger category. Select the check box Use Setup file and choose the macro file you just created. The interrupt macro will now be loaded during the C-SPY startup sequence. EXECUTING MACROS USING QUICK WATCH The Quick Watch window--available from the View menu--lets you watch the value of any variables or expressions and evaluate them. For macros, the Quick Watch window is especially useful because it is a method which lets you dynamically choose when to execute a macro function. Consider the following simple macro function which checks the status of a watchdog timer interrupt enable bit: WDTstatus() { if (#IE1 & 0x01 != 0) /* Checks the status of WDTIE */ return "Timer enabled"; /* C-SPY macro string used */ else return "Timer disabled"; /* C-SPY macro string used */ } 1 Save the macro function using the filename extension mac. Keep the file open. 2 To register the macro file, choose Debug>Macros. The Macro Configuration dialog box appears. Locate the file, click Add and then Register. The macro function appears in the list of registered macros. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 148 User Guide Using the C-SPY macro system 3 In the macro file editor window, select the macro function name WDTstatus. Right-click, and choose Quick Watch from the context menu that appears. Figure 55: Quick Watch window The macro will automatically be displayed in the Quick Watch window. Click Close to close the window. EXECUTING A MACRO BY CONNECTING IT TO A BREAKPOINT You can connect a macro to a breakpoint. The macro will then be executed at the time when the breakpoint is triggered. The advantage is that you can stop the execution at locations of particular interest and perform specific actions there. For instance, you can easily produce log reports containing information such as how the values of variables, symbols, or registers changes. To do this you might set a breakpoint on a suspicious location and connect a log macro to the breakpoint. After the execution you can study how the values of the registers have changed. For an example of how to create a log macro and connect it to a breakpoint, follow these steps: 1 Assume this skeleton of a C function in your application source code: int fact(int x) { ... } 2 Create a simple log macro function like this example: logfact() { __message "fact(" ,x, ")"; } The __message statement will log messages to the Log window. Save the macro function in a macro file, with the filename extension mac. Part 4. Debugging 149 Using C-SPY macros 3 Before you can execute the macro it must be registered. Open the Macro Configuration dialog box--available by choosing Debug>Macros--and add your macro file to the list Selected Macro Files. Click Register and your macro function will appear in the list Registered Macros. Close the dialog box. 4 Next, you should toggle a code breakpoint--using the Toggle Breakpoint button--on the first statement within the function fact in your application source code. Open the Breakpoint dialog box--available by choosing Edit>Breakpoints--your breakpoint will appear in the list of breakpoints at the bottom of the dialog box. Select the breakpoint. 5 Connect the log macro function to the breakpoint by typing the name of the macro function, logfact(), in the Action field and clicking Apply. Close the dialog box. 6 Now you can execute your application source code. When the breakpoint has been triggered, the macro function will be executed. You can see the result in the Log window. You can easily enhance the log macro function by, for instance, using the __fmessage statement instead, which will print the log information to a file. For information about the __fmessage statement, see Formatted output, page 400. For a complete example where a serial port input buffer is simulated using the method of connecting a macro to a breakpoint, see the chapter Simulating an interrupt in Part 2. Tutorials. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 150 User Guide Analyzing your application It is important to locate an application's bottle-necks and to verify that all parts of an application have been tested. This chapter presents facilities available in the IAR C-SPY Debugger for analyzing your application so that you can efficiently spend time and effort on optimizations. Code coverage is only supported by the IAR C-SPY Simulator. Function-level profiling The profiler will help you find the functions where most time is spent during execution, for a given stimulus. Those functions are the parts you should focus on when spending time and effort on optimizing your code. A simple method of optimizing a function is to compile it using speed optimization. Alternatively, you can move the function into memory which uses the most efficient addressing mode. For detailed information about efficient memory usage, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. The Profiling window displays profiling information, that is, timing information for the functions in an application. Profiling must be turned on explicitly using a button on the window's toolbar, and will stay active until it is turned off. The profiler measures the time between the entry and return of a function. This means that time consumed in a function is not added until the function returns or another function is called. You will only notice this if you are stepping into a function. For reference information about the Profiling window, see Profiling window, page 330. USING THE PROFILER Before you can use the Profiling window, you must build your application using the following options: Category Setting C/C++ Compiler Linker Debugger Output>Generate debug information Format>Debug information for C-SPY Plugins>Profiling Table 14: Project options for enabling profiling 1 After you have built your application and started C-SPY, choose View>Profiling to open the window, and click the Activate button to turn on the profiler. Part 4. Debugging 151 Function-level profiling 2 Click the Clear button, alternatively use the context menu available by right-clicking in the window, when you want to start a new sampling. 3 Start the execution. When the execution stops, for instance because the program exit is reached or a breakpoint is triggered, click the Refresh button. Figure 56: Profiling window Profiling information is displayed in the window. Viewing the figures Clicking on a column header sorts the complete list according to that column. A dimmed item in the list indicates that the function has been called by a function which does not contain source code (compiled without debug information). When a function is called by functions that do not have their source code available, such as library functions, no measurement in time is made. There is always an item in the list called Outside main. This is time that cannot be placed in any of the functions in the list. That is, code compiled without debug information, for instance, all startup and exit code, and C/C++ library code. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 152 User Guide Analyzing your application Clicking the Graph button toggles the percentage columns to be displayed either as numbers or as bar charts. Figure 57: Graphs in Profiling window Clicking the Show details button displays more detailed information about the function selected in the list. A window is opened showing information about callers and callees for the selected function: Figure 58: Function details window Producing reports To produce a report, right-click in the window and choose the Save As command on the context menu. The contents of the Profiling window will be saved to a file. Part 4. Debugging 153 Code coverage Code coverage The code coverage functionality helps you verify whether all parts of your code have been executed. This is useful when you design your test procedure to make sure that all parts of the code have been executed. It also helps you identify parts of your code that are not reachable. USING CODE COVERAGE The Code Coverage window--available from the View menu--reports the status of the current code coverage analysis, that is, what parts of the code have been executed at least once since the start of the analysis. The compiler generates detailed stepping information in the form of step points at each statement, as well as at each function call. The report includes information about all modules and functions. It reports the amount of all step points, in percentage, that have been executed and lists all step points that have not been executed up to the point where the application has been stopped. The coverage will continue until turned off. For reference information about the Code Coverage window, see Code Coverage window, page 329. Before using the Code Coverage window you must build your application using the following options: Category Setting C/C++ Compiler Linker Debugger Output>Generate debug information Format>Debug information for C-SPY Plugins>Code Coverage Table 15: Project options for enabling code coverage MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 154 User Guide Analyzing your application After you have built your application and started C-SPY, choose View>Code Coverage to open the Code Coverage window and click Activate to switch on the code coverage analyzer. The following window will be displayed: Figure 59: Code Coverage window Viewing the figures The code coverage information is displayed in a tree structure, showing the program, module, function and step point levels. The plus sign and minus sign icons allow you to expand and collapse the structure. The following icons are used to give you an overview of the current status on all levels: A red diamond signifies that 0% of the code has been executed A green diamond signifies that 100% of the code has been executed A red and green diamond signifies that some of the code has been executed A yellow diamond signifies a step point that has not been executed. The percentage displayed at the end of every program, module and function line shows the amount of code that has been covered so far, that is, the number of executed step points divided with the total number of step points. For step point lines, the information displayed is the column number range and the row number of the step point in the source window, followed by the address of the step point. <column start>-<column end>:row. A step point is considered to be executed when one of its instructions has been executed. When a step point has been executed, it is removed from the window. Part 4. Debugging 155 Code coverage Double-clicking a step point or a function in the Code Coverage window displays that step point or function as the current position in the source window, which becomes the active window. Double-clicking a module on the program level expands or collapses the tree structure. An asterisk (*) in the title bar indicates that C-SPY has continued to execute, and that the Code Coverage window needs to be refreshed because the displayed information is no longer up to date. To update the information, use the Refresh command. What parts of the code are displayed? The window displays only statements that have been compiled with debug information. Thus, startup code, exit code and library code will not be displayed in the window. Furthermore, coverage information for statements in inlined functions will not be displayed. Only the statement containing the inlined function call will be marked as executed. Producing reports To produce a report, right-click in the window and choose the Save As command on the context menu. The contents of the Code Coverage window will be saved to a file. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 156 User Guide Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide contains the following chapters: Simulator-specific debugging Simulating interrupts. 157 158 Simulator-specific debugging In addition to the general C-SPY features, the C-SPY Simulator provides some simulator-specific features, which are described in this chapter. You will get reference information, as well as information about driver-specific characteristics, such as memory access checking and breakpoints. The IAR C-SPY Simulator introduction The IAR C-SPY Simulator simulates the functions of the target processor entirely in software, which means the program logic can be debugged long before any hardware is available. As no hardware is required, it is also the most cost-effective solution for many applications. FEATURES In addition to the general features listed in the chapter Product introduction, the IAR C-SPY Simulator also provides: Instruction-accurate simulated execution Memory configuration and validation Interrupt simulation Immediate breakpoints with resume functionality Peripheral simulation (using the C-SPY macro system). SELECTING THE SIMULATOR DRIVER Before starting the IAR C-SPY Debugger you must choose the simulator driver. In the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose Project>Options and click the Setup tab in the Debugger category. Choose Simulator from the Driver drop-down list. To set simulator-specific options, choose Simulator from the Category list. Note: You can only choose a driver you have installed on your computer. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 159 Simulator-specific menus SIMULATOR SETUP The simulator Setup options specify the simulator-specific options. CHECK FOR WORD ACCESS ON ODD ADDRESS Use this option to make the simulator issue a warning if there is a word access to an odd address. Simulator-specific menus When you use the simulator driver, the Simulator menu is added in the menu bar. SIMULATOR MENU Figure 60: Simulator menu MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 160 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging The Simulator menu contains the following commands: Menu command Description Interrupt Setup Forced Interrupts Interrupt Log Displays a dialog box to allow you to configure C-SPY interrupt simulation; see Interrupt Setup dialog box, page 180. Displays a window from which you can trigger an interrupt; see Forced interrupt window, page 183. Displays a window which shows the status of all defined interrupts; see Interrupt Log window, page 185. Memory Access Setup Displays a dialog box to simulate memory access checking by specifying memory areas with different access types; see Memory Access setup dialog box, page 168. Trace Function Trace Opens the Trace window with the recorded trace data; see Trace window, page 162. Opens the Function Trace window with the trace data for which functions were called or returned from; see Function Trace window, page 164. Displays the Breakpoint Usage dialog box which lists all active breakpoints; see Breakpoint Usage dialog box, page 175. Breakpoint Usage Table 16: Description of Simulator menu commands Using the trace system in the simulator In the C-SPY simulator, a trace is a recorded sequence of executed machine instructions. In addition, you can record the values of C-SPY expressions by selecting the expressions in the Trace Expressions window. The Function Trace window only shows trace data corresponding to calls to and returns from functions, whereas the Trace window displays all instructions. For more detailed information about using the common features in the trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 161 Using the trace system in the simulator TRACE WINDOW The Trace window--available from the Simulator menu--displays a recorded sequence of executed machine instructions. In addition, the window can display trace data for expressions. Figure 61: Trace window C-SPY generates trace information based on the location of the program counter. The Trace window contains the following columns: Trace window column Description # Trace Expression A serial number for each row in the trace buffer. Simplifies the navigation within the buffer. The recorded sequence of executed machine instructions. Optionally, the corresponding source code can also be displayed. Each expression you have defined to be displayed appears in a separate column. Each entry in the expression column displays the value after executing the instruction on the same row. You specify the expressions for which you want to record trace information in the Trace Expressions window; see Trace Expressions window, page 164. Table 17: Trace window columns For more information about using the trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 162 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging TRACE TOOLBAR The Trace toolbar is available in the Trace window and in the Function trace window: Enable/Disable Find Toggle source Edit expression Clear trace data Figure 62: Trace toolbar Browse Save Function trace The following function buttons are available on the toolbar: Toolbar button Description Enable/Disable Clear trace data Toggle Source Browse Enables and disables tracing. This button is not available in the Function trace window. Clears the trace buffer. Both the Trace window and the Function trace window are cleared. Toggles the Trace column between showing only disassembly or disassembly together with corresponding source code. Toggles browse mode on and off for a selected item in the Trace column. For more information about browse mode, see The Trace window and its browse mode, page 127. Opens the Find In Trace dialog box where you can perform a search; see Find in Trace dialog box, page 166. Opens a standard Save dialog box where you can save the recorded trace information to a text file, with tab-separated columns. This button is not enabled in the C-SPY simulator. Opens the Trace Expressions window; see Trace Expressions window, page 164. Find Save Edit settings Edit Expressions Table 18: Trace toolbar commands Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 163 Using the trace system in the simulator FUNCTION TRACE WINDOW The Function Trace window--available from the Simulator menu--displays a subset of the trace data displayed in the Trace window. Instead of displaying all rows, the Function Trace window only shows trace data corresponding to calls to and returns from functions. Figure 63: Function Trace window For information about the toolbar, see Trace toolbar, page 163. For more information about using the trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. TRACE EXPRESSIONS WINDOW In the Trace Expressions window--available from the Trace window toolbar--you can specify specific expressions for which you want to record trace information. Figure 64: Trace Expressions window In the Expression column, you specify any expression you want to be recorded. You can specify any expression that can be evaluated, such as variables and registers. The Format column shows which display format is used for each expression. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 164 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging Each row in this window will appear as an extra column in the Trace window. For more information about using the trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. Use the toolbar buttons to change the order between the expressions: Toolbar button Description Arrow up Arrow down Moves the selected row up Moves the selected row down Table 19: Toolbar buttons in the Trace Expressions window FIND IN TRACE WINDOW The Find In Trace window--available from the View>Messages menu--displays the result of searches in the trace data. Figure 65: Find In Trace window The Find in Trace window looks like the Trace window, showing the same columns and data, but only those rows that match the specified search criteria. Double-clicking an item in the Find in Trace window brings up the same item in the Trace window. You specify the search criteria in the Find In Trace dialog box. For information about how to open this dialog box, see Find in Trace dialog box, page 166. For more information about using the trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 165 Using the trace system in the simulator FIND IN TRACE DIALOG BOX Use the Find in Trace dialog box--available by choosing Edit>Find and Replace>Find or from the Trace window toolbar--to specify the search criteria for advanced searches in the trace data. Note that the Edit>Find and Replace>Find command is context-dependent. It displays the Find in Trace dialog box if the Trace window is the current window or the Find dialog box if the editor window is the current window. Figure 66: Find in Trace dialog box The search results are displayed in the Find In Trace window--available by choosing the View>Messages command, see Find In Trace window, page 165. In the Find in Trace dialog box, you specify the search criteria with the following settings: Text search A text field where you type the string you want to search for. Use the following options to fine-tune the search: Match Case Match whole word Only search in one column Searches only for occurrences that exactly match the case of the specified text. Otherwise specifying int will also find INT and Int. Searches only for the string when it occurs as a separate word. Otherwise int will also find print, sprintf and so on. Searches only in the column you selected from the drop-down menu. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 166 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging Address Range Use the text fields to specify an address range. The trace data within the address range is displayed. If you also have specied a text string in the Text search field, the text string will be searched for within the address range. For more information about using the trace system, see Using the trace system, page 127. Memory access checking C-SPY can simulate different memory access types of the target hardware and detect illegal accesses, for example a read access to write-only memory. If a memory access occurs that does not agree with the access type specified for the specific memory area, C-SPY will regard this as an illegal access. The purpose of memory access checking is to help you to identify any memory access violations. The memory areas can either be the zones predefined in the device description file, or memory areas based on the segment information available in the debug file. In addition to these, you can define your own memory areas. The access type can be read and write, read only, or write only. It is not possible to map two different access types to the same memory area. You can choose between checking access type violation or checking accesses to unspecified ranges. Any violations are logged in the Debug Log window. You can also choose to have the execution halted. Choose Simulator>Memory Access Setup to open the Memory Access Setup dialog box. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 167 Memory access checking MEMORY ACCESS SETUP DIALOG BOX The Memory Access Setup dialog box--available from the Simulator menu--lists all defined memory areas, where each column in the list specifies the properties of the area. In other words, the dialog box displays the memory access setup that will be used during the simulation. Figure 67: Memory Access Setup dialog box Note: If you enable both the Use ranges based on and the Use manual ranges option, memory accesses will be checked for all defined ranges. For information about the columns and the properties displayed, see Edit Memory Access dialog box, page 170. Use ranges based on Use the Use ranges based on option to choose any of the predefined alternatives for the memory access setup. You can choose between: Device description file, which means the properties will be loaded from the device description file Debug file segment information, which means the properties will be based on the segment information available in the debug file. This information is only available while debugging. The advantage of using this option, is that the simulator can catch memory accesses outside the linked application. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 168 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging Use manual ranges Use the Use manual ranges option to specify your own ranges manually via the Edit Memory Access dialog box. To open this dialog box, choose New to specify a new memory range, or select a memory zone and choose Edit to modify it. For more details, see Edit Memory Access dialog box, page 170. The ranges you define manually are saved between debug sessions. Memory access checking Use the Check for options to specify what to check for. Choose between: Access type violation Access to unspecified ranges. Use the Action options to specify the action to be performed if there is an access violation. Choose between: Log violations Log and stop execution. Any violations are logged in the Debug Log window. Buttons The Memory Access Setup dialog box contains the following buttons: Button Description OK Cancel New Standard OK. Standard Cancel. Opens the Edit Memory Access dialog box, where you can specify a new memory range and attach an access type to it; see Edit Memory Access dialog box, page 170. Opens the Edit Memory Access dialog box, where you can edit the selected memory area. See Edit Memory Access dialog box, page 170. Deletes the selected memory area definition. Deletes all defined memory area definitions. Edit Delete Delete All Table 20: Function buttons in the Memory Access Setup dialog box Note: Except for the OK and Cancel buttons, buttons are only available when the option Use manual ranges is selected. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 169 Using breakpoints EDIT MEMORY ACCESS DIALOG BOX In the Edit Memory Access dialog box--available from the Memory Access Setup dialog box--you can specify the memory ranges, and assign an access type to each memory range, for which you want to detect illegal accesses during the simulation. Figure 68: Edit Memory Access dialog box For each memory range you can define the following properties: Memory range Use these settings to define the memory area for which you want to check the memory accesses: Zone Start address End address The memory zone; see Memory addressing, page 135. The start address for the address range, in hexadecimal notation. The end address for the address range, in hexadecimal notation. Access type Use one of these options to assign an access type to the memory range; the access type can be one of Read and write, Read only, or Write only. It is not possible to assign two different access types to the same memory area. Using breakpoints Using the C-SPY Simulator, you can set an unlimited amount of breakpoints. For code and data breakpoints you can define a size attribute, that is, you can set the breakpoint on a range. You can also set immediate breakpoints. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 170 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging For information about the breakpoint system, see the chapter Using breakpoints in this guide. For detailed information about code breakpoints, see Code breakpoints dialog box, page 256. DATA BREAKPOINTS Data breakpoints are triggered when data is accessed at the specified location. Data breakpoints are primarily useful for variables that have a fixed address in memory. If you set a breakpoint on an accessible local variable, the breakpoint will be set on the corresponding memory location. The validity of this location is only guaranteed for small parts of the code. The execution will usually stop directly after the instruction that accessed the data has been executed. You can set a data breakpoint in three different ways; by using: A dialog box, see Data breakpoints dialog box, page 171 A system macro, see __setDataBreak, page 416 The Memory window, see Setting a breakpoint in the Memory window, page 137. Data breakpoints dialog box The options for setting data breakpoints are available from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Breakpoints window. On the context menu, choose New Breakpoint>Data to set a new breakpoint. Alternatively, to modify an existing breakpoint, select a breakpoint in the Breakpoint window and choose Edit on the context menu. The Data breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 69: Data breakpoints dialog box Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 171 Using breakpoints Break At Specify the location for the breakpoint in the Break At text box. Alternatively, click the Edit browse button to open the Enter Location dialog box; see Enter Location dialog box, page 260. Access Type Use the options in the Access Type area to specify the type of memory access that triggers data or immediate breakpoints. Memory Access type Description Read/Write Read Write Read or write from location (not available for immediate breakpoints). Read from location. Write to location. Table 21: Memory Access types Note: Data breakpoints never stop execution within a single instruction. They are recorded and reported after the instruction is executed. (Immediate breakpoints do not stop execution at all, they only suspend it temporarily. See Immediate breakpoints, page 173.) Size Optionally, you can specify a size--in practice, a range of locations. Each read and write access to the specified memory range will trigger the breakpoint. For data breakpoints, this can be useful if you want the breakpoint to be triggered on accesses to data structures, such as arrays, structs, and unions. There are two different ways the size can be specified: Auto, the size will automatically be based on the type of expression the breakpoint is set on. For example, if you set the breakpoint on a 12-byte structure, the size of the breakpoint will be 12 bytes Manual, you specify the size of the breakpoint manually in the Size text box. Action You can optionally connect an action to a breakpoint. You specify an expression, for instance a C-SPY macro function, which is evaluated when the breakpoint is triggered and the condition is true. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 172 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging Conditions You can specify simple and complex conditions. Conditions Description Expression Condition true Condition changed Skip count A valid expression conforming to the C-SPY expression syntax. The breakpoint is triggered if the value of the expression is true. The breakpoint is triggered if the value of the expression has changed since it was last evaluated. The number of times that the breakpoint must be fulfilled before a break occurs (integer). Table 22: Breakpoint conditions IMMEDIATE BREAKPOINTS In addition to generic breakpoints, the C-SPY Simulator lets you set immediate breakpoints, which will halt instruction execution only temporarily. This allows a C-SPY macro function to be called when the processor is about to read data from a location or immediately after it has written data. Instruction execution will resume after the action. This type of breakpoint is useful for simulating memory-mapped devices of various kinds (for instance serial ports and timers). When the processor reads at a memory-mapped location, a C-SPY macro function can intervene and supply appropriate data. Conversely, when the processor writes to a memory-mapped location, a C-SPY macro function can act on the value that was written. The two different methods of setting an immediate breakpoint are by using: A dialog box, see Immediate breakpoints dialog box, page 173 A system macro, see __setSimBreak, page 419. Immediate breakpoints dialog box The options for setting immediate breakpoints are available from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Breakpoints window. On the context menu, choose New Breakpoint>Immediate to set a new breakpoint. Alternatively, to modify an existing breakpoint, select a breakpoint in the Breakpoint window and choose Edit on the context menu. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 173 Using breakpoints The Immediate breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 70: Immediate breakpoints page Break At Specify the location for the breakpoint in the Break At text box. Alternatively, click the Edit browse button to open the Enter Location dialog box; see Enter Location dialog box, page 260. Access Type Use the options in the Access Type area to specify the type of memory access that triggers data or immediate breakpoints. Memory Access type Description Read Write Read from location. Write to location. Table 23: Memory Access types Note: Immediate breakpoints do not stop execution at all; they only suspend it temporarily. See Using breakpoints, page 170. Action You should connect an action to the breakpoint. Specify an expression, for instance a C-SPY macro function, which is evaluated when the breakpoint is triggered and the condition is true. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 174 User Guide Simulator-specific debugging BREAKPOINT USAGE DIALOG BOX The Breakpoint Usage dialog box--available from the Simulator menu--lists all active breakpoints. Figure 71: Breakpoint Usage dialog box In addition to listing all breakpoints that you have defined, this dialog box also lists the internal breakpoints that the debugger is using. For each breakpoint in the list the address and access type are shown. Each breakpoint in the list can also be expanded to show its originator. For more information, see Viewing all breakpoints, page 132. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 175 Using breakpoints MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 176 User Guide Simulating interrupts By being able to simulate interrupts, you can debug the program logic long before any hardware is available. This chapter contains detailed information about the C-SPY interrupt simulation system and how to configure the simulated interrupts to make them reflect the interrupts of your target hardware. Finally, reference information about each interrupt system macro is provided. For information about the interrupt-specific facilities useful when writing interrupt service routines, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. The C-SPY interrupt simulation system The IAR C-SPY Simulator includes an interrupt simulation system that allows you to simulate the execution of interrupts during debugging. It is possible to configure the interrupt simulation system so that it resembles your hardware interrupt system. By using simulated interrupts in conjunction with C-SPY macros and breakpoints, you can compose a complex simulation of, for instance, interrupt-driven peripheral devices. Having simulated interrupts also lets you test the logic of your interrupt service routines. The interrupt system has the following features: Simulated interrupt support for the MSP430 microcontroller Single-occasion or periodical interrupts based on the cycle counter Predefined interrupts for different devices Configuration of hold time, probability, and timing variation State information for locating timing problems Two interfaces for configuring the simulated interrupts--a dialog box and a C-SPY system macro--that is, one interactive and one automating interface Activation of interrupts either instantly or based on parameters you define A log window which continuously displays the status for each defined interrupt. The interrupt system is activated by default, but if it is not required it can be turned off to speed up the simulation. You can turn the interrupt system on or off as required either in the Interrupt Setup dialog box, or by using a system macro. Defined interrupts will be preserved until you remove them. All interrupts you define using the Interrupt Setup dialog box are preserved between debug sessions. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 177 The C-SPY interrupt simulation system INTERRUPT CHARACTERISTICS The simulated interrupts consist of a set of characteristics which lets you fine-tune each interrupt to make it resemble the real interrupt on your target hardware. You can specify a first activation time, a repeat interval, a hold time, and a variance. H H H Act - First activation time R - Repeat interval H - Hold time V - Variance 0 ActV RV Figure 72: Simulated interrupt configuration The interrupt simulation system uses the cycle counter as a clock to determine when an interrupt should be raised in the simulator. You specify the first activation time, which is based on the cycle counter. C-SPY will generate an interrupt when the cycle counter has passed the specified activation time. However, interrupts can only be raised between instructions, which means that a full assembler instruction must have been executed before the interrupt is generated, regardless of how many cycles an instruction takes. To define the periodicity of the interrupt generation you can specify the repeat interval which defines the amount of cycles after which a new interrupt should be generated. In addition to the repeat interval, the periodicity depends on the two options probability--the probability, in percent, that the interrupt will actually appear in a period--and variance--a time variation range as a percentage of the repeat interval. These options make it possible to randomize the interrupt simulation. You can also specify a hold time which describes how long the interrupt remains pending until removed if it has not been processed. If the hold time is set to infinite, the corresponding pending bit will be set until the interrupt is acknowledged or removed. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 178 User Guide Simulating interrupts INTERRUPT SIMULATION STATES The interrupt simulation system contains status information that can be used for locating timing problems in your application. The Interrupt Setup dialog box displays the available status information. The interrupt activation signal can exist in one of the states Idle or Pending. For an interrupt, the following states can be displayed: Executing, Removed, or Expired. For a repeatable interrupt that has a specified repeat time which is longer than the execution time, the status information at different times can look like this: Hold time Interrupt activation signal Time Status Idle Pending Idle (1 executing) Idle (1 executing) Idle A B C D E A B C D E Execution time for interrupt handler Figure 73: Simulation states - example 1 If the interrupt repeat interval is shorter than the execution time, and the interrupt is re-entrant (or non-maskable), the status information at different times can look like this: Hold time Interrupt activation signal Time Status Idle Executing Idle (1 executing) Executing (1 executing) A B C D A B C D Execution time for interrupt handler (1) Execution time for interrupt handler (2) Figure 74: Simulation states - example 2 In this case, the execution time of the interrupt handler is too long compared to the repeat time, which might indicate that you should rewrite your interrupt handler and make it shorter, or that you should specify a longer repeat time for the interrupt simulation system. Using the interrupt simulation system The interrupt simulation system is easy to use. However, to take full advantage of the interrupt simulation system you should be familiar with how to adapt it for the processor you are using, and know how to use: The Forced Interrupt window The Interrupts and Interrupt Setup dialog boxes Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 179 Using the interrupt simulation system The C-SPY system macros for interrupts The Interrupt Log window. TARGET-ADAPTING THE INTERRUPT SIMULATION SYSTEM The interrupt simulation has the same behavior as the hardware. This means that the execution of an interrupt is dependent on the status of the global interrupt enable bit. The execution of maskable interrupts is also dependent on the status of the individual interrupt enable bits. To be able to perform these actions for various derivatives, the interrupt system must have detailed information about each available interrupt. Except for default settings, this information is provided in the device description files.You can find preconfigured ddf files in the 430\config directory. The default settings will be used if no device description file has been specified. 1 To load a device description file before you start C-SPY, choose Project>Options and click the Setup tab of the Debugger category. 2 Choose a device description file that suits your target. Note: In case you do not find a preconfigured device description file that resembles your device, you can define one according to your needs. For details of device description files, see Device description file, page 113. INTERRUPT SETUP DIALOG BOX The Interrupt Setup dialog box--available by choosing Simulator>Interrupt Setup--lists all defined interrupts. Figure 75: Interrupt Setup dialog box MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 180 User Guide Simulating interrupts The option Enable interrupt simulation enables or disables interrupt simulation. If the interrupt simulation is disabled, the definitions remain but no interrupts will be generated. You can also enable and disable installed interrupts individually by using the check box to the left of the interrupt name in the list of installed interrupts. The columns contain the following information: Interrupt Type Status Next Activation Lists all interrupts. Shows the type of the interrupt. The type can be Forced, Single, or Repeat. Shows the status of the interrupt. The status can be Idle, Removed, Pending, Executing, or Expired. Shows the next activation time in cycles. Note: For repeatable interrupts there might be additional information in the Type column about how many interrupts of the same type that is simultaneously executing (n executing). If n is larger than one, there is a reentrant interrupt in your interrupt simulation system that never finishes executing, which might indicate that there is a problem in your application. Only non-forced interrtupts may be edited or removed. Click New or Edit to open the Edit Interrupt dialog box. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 181 Using the interrupt simulation system EDIT INTERRUPT DIALOG BOX Use the Edit Interrupt dialog box--available from the Interrupt Setup dialog box--to add and modify interrupts. This dialog box provides you with a graphical interface where you can interactively fine-tune the interrupt simulation parameters. You can add the parameters and quickly test that the interrupt is generated according to your needs. Figure 76: Edit Interrupt dialog box For each interrupt you can set the following options: Interrupt A drop-down list containing all available interrupts. Your selection will automatically update the Description box. The list is populated with entries from the device description file that you have selected. Contains the description of the selected interrupt, if available. The description is retrieved from the selected device description file and consists of a string describing the vector address, priority, enable bit, and pending bit, separated by space characters. For interrupts specified using the system macro __orderInterrupt, the Description box will be empty. The value of the cycle counter after which the specified type of interrupt will be generated. The periodicity of the interrupt in cycles. A timing variation range, as a percentage of the repeat interval, in which the interrupt may occur for a period. For example, if the repeat interval is 100 and the variance 5%, the interrupt might occur anywhere between T=95 and T=105, to simulate a variation in the timing. Description First activation Repeat interval Variance % MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 182 User Guide Simulating interrupts Hold time Describes how long, in cycles, the interrupt remains pending until removed if it has not been processed. If you select Infinite, the corresponding pending bit will be set until the interrupt is acknowledged or removed. The probability, in percent, that the interrupt will actually occur within the specified period. Probability % FORCED INTERRUPT WINDOW From the Forced Interrupt window--available from the Simulator menu--you can force an interrupt instantly. This is useful when you want to check your interrupt logistics and interrupt routines. Figure 77: Forced Interrupt window To force an interrupt, the interrupt simulation system must be enabled. To enable the interrupt simulation system, see Interrupt Setup dialog box, page 180. The Forced Interrupt window lists all available interrupts and their definitions. The description field is editable and the information is retrieved from the selected device description file and consists of a string describing the vector address, priority, enable bit, and pending bit, separated by space characters. By selecting an interrupt and clicking the Trigger button, an interrupt of the selected type is generated. A triggered interrupt will have the following characteristics: Characteristics Settings First Activation Repeat interval As soon as possible (0) 0 Table 24: Characteristics of a forced interrupt Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 183 Using the interrupt simulation system Characteristics Settings Hold time Variance Probability Infinite 0% 100% Table 24: Characteristics of a forced interrupt C-SPY SYSTEM MACROS FOR INTERRUPTS Macros are useful when you already have sorted out the details of the simulated interrupt so that it fully meets your requirements. By writing a macro function containing definitions for the simulated interrupts you can automatically execute the functions when C-SPY starts. Another advantage is that your simulated interrupt definitions will be documented if you use macro files, and if you are several engineers involved in the development project you can share the macro files within the group. The C-SPY Simulator provides a set of predefined system macros for the interrupt simulation system. The advantage of using the system macros for specifying the simulated interrupts is that it lets you automate the procedure. These are the available system macros related to interrupts: __enableInterrupts __disableInterrupts __orderInterrupt __cancelInterrupt __cancelAllInterrupts __popSimulatorInterruptExecutingStack The parameters of the first five macros correspond to the equivalent entries of the Interrupts dialog box. To read more about how to use the __popSimulatorInterruptExecutingStack macro, see Interrupt simulation in a multi-task system, page 185. For detailed reference information about each macro, see Description of C-SPY system macros, page 404. Defining simulated interrupts at C-SPY startup using a setup file If you want to use a setup file to define simulated interrupts at C-SPY startup, follow the procedure described in Registering and executing using setup macros and setup files, page 147. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 184 User Guide Simulating interrupts Interrupt simulation in a multi-task system If you are using interrupts in such a way that the normal instruction used for returning from an interrupt handler is not used, for example in an operating system with task-switching, the simulator cannot automatically detect that the interrupt has finished executing. The interrupt simulation system will work correctly, but the status information in the Interrupt Setup dialog box might not look as you expect. If there are too many interrupts executing simultaneously, a warning might be issued. To avoid these problems, you can use the __popSimulatorInterruptExecutingStack macro to inform the interrupt simulation system that the interrupt handler has finished executing, as if the normal instruction used for returning from an interrupt handler was executed. You can use the following procedure: 1 Set a code breakpoint on the instruction that returns from the interrupt function. 2 Specify the __popSimulatorInterruptExecutingStack macro as a condition to the breakpoint. When the breakpoint is triggered, the macro is executed and then the application continues to execute automatically. INTERRUPT LOG WINDOW The Interrupt Log window--available from the Simulator menu--displays runtime information about the interrupts that you have activated in the Interrupts dialog box or forced via the Forced Interrupt window. The information is useful for debugging the interrupt handling in the target system. Figure 78: Interrupt Log window The columns contain the following information: Column Description Cycles PC The point in time, measured in cycles, when the event occurred. The value of the program counter when the event occurred. Table 25: Description of the Interrupt Log window Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 185 Simulating a simple interrupt Column Description Interrupt Number Status The interrupt as defined in the device description file. A unique number assigned to the interrupt. The number is used for distinguishing between different interrupts of the same type. Shows the status of the interrupt, which can be Triggered, Forced, Executing, Finished, or Expired. Triggered: The interrupt has passed its activation time. Forced: The same as Triggered, but the interrupt has been forced from the Forced Interrupt window. Executing: The interrupt is currently executing. Finished: The interrupt has been executed. Expired: The interrupt hold time has expired without the interrupt being executed. Table 25: Description of the Interrupt Log window (Continued) When the Interrupt Log window is open it will be updated continuously during runtime. Note: If the window becomes full of entries, the first entries will be erased. Simulating a simple interrupt In this example you will simulate a timer interrupt. However, the procedure can also be used for other types of interrupts. This simple application contains an interrupt service routine for the BasicTimer, which increments a tick variable. The main function sets the necessary status registers. The application exits when 100 interrupts have been generated. #include "io430x41x.h" #include <intrinsics.h> volatile int ticks = 0; void main (void) { /* Timer setup code */ WDTCTL = WDTPW + WDTHOLD; /* Stop WDT */ IE2 |= BTIE; /* Enable BT interrupt */ BTCTL = BTSSEL+BTIP2+BTIP1+BTIP0; __enable_interrupt(); /* Enable interrupts */ while (ticks < 100); printf("Done\n"); } /* Endless loop */ MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 186 User Guide Simulating interrupts /* Timer interrupt service routine */ #pragma vector = BASICTIMER_VECTOR __interrupt void basic_timer(void) { ticks += 1; } To simulate and debug an interrupt, perform the following steps: 1 Add your interrupt service routine to your application source code and add the file to your project. 2 C-SPY needs information about the interrupt to be able to simulate it. This information is provided in the device description files. To select a device description file, choose Project>Options, and click the Setup tab in the Debugger category. Use the Use device description file browse button to locate the file ddf file. 3 Build your project and start the simulator. 4 Choose Simulator>Interrupt Setup to open the Interrupts Setup dialog box. Select the Enable interrupt simulation option to enable interrupt simulation. Click New to open the Edit Interrupt dialog box. For the BasicTimer example, verify the following settings: Option Settings Interrupt First Activation Repeat interval Hold time Probability % Variance % BASICTIMER_VECTOR 4000 2000 Infinite 100 0 Table 26: Timer interrupt settings Click OK. 5 Execute your application. If you have enabled the interrupt properly in your application source code, C-SPY will: Generate an interrupt when the cycle counter has passed 4000 Continuously repeat the interrupt after approximately 2000 cycles. Part 5. IAR C-SPY Simulator 187 Simulating a simple interrupt MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 188 User Guide Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET debugger This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide contains the following chapters: Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger C-SPY FET-specific debugging Design considerations for in-circuit programming. 189 190 Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger This chapter introduces you to the IAR C-SPY Flash Emulation Tool Debugger (C-SPY FET Debugger), as well as to how it differs from the C-SPY Simulator. This chapter describes how you install the hardware and then run the demo applications. The chapter also briefly describes the communication between the C-SPY FET driver and the target system, and gives some troubleshooting hints. The chapters specific to the C-SPY FET Debugger assumes that you already have some working knowledge of the FET Debugger, as well as some working knowledge of the IAR C-SPY Debugger. For a quick introduction, see Part 2. Tutorials. Note that additional features may have been added to the software after the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide was printed. The release notes contain the latest information. The FET C-SPY Debugger The MSP430 microcontroller has built-in, on-chip debug support. To make the C-SPY FET Debugger work, a communication driver must be installed on the host PC. This driver is automatically installed during the installation of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Because the hardware debugger kernel is built into the microcontroller, no ordinary ROM-monitor program or extra specific hardware is needed to make the debugging work. It is also possible to use the debugger on your own hardware design. The C-SPY FET Debugger provides general C-SPY Debugger features, and features specific to the C-SPY FET driver. For detailed information about the general debugger features, see Part 4. Debugging in this guide. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 191 The FET C-SPY Debugger The C-SPY FET driver uses the parallel port to communicate with the FET Interface module. The FET Interface module communicates which the JTAG interface on the hardware. Host computer C-SPY Debugger C-SPY driver Parallel cable/USB Interface module JTAG On-chip emulation FLASH CPU RAM Target board Figure 79: Communication overview For more details about the communication, see C-SPY FET communication, page 225. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE C-SPY DRIVERS The following table summarizes the key differences between the FET and simulator drivers: Feature Simulator FET OP-fetch Data breakpoints1 Execution in real time Simulated interrupts Real interrupts Cycle counter2 Code coverage Table 27: Simulator and FET differences x x x x x x x x x x MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 192 User Guide Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger Feature Simulator FET Profiling Enhanced Emulation Module support Trace Table 27: Simulator and FET differences (Continued) x x3 x x 1. Data breakpoints are supported for the devices with the Enhanced Emulation module. For further details, see Emulator menu, page 202. 2. Cycle counter is supported during single step, you can then view the value of the cycle counter in the Register window. 3. The FET Debugger must single step during profiling. Hardware installation MSP-FET430X110 1 Connect the 25-conductor cable originating from the FET to the parallel port of your PC. 2 Ensure that the MSP430 device is securely seated in the socket, and that its pin 1 (indicated with a circular indentation on the top surface) aligns with the 1 mark on the PCB. 3 Ensure that jumpers J1 (near the non-socketed IC on the FET) and J5 (near the LED) are in place. MSP-FET430PXX0 (P120, P140, P410, P430, P440) 1 Use the 25-conductor cable to connect the FET Interface module to the parallel port or USB port of your PC. 2 Use the 14-conductor cable to connect the FET Interface module to the Target Socket module. 3 Ensure that the MSP430 device is securely seated in the socket, and that its pin 1 (indicated with a circular indentation on the top surface) aligns with the 1 mark on the PCB. 4 Ensure that the two jumpers (LED and Vcc) near the 2x7 pin male connector are in place. IAR J-LINK OR TI USB FET INTERFACE MODULE 1 Use the USB cable to connect the IAR J-Link or TI USB FET interface module to the USB port of your PC. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 193 Firmware upgrade 2 Windows will search for a USB driver. Since this is the first time you are using the USB interface module, Windows will open a dialog box and ask you to browse to the USB drivers. The USB drivers can be found in the product installation in the following directories: IAR J-Link: 430\drivers\JLink TI USB FET interface module: 430\drivers\TIUSBFET\WinXP Once the initial setup is completed, you will not have to repeat this step. Note that the USB interface module will blink each time it is connected until Windows makes the connection. 3 Use the 14-conductor cable to connect the USB Interface module to the Target Socket module. 4 Ensure that the MSP430 device is securely seated in the socket, and that its pin 1 (indicated with a circular indentation on the top surface) aligns with the 1 mark on the PCB. 5 Make sure that the two jumpers (LED and Vcc) near the 2x7 pin male connector are in place. Firmware upgrade When the C-SPY FET Debugger driver starts up, it will check that the firmware version is compatible. If an old firmware version is detected, you can choose whether it should be automatically upgrade or not. If any problems occur, follow this procedure: 1 Close the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. 2 Unplug and replug the USB FET cable. 3 Start the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE and the C-SPY FET Debugger. 4 The debugger should ask again for firmware upgrade. Getting started This section demonstrates two demo applications--one in assembler language and one in C--that flash the LED. The applications are built and downloaded to the FET Debugger, and then executed. There is one demo workspace file supplied with the C-SPY FET Debugger fet_projects.eww. This workspace contains two projects per FET variant--one in C and one in assembler. The files are provided in the directory 430\FET_examples. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 194 User Guide Introduction to the IAR C-SPY FET Debugger The majority of the examples use the various resources of the MSP430 to time the flashing of the LED. Note: The examples often assume the presence of a 32kHz crystal, and not all FET Debuggers are supplied with a 32kHz crystal. RUNNING A DEMO APPLICATION The following examples assume that you are using an MSP430F149 device. See the HTML document which FET project suits my device.htm. C Example 1 In the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose File>Open Workspace to open the workspace file fet_projects.eww. 2 To display the C project, click the appropriate project tab at the bottom of the workspace window, for instance fet140_1_C. If you want to run the application for a different FET Debugger, click the appropriate project tab. 3 Select the Debug build configuration from the drop-down list at the top of the workspace window. 4 Choose Project>Options. In addition to the factory settings, verify the following settings: Category Page Option/Setting General Options Target Device: msp430F149 Generate debug info Driver: FET Debugger Deselect Suppress download Connection: Select the connection type you are using C/C++ Compiler Output Debugger FET Debugger Setup Setup Table 28: Project options for FET C example For more information about the C-SPY FET Debugger options and how to configure C-SPY to interact with the target board, see Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger, page 197. Click OK to close the Options dialog box. 5 Choose Project>Make to compile and link the source code. 6 Start C-SPY by clicking the Debug button or by choosing Project>Debug. C-SPY will erase the flash memory of the device, and then download the application to the target system. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 195 Getting started 7 In C-SPY, choose Debug>Go or click the Go button to start the application. The LED should flash. 8 Click the Stop button to stop the execution. Assembler example 1 In the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose File>Open Workspace to open the workspace file fet_projects.eww. 2 To display the assembler project, click the appropriate project tab at the bottom of the workspace window, for instance fet140_1_asm. If you want to run the application for a different FET Debugger, click the appropriate project tab. 3 Select the Debug build configuration from the drop-down list at the top of the workspace window. 4 Choose Project>Options. In addition to the factory settings, verify the following settings: Category Page Option/Setting General Options C/C++ Compiler Debugger FET Debugger Target Output Setup Setup Device: msp430F149 Generate debug info Driver: FET Debugger Deselect Suppress download Connection: Select the connection type you are using Table 29: Project options for FET assembler example For more information about the C-SPY FET Debugger options and how to configure C-SPY to interact with the target board, see Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger, page 197. Click OK to close the Options dialog box. 5 Choose Project>Make to assemble and link the source code. 6 Start C-SPY by clicking the Debug button or by choosing Project>Debug. C-SPY will erase the flash memory of the device, and then download the application object file to the target system. 7 In C-SPY, choose Debug>Go or click the Go button to start the application. The LED should flash. 8 Click the Stop button to stop the execution. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 196 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging This chaptersection describes the additional options, menus, and features provided by the C-SPY FET debugger driver. The chaptersection contains the following sections: Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger The Emulator menu Using breakpoints Using state storage Using the sequencer Stepping C-SPY FET communication. Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger Before you start any C-SPY hardware debugger you must set some options for the debugger system--both C-SPY generic options and options required for the hardware system (C-SPY driver-specific options). Follow this procedure: 1 To open the Options dialog box, choose Project>Options. 2 To set C-SPY generic options and select a C-SPY driver: Select Debugger from the Category list On the Setup page, select the FET Debugger driver from the Driver list. For information about the settings Setup macros, Run to, and Device descriptions, as well as for information about the pages Extra Options and Plugins, see the chapter Debugger optionsthe MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Note that a default device description file and linker command file is automatically selected depending on your selection of a device on the General Options>Target page. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 197 Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger 3 To set the driver-specific options, select FET Debugger from the Category list. For details about the options specific to the FET debugger, see: Setup, page 198 Breakpoints, page 200. 4 When you have set all the required options, click OK in the Options dialog box. SETUP The Setup page in the FET debugger category contains setup options specific to the C-SPY FET debugger. Figure 80: FET debugger setup options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 198 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Download control Use the following options to control the download: Verify download Suppress download Use this option to verify that the downloaded code image can be read back from target memory with the correct contents. Disables the downloading of code, while preserving the present content of the flash. This command is useful if you need to exit C-SPY for a while and then continue the debug session without downloading code. The implicit RESET performed by C-SPY at startup is not disabled, though. If this option is combined with Verify all, the debugger will read your application back from the flash memory and verify that it is identical with the application currently being debugged. Erases only the main flash memory before download. The information memory is not erased. Erases both the flash memories--main and Information memory--before download. Reads the main and Information memories into a buffer. Only the flash segments needed are erased. If data that is to be written into a segment matches the data on the target, the data on the target is left as is, and no download is performed. The new data effectively replaces the old data, and unaffected old data is retained. Erase main memory Erase main and Information memory Retain unchanged memory Allow erase/write access Controls if it should be possible to erase Info Segment A. This to locked flash memory option can only be used with an MSP430F2xx device. Attach to running target Use this option to make the debugger attach to a running application at its current location, without resetting the target system. To avoid unexpected behavior when using this option, deselect the options Debugger>Setup>Run to and Debugger>Plugins>Stack. This option must be disabled when you download the application for the first time. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 199 Options for debugging using the C-SPY FET debugger Disable memory cache Use this option to disable the memory cache in the FET debugger. Connection The C-SPY FET debugger can communicate with the target device via the parallel port or the USB port. Select Lpt, J-Link (USB), or TI USB FET to specify the connection type. If you select Lpt you must also specify which parallel port to use; LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3. Debug protocol The C-SPY FET debugger supports both the ordinary 4-wire JTAG interface and the 2-wire JTAG debug interface, also referred to as the Spy-Bi-Wire interface. Spy-By-Wire works for the parallel port FET module and the TI USB FET module. Target VCC Use the Target VCC option to specify the voltage provided by the USB interface. Type the value in Volts with one decimal's precision in the range 1.04.0 V. This option can only be used with a USB connection. BREAKPOINTS The Breakpoints page in the FET debugger category contains options specific to breakpoints. Figure 81: FET debugger breakpoint options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 200 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Use virtual breakpoints The option Use virtual breakpoints allows C-SPY to use virtual breakpoints when all available hardware breakpoints have been used. When virtual breakpoints are used, C-SPY is forced into single-step mode. To prevent C-SPY form entering single-step mode, disable this option. In this case C-SPY will not use virtual breakpoints, even though all hardware breakpoints are already used. For further information, see Available breakpoints, page 204the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. System breakpoints on The option System breakpoints on can be used for fine-tuning the use of system breakpoints in the CLIB runtime environment. If the C-SPY Terminal I/O window is not required or if you do not need a breakpoint on the exit label, you can save hardware breakpoints by not reserving system breakpoints. Select or deselect the options exit, putchar, and getchar respectively, if you want, or not want, C-SPY to use system breakpoints for these. For further information, see Available breakpoints, page 204the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. In the DLIB runtime environment, C-SPY will always set a system breakpoint on the __DebugBreak label. You cannot disable this behavior. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 201 Emulator menu Emulator menu Using the C-SPY FET driver creates a new menu on the menu bar--the Emulator menu. Figure 82: Emulator menu The following commands are available on the menu: Menu Command Description Connected device Device information Release JTAG on Go Resynchronize JTAG Init New Device The name of the device used for debugging. Opens a window with information about the target device being used. Sets the JTAG drivers in tri-state so that the device is released from JTAG control--TEST pin is set to GND--when GO is activated. Regains control of the device. It is not possible to Resynchronize JTAG while the device is operating. Initializes the device according to the specified options on the Flash Emulation Tool page. The current program file is downloaded to the device memory, and the device is then reset. This command can be used to program multiple devices with the same program from within the same C-SPY session. It is not possible to choose Init New Device while the device is operating, thus the command will be dimmed. Table 30: Emulator menu commands MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 202 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Menu Command Description Secure Blows the fuse on the target device. After the fuse is blown, no communication with the device is possible. Breakpoint Usage Displays the Breakpoint Usage dialog box which lists all active breakpoints; see Breakpoint Usage dialog box, page 216. Advanced>Clock Control Advanced> Emulation Mode Advanced> Memory Dump Depending on the hardware support, clock control comes in one of two variants, General Clock Control or Extended Clock Control. Extended Clock Control gives you module level control over the clocks. Specifies the device to be emulated. The device must be reset (or reinitialized by using the menu command Init New Device) following a change to the emulation mode. Writes the specified device memory contents to a specified file. A dialog box is displayed where you can specify a filename, a memory starting address, and a length. The addressed memory is then written in a text format to the named file. Options permit you to select word or byte text format, and address information and register contents can also be appended to the file. The Dump Memory length specifier is restricted to four hexadecimal digits (0-FFFF). This limits the number of bytes that can be written from 0 to 65535. Consequently, it is not possible to write memory from 0 to 0xFFFF inclusive as this would require a length specifier of 65536 (or 0x10000). Combines two already defined breakpoints. Select a breakpoint in the Breakpoint combiner dialog box, then right-click to display a list to select the breakpoint to combine it with. Only available if you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module. The settings are not saved when the debug session is closed. Opens the State Storage Control window, which lets you define the use of the state storage module. This is only possible if you are using a device that contains support for the Enhanced Emulation Module. Opens the State Storage window which contains state storage information according to your definitions. Opens the Sequencer Control window, which lets you define a state machine. Advanced> Breakpoint Combiner State Storage Control State Storage Window Sequencer Control "Power on" Reset The device is reset by cycling power to the device. GIE on/off Leave Target Running Clears the General Interrupt Enable bit (GIE) in the Processor Status register. Leaves the application running on the target hardware after the debug session is closed. Table 30: Emulator menu commands (Continued) Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 203 Using breakpoints Menu Command Description Force Single Stepping Force hardware RST/NMI Forces single step debugging. Forces an RST/NMI clear reset when the Reset button is pressed. Table 30: Emulator menu commands (Continued) Note: Not all Emulator>Advanced submenus are available on all MSP430 devices. Using breakpoints This section provides an overview of the available breakpoints for the C-SPY FET Debugger. The following is described: Available breakpoints, page 204 Customizing the use of breakpoints, page 206 Range breakpoints, page 207 Conditional breakpoints, page 210 Advanced trigger breakpoints, page 213 Breakpoint Usage dialog box, page 216. For information about the different methods for setting breakpoints, the facilities for monitoring breakpoints, and the different breakpoint consumers, see the chapter Using breakpoints, page 129 in this guidethe MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. AVAILABLE BREAKPOINTS With the C-SPY FET Debugger you can set code breakpoints. If you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module you also have access to an extended breakpoint system with support for: breakpoints on addresses, data, and registers defining which type of access that should trigger the breakpoint: read, write, or fetch range breakpoints setting conditional breakpoints triggering different actions: stopping the execution, or starting the state storage module. The Enhanced Emulation Module also gives you access to the sequencer module which is a state machine that uses breakpoints for triggering new states. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 204 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Hardware and virtual breakpoints To set breakpoints, the C-SPY FET Debugger uses the hardware breakpoints available on the device. When all hardware breakpoints are used, C-SPY can use virtual breakpoints (can also be referred to as software breakpoints), which means that you can set an unlimited amount of breakpoints. The number of available hardware breakpoints for each device is: Device Breakpoints (N) Range breakpoints MSP430F11x1 MSP430F11x2 MSP430F12x MSP430F12x2 MSP430F13x MSP430F14x MSP430F15x MSP430F16x MSP430F20xx MSP430F21xx MSP430F41x MSP430F42x MSP430F43x MSP430F44x MSP430FE42x MSP430FG43x MSP430FW42x MSP430FG43x MSP430FW42x 2 2 2 2 3 3 8 8 2 2 2 2 8 8 2 2 2 2 2 x x x x x x Table 31: Available hardware breakpoints For the latest device information, see the release notes. If there are N or fewer breakpoints active, C-SPY will always operate at full speed. If there are more than N breakpoints active, and virtual breakpoints are enabled, C-SPY will be forced to single step between the breakpoints. This means that execution will not be at full speed. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 205 Using breakpoints System breakpoints Sometimes C-SPY must set breakpoints for internal use. These breakpoints are called system breakpoints. In the CLIB runtime environment, C-SPY will set a system breakpoint when: the library functions putchar() and getchar() are used (low-level routines used by functions like printf and scanf) the application has an exit label. In the DLIB runtime environment, C-SPY will set a system breakpoint on the __DebugBreak label. C-SPY will also set a temporary system breakpoint when: the command Edit>Run to Cursor is used the option Run to is selected The system breakpoints will use hardware breakpoints when available. When the number of available hardware breakpoints is exceeded, virtual breakpoints will be used instead. When the Run to option is selected and all hardware breakpoints have already been used, a virtual breakpoint will be set even if you have deselected the Use virtual breakpoints option. When you start the debugger under these conditions, C-SPY will prompt you to choose whether you want to execute in single-step mode or stop at the first instruction. CUSTOMIZING THE USE OF BREAKPOINTS It is possible to prevent the debugger from executing in single-step mode. You do this by disabling the use of virtual breakpoints and--in the CLIB runtime environment--by fine-tuning the use of system breakpoints. This will increase the performance of the debugger, but you will only have access to the available number of hardware breakpoints. For further information about the necessary options, see Breakpoints, page 200. Periodically monitoring data If you are using a device that does not support the Enhanced Emulation Module, the break-on-data capability of the MSP430 is not utilized. In that case, breakpoints can only be set to occur during an instruction fetch. However, C-SPY provides a non-realtime data breakpoint mechanism, which lets you periodically monitor data without using data breakpoints. For a description of the data breakpoint mechanism, see the chapter Using breakpointsMSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 206 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Using breakpoints when programming flash memory When programming the flash memory, do not set a breakpoint on the instruction immediately following the write to flash operation. A simple work-around is to follow the write to flash operation with a NOP instruction, and set a breakpoint on the instruction following the NOP instruction. RANGE BREAKPOINTS Range breakpoints can be set on a data or an address range, and the action can be specified to occur on an access inside or outside the specified range. These breakpoints are only available if you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module. The options for setting range breakpoints are available from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Breakpoints window. On the context menu, choose New Breakpoint>Range to set a new breakpoint. Alternatively, to modify an existing breakpoint, select a breakpoint in the Breakpoint window and choose Edit on the context menu. The Range breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 83: Range breakpoints dialog box Note: You can also use a C-SPY system macro to set a range breakpoint, see __setRangeBreak, page 417. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 207 Using breakpoints Start value Set the start value location for the range breakpoint using the Edit button. These are the locations you can choose between and their possible settings: Location Description/Examples Expression Any expression that evaluates to a valid address, such as a variable name. For example, my_var refers to the location of the variable my_var, and arr[3] refers to the third element of the array arr. An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress. Zone specifies in which memory the address belongs. For example Memory:0x42 If you enter a combination of a Zone and an address that is not valid, C-SPY will indicate the mismatch. A location in the C source program using the syntax {file path}.row.column File specifies the filename and full path. Row specifies the row in which you want the breakpoint. Column specifies the column in which you want the breakpoint. For example, {C:\IAR Systems\xxx\Utilities.c}.22.3 sets a breakpoint on the third character position on line 22 in the source file Utilities.c. Absolute Address Source Location Table 32: Range breakpoint start value types Range delimiter This option sets the end location of the range. It can be one of the value types used for the Start value, the Length of the range in hexadecimal notation, or Automatic. Automatic means that the range will automatically be based on the type of expression the breakpoint is set on. For example, if you set the breakpoint on a 12-byte structure, the range of the breakpoint will be 12 bytes. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 208 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Type To choose which breakpoint type to use, select one of the following options: Breakpoint type Description Address (MAB) Sets a breakpoint on a specified address, or anything that can be evaluated to one. The breakpoint is triggered when the specified location is accessed. If you have set the breakpoint on a specific machine instruction, the breakpoint will be triggered and the execution will stop exactly before the instruction will be executed. Sets a breakpoint on a specified value. It is the value on the data bus that triggers the breakpoint. Data (MDB) Table 33: Range breakpoint types Access type You can specify the type of access that triggers the selected breakpoint. Select one of the following options: Access Description Read Write Read/Write Fetch Read from location. Write to location. Read from or write to location. At instruction fetch. Table 34: Range breakpoint access types Action There are two action options--Break and State Storage Trigger. If you select the option Break, the execution will stop when the breakpoint is triggered. If you select the option State Storage Trigger, the breakpoint is defined as a state storage trigger. To define the behavior of the state storage module further, use the options in the State Storage Control window. Action when Specifies whether the action should occur at an access inside or outside of the specified range. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 209 Using breakpoints CONDITIONAL BREAKPOINTS Conditional breakpoints are only available if you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module. The options for setting conditional breakpoints are available from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Breakpoints window. On the context menu, choose New Breakpoint>Conditional to set a new breakpoint. Alternatively, to modify an existing breakpoint, select a breakpoint in the Breakpoint window and choose Edit on the context menu. The Conditional breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 84: Conditional breakpoints dialog box Note: You can also use a system macro to set a conditional breakpoint, see __setConditionalBreak, page 415. Break At location Set the break location using the Edit button. These are the locations you can choose between and their possible settings: Location Description/Examples Expression Any expression that evaluates to a valid address, such as a function or variable name. For example, my_var refers to the location of the variable my_var, and arr[3] refers to the third element of the array arr. Table 35: Conditional break at location types MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 210 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Location Description/Examples Absolute Address An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress. Zone specifies in which memory the address belongs. For example Memory:0x42 If you enter a combination of a Zone and an address that is not valid, C-SPY will indicate the mismatch. A location in the C source program using the syntax {file path}.row.column File specifies the filename and full path. Row specifies the row in which you want the breakpoint. Column specifies the column in which you want the breakpoint. Note that the Source Location type is only meaningful for code breakpoints. For example, {C:\IAR Systems\xxx\Utilities.c}.22.3 sets a breakpoint on the third character position on line 22 in the source file Utilities.c. Source Location Table 35: Conditional break at location types (Continued) Type To choose which breakpoint type to use, select one of the following options: Breakpoint type Description Address bus (MAB) Sets a breakpoint on a specified address, or anything that can be evaluated to one. The breakpoint is triggered when the specified location is accessed. If you have set the breakpoint on a specific machine instruction, the breakpoint will be triggered and the execution will stop exactly before the instruction will be executed. Data bus (MDB) Register Sets a breakpoint on a specified value. It is the value on the data bus that triggers the breakpoint. Sets a breakpoint on a register. In the Register Value text box, type the value that should trigger the breakpoint. Specify the register, or anything that can be evaluated to such, in the Break At text box. Table 36: Conditional breakpoint types Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 211 Using breakpoints Operator You can specify one of the following condition operators for when the breakpoint should be triggered: Condition Description == >= <= != Equal to. Greater than or equal to. Less than or equal to. Not equal to. Table 37: Conditional breakpoint condition operators Access You can specify the type of access that triggers the selected breakpoint. Select one of the following options: Access Description Read Write Read/Write Fetch Read from location. Write to location. Read from or write to location. At instruction fetch. Table 38: Conditional breakpoint access types Mask You can specify a bit mask value that the breakpoint address or value will be masked with. (On the FET hardware the mask is inverted, but this is not the case in the FET Debugger driver.) Condition You can specify an additional condition to a conditional breakpoint. This means that a conditional breakpoint can be a single data breakpoint or a combination of two breakpoints that must occur at the same time. The following settings can be specified for the additional condition: Access Description MDB/Register Value Mask The extra conditional data value. The bit mask value that the breakpoint value will be masked with. Table 39: Conditional breakpoint condition types MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 212 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Access Description Operator Access The operator of condition, either ==, >=, <=, or !=. The access type of the condition, either Read, Write, or Read/Write. Table 39: Conditional breakpoint condition types (Continued) Action There are two action options--Break and State Storage Trigger. If you select the option Break, the execution will stop when the breakpoint is triggered. If you select the option State Storage Trigger, the breakpoint is defined as a state storage trigger. To define the behavior of the state storage module further, use the options in the State Storage Control window. ADVANCED TRIGGER BREAKPOINTS Advanced trigger breakpoints are only available if you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module. The options for setting advanced trigger breakpoints are available from the context menu that appears when you right-click in the Breakpoints window. On the context menu, choose New Breakpoint>Advanced Trigger to set a new breakpoint. Alternatively, to modify an existing breakpoint, select a breakpoint in the Breakpoint window and choose Edit on the context menu. The Advanced Trigger breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 85: Advanced trigger dialog box Note: You can also use a C-SPY system macro to set an advanced trigger breakpoint, __setAdvancedTriggerBreak, page 412. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 213 Using breakpoints Break At location Set the break location using the Edit button. These are the locations you can choose between and their possible settings: Location Description/Examples Expression Any expression that evaluates to a valid address, such as a function or variable name. For example, my_var refers to the location of the variable my_var, and arr[3] refers to the third element of the array arr. An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress. Zone specifies in which memory the address belongs. For example Memory:0x42 If you enter a combination of a Zone and an address that is not valid, C-SPY will indicate the mismatch. A location in the C source program using the syntax {file path}.row.column file specifies the filename and full path. row specifies the row in which you want the breakpoint. column specifies the column in which you want the breakpoint. Note that the Source Location type is only meaningful for code breakpoints. For example, {C:\IAR Systems\xxx\Utilities.c}.22.3 sets a breakpoint on the third character position on line 22 in the source file Utilities.c. Absolute Address Source Location Table 40: Advanced triggers break at location types Type To choose which breakpoint type to use, select one of the following options: Breakpoint type Description Address bus (MAB) Sets a breakpoint on a specified address, or anything that can be evaluated to one. The breakpoint is triggered when the specified location is accessed. If you have set the breakpoint on a specific machine instruction, the breakpoint will be triggered and the execution will stop exactly before the instruction will be executed. Data bus (MDB) Sets a breakpoint on a specified value. It is the value on the data bus that triggers the breakpoint. Table 41: Advanced trigger types MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 214 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Breakpoint type Description Register Sets a breakpoint on a register. In the Register Value text box, type the value that should trigger the breakpoint. Specify the register, or anything that can be evaluated to such, in the Break At text box. Table 41: Advanced trigger types (Continued) Operator You can specify one of the following condition operators for when the breakpoint should be triggered: Condition Description == >= <= != Equal to. Greater than or equal to. Less than or equal to. Not equal to. Table 42: Advanced trigger condition operators Mask You can specify a bit mask value that the breakpoint address or value will be masked with. (On the FET hardware the mask is inverted, but this is not the case in the FET Debugger driver.) Value The data value in the specified register that should be triggered. Access type Use this option to specify the type of access that triggers the selected breakpoint. Action There are two action options--Break and State Storage Trigger. If you select the option Break, the execution will stop when the breakpoint is triggered. If you select the option State Storage Trigger, the breakpoint is defined as a state storage trigger. To define the behavior of the state storage module further, use the options in the State Storage Control window. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 215 Using state storage BREAKPOINT USAGE DIALOG BOX HistoryThe Breakpoint Usage dialog box--available from the driver-specific menu--lists all active breakpoints. Figure 86: Breakpoint Usage dialog box In addition to listing all breakpoints that you have defined, this dialog box also lists the internal breakpoints that the debugger is using. For each breakpoint in the list the address and access type are shown. Each breakpoint in the list can also be expanded to show its originator. For more information, see Viewing all breakpoints, page 132the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Using state storage The state storage module is a limited variant of a traditional trace module. It can store eight states and can be used for monitoring program states or program flow, without interfering with the execution. The state storage module is only available if you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module. To use the state storage module, you must: 1 Define one or multiple range breakpoints or conditional breakpoints that you want to trigger the state storage module. In the breakpoints dialog box, make sure to select the action State Storage Trigger. This means that the breakpoint is defined as a state storage trigger. (State storage can also be triggered from the Sequencer Control window.) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 216 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Note that depending on the behavior you want when the state storage module is triggered, it is useful to consider the combination of the Action options and the options available in the State Storage Control window. See the examples following immediately after these steps. 2 Choose Emulator>State Storage Control to open the State Storage Control window. 3 Select the option Enable state storage. Set the options Buffer wrap around, Trigger action, and Storage action according to your preferences. In the list State Storage Triggers, all breakpoints defined as state storage triggers are listed. For further details about the options, see State Storage Control window, page 218. 4 Click Apply. 5 Choose Emulator>State Storage window to open the State Storage window. 6 Choose Debug>Go to execute your application. Before you can view the state storage information, you must stop the execution. You can do this, for instance, by using the Break command. For information about the window contents, see State Storage Window, page 220. As an example, assume the following setup: There is a conditional breakpoint which has both of the action options selected--Break and State Storage Trigger The state storage options Instruction fetch and Buffer wrap around are selected in the State Storage Control window. This will start the state storage immediately when you start executing your application. When the breakpoint is triggered, the execution will stop and the last eight states can be inspected in the State Storage window. However, if you do not want the state storage module to start until a specific state is reached, you would usually not want the execution to stop, because no state information has been stored yet. In this case, select the State Storage Trigger action in the Conditional breakpoints dialog box (making sure that Break is deselected), and deselect the option Buffer wrap around in the State Storage Control window. When the breakpoint is triggered, the execution will not stop, but the state storage will start. Because the option Buffer wrap around is deselected, you have ensured that the data in the buffer will not be overwritten. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 217 Using state storage When another breakpoint (which has Break selected) is triggered, or if you stop the execution by clicking the Break button, the State Storage window will show eight states starting with the breakpoint that was used for starting the state storage module. STATE STORAGE CONTROL WINDOW Use the State Storage Control window--available from the Emulator menu--to define how to use the state storage module available on devices that support the Enhanced Emulation Module. Figure 87: State Storage Control window Enable state storage This option enables the state storage module. Buffer wrap around This option controls if the state storage buffer should wrap around. If you select the option Buffer wrap around the state storage buffer is continuously overwritten until the execution is stopped or a breakpoint is triggered. Only the eight last states are stored. Alternatively, in order not to overwrite the information in the state storage buffer, deselect this option. To guarantee that the eight first states will be stored, you should also click Reset. Reset Resets the state storage module. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 218 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Trigger action This option acts upon the breakpoints that are defined as state storage triggers. The option defines what action should take place when these breakpoints have been triggered. You can choose between the following options: Start on trigger Stop on trigger None State storage starts when the breakpoint is triggered. State storage starts immediately when execution starts. State storage stops when the breakpoint is triggered. State storage starts immediately when execution starts. State storage does not stop when the breakpoint is triggered. However, if execution stops, state storage also stops but it will resume when execution resumes. Storage action on This option defines when the state information should be collected. You can choose between the following options: Triggers Stores state information at the time when the state storage trigger is triggered. That is, when the breakpoint defined as a state storage trigger is triggered. Stores state information at all instruction fetches. Stores state information for all cycles. Instruction fetch All cycles State storage triggers Lists all the breakpoints that are defined as state storage triggers. That is, the breakpoints that have the action State Storage Trigger selected. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 219 Using state storage STATE STORAGE WINDOW The State Storage window--available from the Emulator menu--displays state storage information for eight states. Invalid data is displayed in red color. Figure 88: State Storage window Update Click the update button to refresh the data in the State Storage window, alternatively to append new data. Automatic update Select this option to automatically update the data in the state storage window each time new data is available in the state storage buffer. Automatic restart Select this option to reset the state storage module for consecutive data readouts after each readout. Append data Select this option to append collected data from the state storage buffer to the data that is already present in the State Storage window. The new data is added below the data that is already present. The window contains the following columns: Column Description Address bus Instruction Mnemonic Displays the stored value of the address bus. Displays the instruction. Displays the mnemonic. Table 43: Columns in State Storage window MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 220 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Column Description Data bus Displays the stored content of the data bus. Control signals (byte) Displays the stored value of the control signals during storage. Bit 1: Instruction fetch Bit 2: Byte/Word Bit 3: Interrupt request Bit 4: CPU off Bit 5: The value of the Power Up Clear (PUC) signal Bit 6:ZERO|HALT (which one depends on the used device) Bit 7: Break trigger Control signals (bits) Displays each bit in the stored value of the control signals during storage. Table 43: Columns in State Storage window (Continued) Using the sequencer The sequencer module lets you break the execution or trigger the state storage module by using a more complex method than a standard breakpoint. This is useful if you want to stop the execution under certain conditions, for instance a specific program flow. You can combine this with letting the state storage module continuously store information. At the time when the execution stops, you will have useful state information logged in the State storage window. Consider this example: void my_putchar(char c) { ... /* Code suspected to be erroneous */ ... } void my_function(void) { ... my_putchar('a'); ... my_putchar('x'); ... my_putchar('@'); ... } Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 221 Using the sequencer In this example, the customized putchar function my_putchar() has for some reason a problem with special characters. To locate the problem, it might be useful to stop execution when the function is called, but only when it is called with one of the problematic characters as the argument. To achieve this, you can: 1 Set a breakpoint on the statement my_putchar('@');. 2 Set another breakpoint on the suspected code within the function my_putchar(). 3 Define these breakpoints as transition triggers. Choose Emulator>Sequencer Control to open the Sequencer Control window. Select the option Enable sequencer. 4 In this simple example you will only need two transition triggers. Make sure the following options are selected: Option Setting Transition trigger 0 Transition trigger 1 Action The breakpoint which is set on the function call my_putchar('@'); The breakpoint which is set on the suspected code within the function my_putchar() Break Table 44: Sequencer settings - example The transition trigger 1 depends on the transition trigger 0. This means that the execution will stop only when the function my_putchar() is called by the function call my_putchar('@'); Click OK. 5 Now you should set up the state storage module. Choose Emulator>State Storage Control to open the State Storage Control window. Make sure the following options are selected: Option Setting Enable state storage Buffer wrap around Storage action Trigger action Selected Selected Instruction fetch None Table 45: State Storage Control settings - example Click OK. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 222 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging 6 Start the program execution. The state storage module will continuously store trace information. Execution stops when the function my_putchar() has been called by the function call my_putchar('@'); 7 Choose Emulator>State Storage Window to open the State Storage window. You can now examine the stored trace information. For further details, see State Storage Window, page 220. 8 When the sequencer is in state 3, C-SPY's breakpoint mechanism--which is used for all breakpoints, not only transition triggers--can be locked. Therefore, you should always end the session with one of these steps: Disabling the sequencer module. This will restore all breakpoint actions. Resetting the state machine by clicking the Reset States button. The sequencer will still be active and trigger on the defined setup during the program execution. SEQUENCER CONTROL WINDOW The Sequencer Control window--available from the Emulator menu--lets you break the execution or trigger the state storage module by using a more complex method than a standard breakpoint. This is useful if you, for instance, want to stop the execution or start the state storage module under certain conditions, for instance a specific program flow. The sequencer is only available if you are using a device that supports the Enhanced Emulation Module. The sequencer works as a state machine. In a simple setup, you can define three transition triggers, where the last one triggers an action. In an advanced setup, the state machine can have four states (0-3). State 0 is the starting state, and state 3 is the state that triggers a breakpoint. This breakpoint can be designed either to stop execution, or to trigger the state storage module. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 223 Using the sequencer For each state you can define up to two different transitions (a-b) to other states. For each transition you define a transition trigger and which the next state should be. For state 3 you must also define an action: stop the execution or start the state storage module. Figure 89: Sequencer Control window (advanced setup) To enable the sequencer, select the option Enable Sequencer. From the eight available hardware breakpoints (0-7) of the device, the breakpoint number 7 will be reserved for state 3. The Transition trigger drop-down lists let you define one breakpoint each, where the breakpoint should act as a transition trigger. To define an advanced setup, click the Advanced button. This will let you define 4 states (0-3) with two transition triggers each (a and b). For each transition trigger, you can define which state should be the next state after the transition. Use the following options: State Storage Trigger Next state Triggers to move the state machine from one state to another. Select a breakpoint from the drop-down list. Note: to do this you must first define the required conditional breakpoints. Defines which state should be the next state after the transition. Select one state, out of four, from the drop-down list. Finally, you must define an action. This option defines the result of the final transition trigger. If you select the option Break, the execution will stop. If you select the option State Storage Trigger, the state storage module will be triggered. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 224 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging The Reset States button will set the state machine to state 0. Current state shows the current state of the state machine. Stepping Be aware that stepping might cause some unexpected side-effects. PROGRAMMING FLASH Multiple internal machine cycles are required to clear and program the flash memory. When single-stepping over instructions that manipulate the flash, control is given back to C-SPY before these operations are complete. Consequently, C-SPY will update its memory window with erroneous information. A workaround to this behavior is to follow the flash access instruction with a NOP instruction, and then step past the NOP before reviewing the effects of the flash access instruction. SINGLE-STEPPING WITH ACTIVE INTERRUPTS When you single-step with active and enabled interrupts, it can seem as if only the interrupt service routine (ISR) is active. That is, the non-ISR code never appears to execute, and the single-step operation always stops on the first line of the ISR. However, this behavior is correct because the device will always process an active and enabled interrupt. There is a workaround for this behavior. While within the ISR, disable the GIE bit on the stack so that interrupts will be disabled after exiting the ISR. This will permit the non-ISR code to be debugged (but without interrupts). Interrupts can later be re-enabled by setting GIE in the status register in the Register window. On devices with Clock Control, it may be possible to suspend a clock between single steps and delay an interrupt request. C-SPY FET communication C-SPY uses the JTAG pins of the device to debug the device. On some MSP430 devices, these JTAG pins are shared with the device port pins. Normally, C-SPY maintains the pins in JTAG mode so that the device can be debugged. During this time the port functionality of the shared pins is not available. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 225 C-SPY FET communication RELEASING JTAG When you choose Emulator>Release JTAG on Go, the JTAG drivers are set to tri-state and the device will be released from JTAG control (the TEST pin is set to GND) when GO is activated. Any active on-chip breakpoints are retained and the shared JTAG port pins revert to their port functions. At this time, C-SPY has no access to the device and cannot determine if an active breakpoint has been triggered. C-SPY must be manually told to stop the device, at which time the state of the device will be determined (that is, has a breakpoint been reached?). If you choose Emulator>Release JTAG on Go, the JTAG pins will be released if, and only if, there are N or fewer active breakpoints. When making current measurements of the device, ensure that the JTAG control signals are released (Emulator>Release JTAG on Go), otherwise the device will be powered by the signals on the JTAG pins and the measurements will be erroneous. PARALLEL PORT DESIGNATORS The parallel port designators (LPTx) have the following physical addresses: LPT1: 0x378, LPT2: 0x278, LPT3: 0x3BC. The configuration of the parallel port (ECP, Compatible, Bidirectional, Normal) is not significant; ECP is recommended. TROUBLESHOOTING If establishing communication between the C-SPY FET driver and the target system fails, possible solutions to this problem include: Restart your host computer. Ensure that R6 on the MSP-FET430X110 and the FET Interface module has a value of 82 ohms. Early units were built using a 330-ohm resistor for R6. The FET Interface module can be opened by inserting a thin blade between the case halves, and then carefully twisting the blade to pry the case halves apart. Ensure that the correct parallel port has been specified in the options category FET Debugger available from the Project>Options menu. Check the PC BIOS for the parallel port address (0x378, 0x278, 0x3BC), and the parallel port configuration (ECP, Compatible, Bidirectional, or Normal). Ensure that no other software application has reserved/taken control of the parallel port (for instance, printer drivers, ZIP drive drivers, etc.). Such software can prevent the C-SPY FET driver from accessing the parallel port, and therefore also from communicating with the device. Revisions 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2 of the FET Interface module require a hardware modification; a 0.1F capacitor needs to be installed between U1 pin 1 (signal VCC_MSP) and ground. A convenient (electrically equivalent) installation point for this capacitor is between pins 4 and 5 of U1. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 226 User Guide C-SPY FET -specific debugging Note: The hardware modification may already have been performed during manufacturing, or your tool might contain an updated version of the FET Interface module. Revisions 0.1 and 1.0 of the MSP-TS430PM64 Target Socket module require a hardware modification; the PCB trace connecting pin 6 of the JTAG connector to pin 9 of the MSP430 (signal XOUT) needs to be severed. Note: The hardware modification may already have been performed during manufacturing, or your tool might contain an updated version of the Target Socket module. Also note that if the modified Target Socket module is used with the PRGS, Version 1.10 or later of the PRGS software is required. For revisions 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2 of the FET Interface module, install a 0.1F capacitor between the indicated points (pins 4 and 5 of U1). Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 227 C-SPY FET communication MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 228 User Guide Design considerations for in-circuit programming This chapter describes the design considerations related to the bootstrap loader, device signals, and external power for in-circuit programming. This chapter also describes how you can adapt your own target hardware to be run with C-SPY. Bootstrap loader The JTAG pins provide access to the flash memory of the MSP430Fxxx devices. On some devices, these pins must be shared with the device port pins, and this sharing of pins can complicate a design (or it might simply not be possible to do so). As an alternative to using the JTAG pins, MSP430Fxxx devices contain a program--a bootstrap loader--that permits the flash memory to be easily erased and programmed, using a reduced set of signals. Device signals The following device signals should be made accessible so that the FET and PRGS (serial programming adapter) tools can be utilized: RST/NMI, TMS, TCK, TDI, TDO, GND, VCC, and TEST (if present). Note: Connections to XIN and XOUT are not required, and should not be made. PRGS software Version 1.10 or later must be used. The BSL tool requires the following device signals: RST/NMI, TCK, GND, VCC, P1.1, P2.2, and TEST (if present). Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 229 External power External power The PC parallel port is capable of supplying a limited amount of current. Because of the ultra low power requirement of the MSP430, a stand-alone FET Debugger can run on the available current. However, if additional circuitry is added to the tool, this current might not be enough. In this case, external power can be supplied to the tool via the connections provided on the MSP-FET430X110 and the Target Socket modules. Refer to Figure 90, JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430X110) and Figure 91, JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430Pxx0), respectively, to locate the external power connections. When an MSP-FET430X110 device is powered from an external supply, an on-board device regulates the external voltage to the level required by the MSP430. When a Target Socket module is powered from an external supply, the external supply powers the device on the Target Socket module and any user circuitry connected to the Target Socket module, and the FET Interface module continues to be powered from the PC via the parallel port. If the externally supplied voltage differs from that of the FET Interface module, the Target Socket module must be modified so that the externally supplied voltage is routed to the FET Interface module (so that it can adjust its output voltage levels accordingly). For details of the Target Socket module schematic, see the documentation supplied by the chip manufacturer. Signal connections for in-system programming With the proper connections, you can use the C-SPY Debugger and the MSP-FET430X110, as well as the MSP-FET430Pxx0 ('P120, 'P140, 'P410, 'P440), to program and debug code on your own target board. In addition, the connections will support the MSP430 Serial Programming Adapter (PRGS), thus providing an easy way to program prototype boards, if desired. Note: The IAR XLINK Linker can be configured to output objects in msp430-txt format for use with the PRGS tool. Choose Project>Options and click the Output tab in the Linker category. Select the option Other and then choose msp430-txt from the Output format drop-down list. The Intel and Motorola formats can also be used. MSP-FET430X110 Figure 90, JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430X110), shows the connections between the FET device and the target device required to support in-system programming and debugging using C-SPY. If your target board has its own "local" power supply, such as a battery, do not connect Vcc to pin 2 of the JTAG header. Otherwise, contention might occur between the FET device and your local power supply. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 230 User Guide Design considerations for in-circuit programming The figure shows a 14-pin header (available from Digi-Key, p/n MHB14K-ND), being used for the connections on your target board. It is recommended that you build a wiring harness from the FET device with a connector which mates to the 14-pin header, and mount the 14-pin header on your target board. This will allow you to unplug your target board from the FET device as well as use the Serial Programming Adapter to program prototype boards, if desired. The signals required are routed on the FET device to header locations for easy accessibility. Refer to the hardware documentation for more details. After you make the connections from the FET device to your target board, remove the MSP430 device from the socket on the FET device so that it does not conflict with the MSP430 device in your target board. Now simply use C-SPY as you would normally to program and debug. Disconnect if target has its own 'local' power source VCC 100nF 100K 10uF VCC/AVCC/DVCC** RST/NMI VCC 2 4 Test/V PP 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 TDI/TDO TDI/V PP TMS TCK GND RST/NMI Test/VPP* TDO/TDI TDI TMS TCK 12 11 MSP430 14 13 14 pos. header (3M p/n 2514-6002) (Digi-Key p/n MHB14K-ND) 20K*** VSS/AVSS/DVSS** * Not present on all devices ** Pins vary by device. *** Pulldown not required on all devices. Check device datasheet pin description. Figure 90: JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430X110) Note: No JTAG connection is required to the XOUT pin of the MSP430 device as shown on some schematics. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 231 Signal connections for in-system programming MSP-FET430PXX0 (`P120, `P140, `P410, `P440) Figure 91, JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430Pxx0) shows the connections between the FET Interface module and the target device required to support in-system programming and debugging using C-SPY. The figure shows a 14-pin header (available from Digi-Key, p/n MHB14K-ND) connected to the MSP430. With this header mounted on your target board, the FET Interface module can be plugged directly into your target. Then simply use C-SPY as you would normally to program and debug. The connections for the FET Interface module and the Serial Programming Adapter (PRGS) are identical with the exception of VCC. Both the FET Interface module and PRGS can supply VCC to your target board (via pin 2). In addition, the FET Interface module has a VCC-sense feature that, if used, requires an alternate connection (pin 4 instead of pin 2). The FET Interface module VCC-sense feature senses the local VCC (present on the target board, i.e. a battery or other "local" power supply) and adjusts its output signals accordingly. The PRGS does not support this feature, but does provide the user the ability to adjust its JTAG signal levels to the VCC level on your target board through the GUI. If the target board is to be powered by a local VCC, then the connection to pin 4 on the JTAG should be made, and not the connection to pin 2. This utilizes the VCC-sense feature of the FET Interface module and prevents any contention that might occur if the local on-board VCC were connected to the VCC supplied from the FET Interface module or the PRGS. If the VCC-sense feature is not necessary (that is, the target board is to be powered from the FET Interface module or the PRGS) the VCC connection is made to pin 2 on the JTAG header and no connection is made to pin 4. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 232 User Guide Design considerations for in-circuit programming The figure shows a jumper block in use. The jumper block supports both scenarios of supplying VCC to the target board. If this flexibility is not required, the desired VCC connections can be hard-wired eliminating the jumper block. Connect if target has its own 'local' power source VCC 100nF Connect to power target from FET or PRGS if not using a local power source 100K 10uF VCC/AVCC/DVCC** RST/NMI VCC(FromTool VCC(Local Test/V PP 2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 TDI/TDO TDI/V PP TMS TCK GND RST/NMI Test/VPP* TDO/TDI TDI TMS TCK 12 11 MSP430 14 13 14 pos. header (3M p/n 2514-6002) (Digi-Key p/n MHB14K-ND) 20K*** VSS/AVSS/DVSS** *** Pulldown not required on all devices. Check device datasheet pin description. * Not present on all devices ** Pins vary by device. Figure 91: JTAG signal connection (MSP-FET430Pxx0) Note: No JTAG connection is required to the XOUT pin of the MSP430 as shown on some schematics. Part 6. IAR C-SPY FET Debugger 233 Signal connections for in-system programming MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 234 User Guide Part 7. Reference information This part of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide contains the following chapters: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference C-SPY Debugger reference General options Compiler options Assembler options Custom build options Build actions options Linker options Library builder options Debugger options C-SPY macros reference. 235 236 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference This chaptersection contains reference information about the windows, menus, menu commands, and the corresponding components that are found in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Information about how to best use the Embedded Workbench for your purposes can be found in parts 3 to 7 in this guide.Information about how to best use the Embedded Workbench for your purposes can be found in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE is a modular application. Which menus are available depends on which components are installed. Windows The available windows are: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window Workspace window Editor window Source Browser window Breakpoints window Message windows.History In addition, a set of C-SPY-specific windows becomes available when you start the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Reference information about these windows can be found in the chapter C-SPY Debugger reference in this guide. Part 7. Reference information 237 Windows IAR EMBEDDED WORKBENCH IDE WINDOW The figure shows the main window of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE and its different components. The window might look different depending on which plugin modules you are using. Menu bar Toolbar Editor window Workspace window Status bar Figure 92: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window Each window item is explained in greater detail in the following sections. Menu bar Gives access to the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE menus. Menu Description File Edit The File menu provides commands for opening source and project files, saving and printing, and exiting from the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. The Edit menu provides commands for editing and searching in editor windows and for enabling and disabling breakpoints in C-SPY. Table 46: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE menu bar MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 238 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Menu Description View Project Tools Window Use the commands on the View menu to open windows and decide which toolbars to display. The Project menu provides commands for adding files to a project, creating groups, and running the IAR Systems tools on the current project. The Tools menu is a user-configurable menu to which you can add tools for use with the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. With the commands on the Window menu you can manipulate the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE windows and change their arrangement on the screen. The commands on the Help menu provide help about the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Help Table 46: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE menu bar (Continued) For reference information for each menu, see Menus, page 264. Toolbar The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE toolbar--available from the View menu--provides buttons for the most useful commands on the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE menus, and a text box for typing a string to do a quick search. You can display a description of any button by pointing to it with the mouse button. When a command is not available, the corresponding toolbar button will be dimmed, and you will not be able to click it. This figure shows the menu commands corresponding to each of the toolbar buttons: Open Save All Cut Paste Redo Find Go to Next Bookmark Navigate Forward Make Toggle Breakpoint Save New Print Copy Undo Quick search text box Find Next Replace Navigate Backward Compile Stop Build Debug Toggle Bookmark Figure 93: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE toolbar Note: When you start C-SPY, the Debug button will change to a Make and Debug button. Part 7. Reference information 239 Windows Status bar The Status bar at the bottom of the window--available from the View menu--displays the status of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, and the state of the modifier keys. As you are editing, the status bar shows the current line and column number containing the insertion point, and the Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Overwrite status. Figure 94: IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window status bar WORKSPACE WINDOW The Workspace window, available from the View menu, shows the name of the current workspace and a tree representation of the projects, groups and files included in the workspace. Configuration drop-down menu Tabs for choosing workspace display Column containing status information about option overrides Figure 95: Workspace window Indicates that the file will be rebuilt next time the project is built Column containing source code control status information In the drop-down list at the top of the window you can choose a build configuration to display in the window for a specific project. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 240 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference The column that contains status information about settings and overrides can have one of three icons for each level in the project: Blank Black check mark Red check mark There are no settings/overrides for this file/group There are local settings/overrides for this file/group There are local settings/overrides for this file/group, but they are identical with the inherited settings, which means the overrides are superfluous. For details about the different source code control icons, see Source code control states, page 244. At the bottom of the window you can choose which project to display. Alternatively, you can choose to display an overview of the entire workspace. For more information about project management and using the Workspace window, see the chapter Managing projects in Part 3. Project management and building in this guide.For more information about project management and using the Workspace window, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Workspace window context menu Clicking the right mouse button in the Workspace window displays a context menu which gives you convenient access to several commands. Figure 96: Workspace window context menu Part 7. Reference information 241 Windows The following commands are available on the context menu: Menu command Description Options Displays a dialog box where you can set options for each build tool on the selected item in the Workspace window. You can set options on the entire project, on a group of files, or on an individual file. Brings the current target up to date by compiling, assembling, and linking only the files that have changed since the last build. Compiles or assembles the currently active file as appropriate. You can choose the file either by selecting it in the Workspace window, or by selecting the editor window containing the file you want to compile. Recompiles and relinks all files in the selected build configuration. Deletes intermediate files. Stops the current build operation. Opens a dialog box where you can add files to the project. Adds the indicated file to the project. This command is only available if there is an open file in the editor. Opens a dialog box where you can add new groups to the project. Removes selected items from the Workspace window. Make Compile Rebuild All Clean Stop Build Add>Add Files Add>Add "filename" Add>Add Group Remove Source Code Control Opens a submenu with commands for source code control, see Source Code Control menu, page 243. File Properties Set as Active Opens a standard File Properties dialog box for the selected file. Sets the selected project in the overview display to be the active project. It is the active project that will be built when the Make command is executed. Table 47: Workspace window context menu commands MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 242 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Source Code Control menu The Source Code Control menu is available from the Project menu and from the context menu in the Workspace window. This menu contains some of the most commonly used commands of external, third-party source code control systems. Figure 97: Source Code Control menu For more information about interacting with an external source code control system, see Source code control, page 86the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. The following commands are available on the submenu: Menu command Description Check In Opens the Check In Files dialog box where you can check in the selected files; see Check In Files dialog box, page 246. Any changes you have made in the files will be stored in the archive. This command is enabled when currently checked-out files are selected in the Workspace window. Checks out the selected file or files. Depending on the SCC system you are using, a dialog box may appear; see Check Out Files dialog box, page 247. This means you get a local copy of the file(s), which you can edit. This command is enabled when currently checked-in files are selected in the Workspace window. The selected files revert to the latest archived version; the files are no longer checked-out. Any changes you have made to the files will be lost. This command is enabled when currently checked-out files are selected in the Workspace window. Replaces the selected files with the latest archived version. Displays--in a SCC-specific window--the differences between the local version and the most recent archived version. Check Out Undo Check out Get Latest Version Compare Table 48: Description of source code control commands Part 7. Reference information 243 Windows Menu command Description History Properties Refresh Displays SCC-specific information about the revision history of the selected file. Displays information available in the SCC system for the selected file. Updates the SCC display status for all the files that are part of the project. This command is always enabled for all projects under SCC. Add Project To Source Opens a dialog box, which originates from the SCC client application, to Control let you create a connection between the selected IAR Embedded Workbench project and an SCC project; the IAR Embedded Workbench project will then be an SCC-controlled project. After creating this connection, a special column that contains status information will appear in the Workspace window. Remove Project From Removes the connection between the selected IAR Embedded Source Control Workbench project and an SCC project; your project will no longer be a SCC-controlled project. The column in the Workspace window that contains SCC status information will no longer be visible for that project. Table 48: Description of source code control commands (Continued) Source code control states Each source code-controlled file can be in one of several states. SCC state Description Checked out to you. The file is editable. Checked out to you. The file is editable and you have modified the file. (grey padlock) (grey padlock) (red padlock) (red padlock) Checked in. In many SCC systems this means that the file is write-protected. Checked in. There is a new version available in the archive. Checked out exclusively to another user. In many SCC systems this means that you cannot check out the file. Checked out exclusively to another user. There is a new version available in the archive. In many SCC systems this means that you cannot check out the file. Table 49: Description of source code control states MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 244 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Note: The source code control in IAR Embedded Workbench depends on the information provided by the SCC system. If the SCC system provides incorrect or incomplete information about the states, IAR Embedded Workbench might display incorrect symbols. Select Source Code Control Provider dialog box The Select Source Code Control Provider dialog box is displayed if there are several SCC systems from different vendors available. Use this dialog box to choose the SCC system you want to use. Figure 98: Select Source Code Control Provider dialog box Part 7. Reference information 245 Windows Check In Files dialog box The Check In Files dialog box is available by choosing the Project>Source Code Control>Check In command, alternatively available from the Workspace window context menu. Figure 99: Check In File dialog box Comment A text box in which you can write a comment--typically a description of your changes--that will be stored in the archive together with the file revision. This text box is only enabled if the SCC system supports the adding of comments at check-in. Keep checked out The file(s) will continue to be checked out after they have been checked in. Typically, this is useful if you want to make your modifications available to other members in your project team, without stopping your own work with the file. Advanced Opens a dialog box, originating from the SCC client application, that contains advanced options. This button is only available if the SCC system supports setting advanced options at check in. Files A list of the files that will be checked in. The list will contain all files that were selected in the Workspace window when this dialog box was opened. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 246 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Check Out Files dialog box The Check Out File dialog box is available by choosing the Project>Source Code Control>Check Out command, alternatively available from the Workspace window context menu. However, this dialog box is only available if the SCC system supports adding comments at check-out or advanced options. Figure 100: Check Out File dialog box Comment A text field in which you can write a comment--typically the reason why the file is checked out--that will be placed in the archive together with the file revision. This text box is only enabled if the SCC system supports the adding of comments at check-out. Advanced Opens a dialog box, originating from the SCC client application, that contains advanced options. This button is only available if the SCC system supports setting advanced options at check out. Files A list of files that will be checked out. The list will contain all files that were selected in the Workspace window when this dialog box was opened. Part 7. Reference information 247 Windows EDITOR WINDOW Source files are displayed in editor windows. You can have one or several editor windows open at the same time. The editor window is always docked, and its size and position depends on other currently open windows. Drop-down menu listing all open files Tabs Splitter control Bookmark Splitter control Go to function Figure 101: Editor window The name of the open source file is displayed on the tab. If a file is read-only, a padlock icon is visible at the bottom left corner of the editor window. If a file has been modified after it was last saved, an asterisk appears after the filename on the tab, for example Utilities.c *. All open files are available from the drop-down menu in the upper right corner of the editor window. For information about using the editor, see the chapter Editing, page 95.For information about using the editor, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Split commands Use the Window>Split command--or the Splitter controls--to split the editor window horizontally or vertically into multiple panes. On the Window menu you also find commands for opening multiple editor windows, as well as commands for moving files between the different editor windows. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 248 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Go to function With the Go to function button in the bottom left-hand corner of the editor window you can display all functions in the C or C++ editor window. You can then choose to go directly to one of them. Editor window tab context menu The context menu that appears if you right-click on a tab in the editor window provides access to commands for saving and closing the file. Figure 102: Editor window tab context menu Editor window context menu The context menu available in the editor window provides convenient access to several commands. Figure 103: Editor window context menu Note: The contents of this menu depend on different circumstances, which means it may contain other commands compared to this figure. All commands available are described in the Table 50, Description of commands on the editor window context menu. Part 7. Reference information 249 Windows The following commands are available on the editor window context menu: Menu command Description Cut, Copy, Paste Complete Match Brackets Standard window commands. Attempts to complete the word you have begun to type, basing the guess on the contents of the rest of the editor document. Selects all text between the brackets immediately surrounding the insertion point, increases the selection to the next hierarchic pair of brackets, or beeps if there is no higher bracket hierarchy. Displays a list in the editor window from which you can choose a code template to be inserted at the location of the insertion point. If the code template you choose requires any field input, the Template dialog box appears; for information about this dialog box, see Template dialog box, page 274. For information about using code templates, see Using and adding code templates, page 99the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Opens the header file "header.h" in an editor window. This menu command is only available if the insertion point is located on an #include line when you open the context menu. Jumps from the current file to the corresponding header or source file. If the destination file is not open when performing the command, the file will first be opened. This menu command is only available if the insertion point is located on any line except an #include line when you open the context menu. This command is also available from the File>Open menu. Shows the declaration of the symbol where the insertion point is placed. Commands for source code control; for more details, see Source Code Control menu, page 243. These menu commands are only available if the current source file in the editor window is SCC-controlled. The file must also be a member of the current project. Toggles a code breakpoint at the statement or instruction containing or close to the cursor in the source window. For information about code breakpoints, see Code breakpoints dialog box, page 256. HistoryToggles a log breakpoint at the statement or instruction containing or close to the cursor in the source window. For information about log breakpoints, see Log breakpoints dialog box, page 258. Toggles a breakpoint between being disabled, but not actually removed--making it available for future use--and being enabled again. Insert Template Open "header.h" Open Header/Source File Go to definition Check In Check Out Undo Checkout Toggle Breakpoint (Code) Toggle Breakpoint (Log) Enable/disable Breakpoint Table 50: Description of commands on the editor window context menu MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 250 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Menu command Description Set Next Statement Sets the PC directly to the selected statement or instruction without executing any code. Use this menu command with care. This menu command is only available when you are using the debugger. Opens the Quick Watch window, see Quick Watch window, page 325. This menu command is only available when you are using the debugger. Adds the selected symbol to the Watch window. This menu command is only available when you are using the debugger. Moves the insertion point to the current PC position in the editor window. This menu command is only available when you are using the debugger. Executes from the current statement or instruction up to a selected statement or instruction. This menu command is only available when you are using the debugger. HistoryDisplays the IDE Options dialog box, see Tools menu, page 286. Quick Watch Add to Watch Move to PC Run to Cursor Options Table 50: Description of commands on the editor window context menu (Continued) Source file paths The IAR Embedded Workbench IDE supports relative source file paths to a certain degree. If a source file is located in the project file directory or in any subdirectory of the project file directory, the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE will use a path relative to the project file when accessing the source file. Editor key summary The following tables summarize the editor's keyboard commands. Use the following keys and key combinations for moving the insertion point: To move the insertion point Press One character left One character right One word left One word right One line up One line down To the start of the line Arrow left Arrow right Ctrl+Arrow left Ctrl+Arrow right Arrow up Arrow down Home Table 51: Editor keyboard commands for insertion point navigation Part 7. Reference information 251 Windows To move the insertion point Press To the end of the line To the first line in the file To the last line in the file End Ctrl+Home Ctrl+End Table 51: Editor keyboard commands for insertion point navigation (Continued) Use the following keys and key combinations for scrolling text: To scroll Press Up one line Down one line Up one page Down one page Table 52: Editor keyboard commands for scrolling Ctrl+Arrow up Ctrl+Arrow down Page Up Page Down Use the following key combinations for selecting text: To select Press The character to the left The character to the right One word to the left One word to the right To the same position on the previous line To the same position on the next line To the start of the line To the end of the line One screen up One screen down To the beginning of the file To the end of the file Table 53: Editor keyboard commands for selecting text Shift+Arrow left Shift+Arrow right Shift+Ctrl+Arrow left Shift+Ctrl+Arrow right Shift+Arrow up Shift+Arrow down Shift+Home Shift+End Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Shift+Ctrl+Home Shift+Ctrl+End MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 252 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference SOURCE BROWSER WINDOW The Source Browser window--available from the View menu--displays an hierarchical view in alphabetical order of all symbols defined in the active build configuration. Figure 104: Source Browser window The window consists of two separate panes. The top pane displays the names of global symbols and functions defined in the project. Each row is prefixed with an icon, which corresponds to the Symbol type classification, see Table 54, Information in Source Browser window. By clicking in the window header, you can sort the symbols either by name or by symbol type. In the top pane you can also access a context menu; see Source Browser window context menu, page 254. For a symbol selected in the top pane, the bottom pane displays the following information: Type of information Description Full name Symbol type Displays the unique name of each element, for instance classname::membername. Displays the symbol type for each element: enumeration, enumeration constant, class, typedef, union, macro, field or variable, function, template function, template class, and configuration. Specifies the path to the file in which the element is defined. Filename Table 54: Information in Source Browser window Part 7. Reference information 253 Windows For further details about how to use the Source Browser window, see Displaying browse information, page 85.For further details about how to use the Source Browser window, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Source Browser window context menu Right-clicking in the Source Browser window displays a context menu with convenient access to several commands. Figure 105: Source Browser window context menu The following commands are available on the context menu: Menu command Description Go to Source Move to parent The editor window will display the definition of the selected item. If the selected element is a member of a class, struct, union, enumeration, or namespace, this menu command can be used for moving to its enclosing element. Type filter; all global symbols and functions defined in the project will be displayed. Type filter; all functions and variables defined in the project will be displayed. Type filter; all types such as structures and classes defined in the project will be displayed. Type filter; all constants and macros defined in the project will be displayed. File filter; symbols from all files that you have explicitly added to your project and all files included by them will be displayed. All symbols Functions & variables Types Constants & macros All files Exclude system includes File filter; symbols from all files that you have explicitly added to your project and all files included by them will be displayed, except the include files in the IAR Embedded Workbench installation directory. Table 55: Source Browser window context menu commands MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 254 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Menu command Description Only project members File filter; symbols from all files that you have explicitly added to your project will be displayed, but no include files. Table 55: Source Browser window context menu commands (Continued) BREAKPOINTS WINDOW The Breakpoints window--available from the View menu--lists all breakpoints. From the window you can conveniently monitor, enable, and disable breakpoints; you can also define new breakpoints and modify existing breakpoints. Figure 106: Breakpoints window All breakpoints you define are displayed in the Breakpoints window. For more information about the breakpoint system and how to set breakpoints, see the chapter Using breakpoints in Part 4. Debugging.For more information about the breakpoint system and how to set breakpoints, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Breakpoints window context menu Right-clicking in the Breakpoints window displays a context menu with several commands. Figure 107: Breakpoints window context menu Part 7. Reference information 255 Windows The following commands are available on the context menu: Menu command Description Go to Source Moves the insertion point to the location of the breakpoint, if the breakpoint has a source location. Double-click a breakpoint in the Breakpoints window to perform the same command. Opens the Edit Breakpoint dialog box for the selected breakpoint. Deletes the selected breakpoint. Press the Delete key to perform the same command. Enables the selected breakpoint. The check box at the beginning of the line will be selected. You can also perform the command by manually selecting the check box. This command is only available if the selected breakpoint is disabled. Disables the selected breakpoint. The check box at the beginning of the line will be cleared. You can also perform this command by manually deselecting the check box.This command is only available if the selected breakpoint is enabled. Enables all defined breakpoints. Disables all defined breakpoints. Displays a submenu where you can open the New Breakpoint dialog box for the available breakpoint types. All breakpoints you define using the New Breakpoint dialog box are preserved between debug sessions. In addition to code and log breakpoints--see Code breakpoints dialog box, page 256 and --other types of breakpoints might be available depending on the C-SPY driver you are using. For information about driver-specific breakpoint types, see the driver-specific debugger documentation. Edit Delete Enable Disable Enable All Disable All New Breakpoint Table 56: Breakpoints window context menu commands Code breakpoints dialog box Code breakpoints are triggered when an instruction is fetched from the specified location. If you have set the breakpoint on a specific machine instruction, the breakpoint will be triggered and the execution will stop, before the instruction is executed. To set a code breakpoint, right-click in the Breakpoints window and choose New Breakpoint>Log on the context menu. To modify an existing breakpoint, select it in the Breakpoints window and choose Edit on the context menu. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 256 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference The Code breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 108: Code breakpoints page Break At Specify the location of the breakpoint in the Break At text box. Alternatively, click the Edit browse button to open the Enter Location dialog box; see Enter Location dialog box, page 260. Size Optionally, you can specify a size--in practice, a range--of locations. Each fetch access to the specified memory range will trigger the breakpoint. There are two different ways the size can be specified: Auto, the size will be set automatically, typically to 1 Manual, you specify the size of the breakpoint range manually in the Size text box. Action You can optionally connect an action to a breakpoint. Specify an expression, for instance a C-SPY macro function, which is evaluated when the breakpoint is triggered and the condition is true. Part 7. Reference information 257 Windows Conditions You can specify simple and complex conditions. Conditions Description Expression Condition true Condition changed Skip count A valid expression conforming to the C-SPY expression syntax. The breakpoint is triggered if the value of the expression is true. The breakpoint is triggered if the value of the expression has changed since it was last evaluated. The number of times that the breakpoint must be fulfilled before a break occurs (integer). Table 57: Breakpoint conditions Log breakpoints dialog box Log breakpoints are triggered when an instruction is fetched from the specified location. If you have set the breakpoint on a specific machine instruction, the breakpoint will be triggered and the execution will temporarily halt and print the specified message in the C-SPY Debug Log window. This is a convenient way to add trace printouts during the execution of your application, without having to add any code to the application source code. To set a log breakpoint, right-click in the Breakpoints window and choose New Breakpoint>Log on the context menu. To modify an existing breakpoint, select it in the Breakpoints window and choose Edit on the context menu. The Log breakpoints dialog box appears. Figure 109: Log breakpoints page MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 258 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference The quickest--and typical--way to set a log breakpoint is by choosing Toggle Breakpoint (Log) from the context many available by right-clicking in either the editor or the Disassembly window. For more information about how to set breakpoints, see Defining breakpoints, page 129. Break At Specify the location of the breakpoint in the Break At text box. Alternatively, click the Edit button to open the Enter Location dialog box; see Enter Location dialog box, page 260. Message Specify the message you want to be displayed in the C-SPY Debug Log window. The message can either be plain text, or--if you also select the option C-SPY macro "__message" style--a comma-separated list of arguments. C-SPY macro "__message" style Select this option to make a comma-separated list of arguments specified in the Message text box be treated exactly as the arguments to the C-SPY macro language statement __message, see Formatted output, page 400. Conditions You can specify simple and complex conditions. Conditions Description Expression Condition true Condition changed A valid expression conforming to the C-SPY expression syntax. The breakpoint is triggered if the value of the expression is true. The breakpoint is triggered if the value of the expression has changed since it was last evaluated. Table 58: Log breakpoint conditions Part 7. Reference information 259 Windows Enter Location dialog box Use the Enter Location dialog box--available from a breakpoints dialog box--to specify the location of the breakpoint. Figure 110: Enter Location dialog box You can choose between these locations and their possible settings: Location type Description/Examples Expression Any expression that evaluates to a valid address, such as a function or variable name. Code breakpoints are set on functions and data breakpoints are set on variable names. For example, my_var refers to the location of the variable my_var, and arr[3] refers to the third element of the array arr. An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress. Zone specifies in which memory the address belongs. For example Memory:0x42. If you enter a combination of a zone and address that is not valid, C-SPY will indicate the mismatch. A location in the C source code using the syntax: {file path}.row.column. File specifies the filename and full path. Row specifies the row in which you want the breakpoint. Column specifies the column in which you want the breakpoint. Note that the Source Location type is usually meaningful only for code breakpoints. For example, {C:\my_projects\Utilities.c}.22.3 sets a breakpoint on the third character position on line 22 in the source file Utilities.c. Absolute Address Source Location Table 59: Location types MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 260 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference BUILD WINDOW The Build window--available by choosing View>Messages--displays the messages generated when building a build configuration. When opened, this window is by default grouped together with the other message windows, see Windows, page 237. Figure 111: Build window (message window) Double-clicking a message in the Build window opens the appropriate file for editing, with the insertion point at the correct position. Right-clicking in the Build window displays a context menu which allows you to copy, select, and clear the contents of the window. Figure 112: Build window context menu The Options command opens the Messages page of the IDE options dialog box. On this page you can set options related to messages; see Messages page, page 290. Part 7. Reference information 261 Windows FIND IN FILES WINDOW The Find in Files window--available by choosing View>Messages--displays the output from the Edit>Find and Replace>Find in Files command. When opened, this window is by default grouped together with the other message windows, see Windows, page 237. Figure 113: Find in Files window (message window) Double-clicking an entry in the page opens the appropriate file with the insertion point positioned at the correct location. Right-clicking in the Find in Files window displays a context menu which allows you to copy, select, and clear the contents of the window. Figure 114: Find in Files window context menu MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 262 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference TOOL OUTPUT WINDOW The Tool Output window--available by choosing View>Messages--displays any messages output by user-defined tools in the Tools menu, provided that you have selected the option Redirect to Output Window in the Configure Tools dialog box; see Configure Tools dialog box, page 303. When opened, this window is by default grouped together with the other message windows, see Windows, page 237. Figure 115: Tool Output window (message window) Right-clicking in the Tool Output window displays a context menu which allows you to copy, select, and clear the contents of the window. Figure 116: Tool Output window context menu Part 7. Reference information 263 Menus DEBUG LOG WINDOW The Debug Log window--available by choosing View>Messages--displays debugger output, such as diagnostic messages and trace information. This output is only available when the C-SPY Debugger is running. When opened, this window is by default grouped together with the other message windows, see Windows, page 237. Figure 117: Debug Log window (message window) Right-clicking in the Tool Output window displays a context menu which allows you to copy, select, and clear the contents of the window. Figure 118: Debug Log window context menu Menus The following menus are available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE: File menu Edit menu View menu Project menu Tools menu Window menu Help menu. In addition, a set of C-SPY-specific menus become available when you start the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Reference information about these menus can be found in the chapter C-SPY Debugger reference, page 313. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 264 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference FILE MENU The File menu provides commands for opening workspaces and source files, saving and printing, and exiting from the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. The menu also includes a numbered list of the most recently opened files and workspaces to allow you to open one by selecting its name from the menu. Figure 119: File menu The following commands are available on the File menu: Menu command Shortcut Description New Open>File Open> Workspace CTRL+N CTRL+O Displays a submenu with commands for creating a new workspace, or a new text file. Displays a submenu from which you can select a text file to open. Displays a submenu from which you can select a workspace file to open. Before a new workspace is opened you will be prompted to save and close any currently open workspaces. Opens the header file or source file that corresponds to the current file, and jumps from the current file to the newly opened file. This command is also available from the context menu available from the editor window. Closes the active window. You will be given the opportunity to save any files that have been modified before closing. Open> CTRL+ Header/Source File SHIFT+H Close Table 60: File menu commands Part 7. Reference information 265 Menus Menu command Shortcut Description Open Workspace Displays a dialog box where you can open a workspace file. You will be given the opportunity to save and close any currently open workspace file that has been modified before opening a new workspace. Saves the current workspace file. Closes the current workspace file. CTRL+S Saves the current text file or workspace file. Displays a dialog box where you can save the current file with a new name. Saves all open text documents and workspace files. Displays a dialog box where you can set printer options. CTRL+P Displays a dialog box where you can print a text document. Displays a submenu where you can quickly open the most recently opened text documents. Displays a submenu where you can quickly open the most recently opened workspace files. Exits from the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. You will be asked whether to save any changes to text windows before closing them. Changes to the project are saved automatically. Save Workspace Close Workspace Save Save As Save All Page Setup Print Recent Files Recent Workspaces Exit Table 60: File menu commands (Continued) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 266 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference EDIT MENU The Edit menu provides several commands for editing and searching. Figure 120: Edit menu Menu command Shortcut Description Undo Redo CTRL+Z CTRL+Y Undoes the last edit made to the current editor window. Redoes the last Undo in the current editor window. You can undo and redo an unlimited number of edits independently in each editor window. The standard Windows command for cutting text in editor windows and text boxes. The standard Windows command for copying text in editor windows and text boxes. The standard Windows command for pasting text in editor windows and text boxes. Provides you with a choice of the most recent contents of the clipboard to choose from when pasting in editor documents. Cut Copy Paste Paste Special Select All CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V CTRL+A Selects all text in the active editor window. Table 61: Edit menu commands Part 7. Reference information 267 Menus Menu command Shortcut Description Find and Replace>Find CTRL+F Displays the Find dialog box where you can search for text within the current editor window. Note that if the insertion point is located in the Memory window when you choose the Find command, the dialog box will contain a different set of options than it would otherwise do. If the insertion point is located in the Trace window when you choose the Find command, the Find in Trace dialog box is opened; the contents of this dialog box depend on the C-SPY driver you are using, see the driver documentation for more information. Finds the next occurrence of the specified string. Displays a dialog box where you can search for a specified string and replace each occurrence with another string. Note that if the insertion point is located in the Memory window when you choose the Replace command, the dialog box will contain a different set of options than it would otherwise do. Displays a dialog box where you can search for a specified string in multiple text files; see Find in Files dialog box, page 271. Find and Replace> Find Next Find and Replace> Replace F3 CTRL+H Find and Replace> Find in Files Find and Replace> Incremental Search Navigate>Go To Navigate> Toggle Bookmark Navigate> Go to Bookmark Navigate> Navigate Backward CTRL+I CTRL+G CTRL+F2 F2 ALT+Left arrow Displays a dialog box where you can gradually fine-tune or expand the search by continuously changing the search string. Displays a dialog box where you can move the insertion point to a specified line and column in the current editor window. Toggles a bookmark at the line where the insertion point is located in the active editor window. Moves the insertion point to the next bookmark that has been defined with the Toggle Bookmark command. Navigates backward in the insertion point history. The current position of the insertion point is added to the history by actions like Go to definition and clicking on a result from the Find in Files command. Navigate> Navigate Forward ALT+Right Navigates forward in the insertion point history. The current arrow position of the insertion point is added to the history by actions like Go to definition and clicking on a result from the Find in Files command. Table 61: Edit menu commands (Continued) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 268 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Menu command Shortcut Description Code Templates> Insert Template CTRL+ SHIFT+ SPACE Displays a list in the editor window from which you can choose a code template to be inserted at the location of the insertion point. If the code template you choose requires any field input, the Template dialog box appears; for information about this dialog box, see Template dialog box, page 274. For information about using code templates, see Using and adding code templates, page 99the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Opens the current code template file, where you can modify existing code templates and add your own code templates. For information about using code templates, see Using and adding code templates, page 99the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Code Templates> Edit Templates Next Error/Tag F4 If there is a list of error messages or the results from a Find in Files search in the Messages window, this command will display the next item from that list in the editor window. If there is a list of error messages or the results from a Find in Files search in the Messages window, this command will display the previous item from that list in the editor window. Attempts to complete the word you have begun to type, basing the guess on the contents of the rest of the editor document. Indents one or several lines you have selected in a C/C++ source file. To configure the indentation, see Configure Auto Indent dialog box, page 292. Selects all text between the brackets immediately surrounding the insertion point, increases the selection to the next hierarchic pair of brackets, or beeps if there is no higher bracket hierarchy. Previous Error/Tag SHIFT+F4 Complete CTRL+ SPACE CTRL+T Auto Indent Match Brackets Block Comment Block Uncomment CTRL+K CTRL+K HistoryPlaces the C++ comment character sequence // at the beginning of the selected lines. HistoryRemoves the C++ comment character sequence // from the beginning of the selected lines. Table 61: Edit menu commands (Continued) Part 7. Reference information 269 Menus Menu command Shortcut Description Toggle Breakpoint F9 Toggles a breakpoint at the statement or instruction that contains or is located near the cursor in the source window. This command is also available as an icon button in the debug bar. Toggles a breakpoint between being disabled, but not actually removed--making it available for future use--and being enabled again. Enable/Disable Breakpoint CTRL+F9 Table 61: Edit menu commands (Continued) Find dialog box The Find dialog box is available from the Edit menu.History Option Description Find What Selects the text to search for. Match Whole Word Only Searches the specified text only if it occurs as a separate word. Otherwise specifying int will also find print, sprintf etc. This option is not available when you perform the search in the Memory window. Match Case Searches only occurrences that exactly match the case of the specified text. Otherwise specifying int will also find INT and Int. This option is not available when you perform the search in the Memory window. Specifies the direction of the search. Choose between the options Up and Down. Searches for the specified hexadecimal value. This option is only available when you perform the search in the Memory window. Searches the next occurrence of the selected text. Stops an ongoing search. This function button is only available during a search. Direction Search as Hex Find Next Stop Table 62: Find dialog box options Replace dialog box The Replace dialog box is available from the Edit menu.History Option Description Find What Selects the text to search for. Table 63: Replace dialog box options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 270 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Option Description Replace With Selects the text to replace each found occurrence in the Replace With box. Match Whole Word Only Searches the specified text only if it occurs as a separate word. Otherwise int will also find print, sprintf etc. This checkbox is not available when you perform the search in the Memory window. Match Case Searches only occurrences that exactly match the case of the specified text. Otherwise specifying int will also find INT and Int. This checkbox is not available when you perform the search in the Memory window. Searches for the specified hexadecimal value. This checkbox is only available when you perform the search in the Memory window. Searches the next occurrence of the text you have specified. Replaces the searched text with the specified text. Replaces all occurrences of the searched text in the current editor window. Search as Hex Find Next Replace Replace All Table 63: Replace dialog box options (Continued) Find in Files dialog box Use the Find in Files dialog box--available from the Edit menu--to search for a string in files. Figure 121: Find in Files dialog box Part 7. Reference information 271 Menus The result of the search appears in the Find in Files messages window--available from the View menu. You can then go to each occurrence by choosing the Edit>Next Error/Tag command, alternatively by double-clicking the messages in the Find in Files messages window. This opens the corresponding file in an editor window with the insertion point positioned at the start of the specified text. A blue flag in the left-most margin indicates the line. In the Find in Files dialog box, you specify the search criteria with the following settings. Find what A text field in which you type the string you want to search for. There are two options for fine-tuning the search: Match case Match whole word Searches only for occurrences that exactly match the case of the specified text. Otherwise specifying int will also find INT and Int. Searches only for the string when it occurs as a separate word. Otherwise int will also find print, sprintf and so on. Look in The options in the Look in area lets you specify which files you want to search in for a specified string. Choose between: Project files The search will be performed in all files that you have explicitly added to your project. Project files and user The search will be performed in all files that you have explicitly added to include files your project and all files included by them, except the include files in the IAR Embedded Workbench installation directory. Project files and all The search will be performed in all project files that you have explicitly include files added to your project and all files included by them. Directory The search will be performed in the directory that you specify. Recent search locations are saved in the drop-down list. Locate the directory using the browse button. The search will be performed in the directory that you have specified and all its subdirectories. Look in subdirectories MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 272 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference File types This is a filter for choosing which type of files to search; the filter applies to all options in the Look in area. Choose the appropriate filter from the drop-down list. HistoryNote that the File types text field is editable, which means that you can add your own filters. Use the * character to indicate zero or more unknown characters of the filters, and the ? character to indicate one unknown character. Stop Stops an ongoing search. This function button is only available during an ongoing search. Incremental Search dialog box The Incremental Search dialog box--available from the Edit menu--lets you gradually fine-tune or expand the search string. Figure 122: Incremental Search dialog box Find What Type the string to search for. The search will be performed from the location of the insertion point--the start point. Gradually incrementing the search string will gradually expand the search criteria. Backspace will remove a character from the search string; the search will be performed on the remaining string and will start from the start point. If a word in the editor window is selected when you open the Incremental Search dialog box, this word will be displayed in the Find What text box. Match Case Use this option to find only occurrences that exactly match the case of the specified text. Otherwise searching for int will also find INT and Int. Part 7. Reference information 273 Menus Function buttons Function button Description Find Next Searches for the next occurrence of the current search string. If the Find What text box is empty when you click the Find Next button, a string to search for will automatically be selected from the drop-down list. To search for this string, click Find Next. Closes this dialog box. Close Table 64: Incremental Search function buttons Template dialog box Use the Template dialog box to specify any field input that is required by the source code template you insert. This dialog box appears when you insert a code template that requires any field input. Figure 123: Template dialog box Note: This figure reflects the default code template that can be used for automatically inserting code for a for loop. The contents of this dialog box match the code template. In other words, which fields that appear depends on how the code template is defined. At the bottom of the dialog box, the code that would result from the code template is displayed. For more information about using code templates, see Using and adding code templates, page 99the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 274 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference VIEW MENU With the commands on the View menu you can choose what to display in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. During a debug session you can also open debugger-specific windows from the View menu. Figure 124: View menu Menu command Description Messages Opens a submenu which gives access to the message windows--Build, Find in Files, Tool Output, Debug Log--that display messages and text output from the IAR Embedded Workbench commands. If the window you choose from the menu is already open, it becomes the active window. Opens the current Workspace window. Opens the Source Browser window. Opens the Breakpoints window. The options Main and Debug toggle the two toolbars on and off. Toggles the status bar on and off. Workspace Source Browser Breakpoints Toolbars Status bar Table 65: View menu commands Part 7. Reference information 275 Menus Menu command Description Debugger windows During a debugging session, the different debugging windows are also available from the View menu: Disassembly window Memory window Register window Watch window Locals window Auto window Live Watch window Quick Watch window Call Stack window Terminal I/O window Code Coverage window Profiling window Stack window LCD window For descriptions of these windows, see C-SPY windows, page 313. Table 65: View menu commands (Continued) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 276 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference PROJECT MENU The Project menu provides commands for working with workspaces, projects, groups, and files, as well as specifying options for the build tools, and running the tools on the current project. Figure 125: Project menu Menu Command Description Add Files Add Group Displays a dialog box that where you can select which files to include to the current project. Displays a dialog box where you can create a new group. The Group Name text box specifies the name of the new group. The Add to Target list selects the targets to which the new group should be added. By default the group is added to all targets. Displays a standard Open dialog box where you can import information about files and groups from projects created using another IAR tool chain. To import information from project files which have one of the older filename extensions pew or prj you must first have exported the information using the context menu command Export File List available in your own IAR Embedded Workbench. Displays the Configurations for project dialog box, where you can define new or remove existing build configurations. Import File List Edit Configurations Table 66: Project menu commands Part 7. Reference information 277 Menus Menu Command Description Remove Create New Project Add Existing Project Options In the Workspace window, removes the selected item from the workspace. Displays a dialog box where you can create a new project and add it to the workspace. Displays a dialog box where you can add an existing project to the workspace. Displays the Options for node dialog box, where you can set options for the build tools on the selected item in the Workspace window. You can set options on the entire project, on a group of files, or on an individual file. Source Code Control Opens a submenu with commands for source code control, see Source Code Control menu, page 243. Make Brings the current build configuration up to date by compiling, assembling, and linking only the files that have changed since the last build. Compiles or assembles the currently selected file, files, or group. One or more files can be selected in the Workspace window--all files in the same project, but not necessarily in the same group. You can also select the editor window containing the file you want to compile. The Compile command is only enabled if every file in the selection is individually suitable for the command. You can also select a group, in which case the command is applied to each file in the group (including inside nested groups) that can be compiled, even if the group contains files that cannot be compiled, such as header files. Rebuilds and relinks all files in the current target. Removes any intermediate files. Displays a dialog box where you can configure named batch build configurations, and build a named batch. Stops the current build operation. Starts the IAR C-SPY Debugger so that you can debug the project object file. If necessary, a make will be performed before running C-SPY to ensure the project is up to date. Depending on your IAR product installation, you can choose which debugger drive to use by selecting the appropriate C-SPY driver on the C-SPY Setup page available by using the Project>Options command. Compile Rebuild All Clean Batch Build Stop Build Debug Table 66: Project menu commands (Continued) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 278 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Menu Command Description Make & Restart Debugger Stops the debugger, makes the active build configuration, and starts the debugger again; all in a single command. This button is only available during debugging. Table 66: Project menu commands (Continued) Argument variables summary Variables can be used for paths and arguments. The following argument variables can be used: Variable Description $CUR_DIR$ $CUR_LINE$ $EW_DIR$ Current directory Current line Top directory of IAR Embedded Workbench, for example c:\program files\iar systems\embedded workbench 4.n Directory for executable output Filename without extension Full path without extension Directory of active file, no filename Filename of active file without path Full path of active file (in Editor, Project, or Message window) Directory for list output Directory for object output Project directory Project file name without path Full path of project file Directory of primary output file Filename without path of primary output file and without extension Full path of primary output file without extension Filename without path of primary output file Full path of primary output file Directory of the active product, for example c:\program files\iar systems\embedded workbench 4.n\430 $EXE_DIR$ $FILE_BNAME$ $FILE_BPATH$ $FILE_DIR$ $FILE_FNAME$ $FILE_PATH$ $LIST_DIR$ $OBJ_DIR$ $PROJ_DIR$ $PROJ_FNAME$ $PROJ_PATH$ $TARGET_DIR$ $TARGET_BNAME$ $TARGET_BPATH$ $TARGET_FNAME$ $TARGET_PATH$ $TOOLKIT_DIR$ Table 67: Argument variables Part 7. Reference information 279 Menus Configurations for project dialog box In the Configuration for project dialog box--available by choosing Project>Edit Configurations--you can define new build configurations for the selected project; either entirely new, or based on a previous project. Figure 126: Configurations for project dialog box The dialog box contains the following: Operation Description Configurations New Remove Lists existing configurations, which can be used as templates for new configurations. Opens a dialog box where you can define new build configurations. Removes the configuration that is selected in the Configurations list. Table 68: Configurations for project dialog box options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 280 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference New Configuration dialog box In the New Configuration dialog box--available by clicking New in the Configurations for project dialog box--you can define new build configurations; either entirely new, or based on any currently defined configuration. Figure 127: New Configuration dialog box The dialog box contains the following: Item Description Name Tool chain The name of the build configuration. The target to build for. If you have several versions of IAR Embedded Workbench for different targets installed on your host computer, the drop-down list can contain these targets. Based on configuration A currently defined build configuration that you want the new configuration to be based on. The new configuration will inherit the project settings as well as information about the factory settings from the old configuration. If you select None, the new configuration will have default factory settings and not be based on an already defined configuration. Factory settings Specifies the default factory settings--either Debug or Release--that you want to apply to your new build configuration. These factory settings will be used by your project if you press the Factory Settings button in the Options dialog box. Table 69: New Configuration dialog box options Part 7. Reference information 281 Menus Create New Project dialog box The Create New Project dialog box is available from the Project menu, and lets you create a new project based on a template project. There are template projects available for C/C++ applications, assembler applications, and library projects. You can also create your own template projects. Figure 128: Create New Project dialog box The dialog box contains the following: Item Description Tool chain The target to build for. If you have several versions of IAR Embedded Workbench for different targets installed on your host computer, the drop-down list can contain these targets. Lists all available template projects that you can base a new project on. Project templates Table 70: Description of Create New Project dialog box MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 282 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Options dialog box The Options dialog box is available from the Project menu. In the Category list you can select the build tool for which you want to set options. The options available in the Category list will depend on the tools installed in your IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, and will typically include the following options: Category Description General Options C/C++ Compiler Assembler Custom Build Build Actions Linker Library Builder Debugger FET Debugger Simulator General options MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler options MSP430 IAR Assembler options Options for extending the tool chain Options for pre-build and post-build actions IAR XLINK Linker options. This category is available for application projects. IAR XAR Library Builder options. This category is available for library projects. IAR C-SPY Debugger options FET-specific options Simulator-specific options Table 71: Project option categories Note: Additional debugger categories might be available depending on the debugger drivers installed. Selecting a category displays one or more pages of options for that component of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For detailed information about each option, see the option reference chapters: available in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. General options Compiler options Assembler options Custom build options Build actions options Linker options Library builder options Debugger options. For information about the options related to available hardware debugger systems, see the online help system. Part 7. Reference information 283 Menus Batch Build dialog box The Batch Build dialog box--available by choosing Project>Batch build--lists all defined batches of build configurations. Figure 129: Batch Build dialog box The dialog box contains the following: Item Description Batches New Remove Edit Build Lists all currently defined batches of build configurations. Displays the Edit Batch Build dialog box, where you can define new batches of build configurations. Removes the selected batch. Displays the Edit Batch Build dialog box, where you can modify already defined batches. Consists of the three build commands Make, Clean, and Rebuild All. Table 72: Description of the Batch Build dialog box MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 284 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Edit Batch Build dialog box In the Edit Batch Build dialog box--available from the Batch Build dialog box--you can create new batches of build configurations, and edit already existing batches. Figure 130: Edit Batch Build dialog box The dialog box contains the following: Item Description Name Available configurations Configurations to build The name of the batch. Lists all build configurations that are part of the workspace. Lists all the build configurations you select to be part of a named batch. Table 73: Description of the Edit Batch Build dialog box To move appropriate build configurations from the Available configurations list to the Configurations to build list, use the arrow buttons. Note also that you can drag the build configurations in the Configurations to build field to specify the order between the build configurations. Part 7. Reference information 285 Menus TOOLS MENU The Tools menu provides commands for customizing the environment, such as changing common fonts and shortcut keys. It is a user-configurable menu to which you can add tools for use with IAR Embedded Workbench. Thus, it might look different depending on which tools have been preconfigured to appear as menu items. See Configure Tools dialog box, page 303. Figure 131: Tools menu Tools menu commands Menu command Description Options Displays the IDE Options dialog box where you can customize the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Select the feature you want to customize by clicking the appropriate tab. Which pages are available in this dialog box depends on your IAR Embedded Workbench IDE configuration, and whether the IDE is in a debugging session or not Displays a dialog box where you can set up the interface to use external tools. Displays a set of dialog boxes where you can define the filename extensions to be accepted by the build tools. Displays a dialog box where you can configure viewer applications to open documents with. User-configured. This is an example of a user-configured addition to the Tools menu. Configure Tools Filename Extensions Configure Viewers Notepad Table 74: Tools menu commands MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 286 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference External Editor page On the External Editor page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can specify an external editor. Figure 132: External Editor page with command line settings Options Option Description Use External Editor Type Editor Arguments Service Command Enables the use of an external editor. Selects the method for interfacing with the external editor. The type can be either Command Line or DDE (Windows Dynamic Data Exchange). Type the filename and path of your external editor. A browse button is available for your convenience. Type any arguments to pass to the editor. Only applicable if you have selected Type as Command Line. Type the DDE service name used by the editor. Only applicable if you have selected Type as DDE. Type a sequence of command strings to send to the editor. The command strings should be typed as: DDE-Topic CommandString DDE-Topic CommandString Only applicable if you have selected Type as DDE. Table 75: External Editor options Part 7. Reference information 287 Menus The service name and command strings depend on the external editor that you are using. Refer to the user documentation of your external editor to find the appropriate settings. Note: Variables can be used in arguments. See Argument variables summary, page 279, for information about available argument variables. Common fonts page The Common Fonts page--available by choosing Tools>Options--displays the fonts used for all project windows except the editor windows. Figure 133: Common Fonts page With the Font buttons you can change the fixed and proportional width fonts, respectively. Any changes to the Fixed Width Font options will apply to the Disassembly, Register, and Memory windows. Any changes to the Proportional Width Font options will apply to all other windows. None of the settings made on this page apply to the editor windows. For information about how to change the font in the editor windows, see Editor Colors and Fonts page, page 295. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 288 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Key Bindings page The Key Bindings page--available by choosing Tools>Options--displays the shortcut keys used for each of the menu options, which you can change, if you wish. Figure 134: Key Bindings page Options Option Description Category Press shortcut key Primary Alias Reset All Drop-down menu to choose the menu you want to edit. Any currently defined shortcut keys are shown in the scroll list below. Type the key combination you want to use as shortcut key. The shortcut key will be displayed next to the command on the menu. Click Set to set the combination, or Clear to delete the shortcut. The shortcut key will work but not be displayed on the menu. Click either Add to make the key take effect, or Clear to delete the shortcut. Reverts all command shortcut keys to the factory settings. Table 76: Key Bindings page options It is not possible to set or add the shortcut if it is already used by another command. To delete a shortcut key definition, select the corresponding menu command in the scroll list and click Clear under Primary or Alias. To revert all command shortcuts to the factory settings, click Reset All. Click OK to make the new shortcut key bindings take effect. Part 7. Reference information 289 Menus Messages page On the Messages page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can choose the amount of output in the Messages window. Figure 135: Messages page Show build messages Use this drop-down menu to specify the amount of output in the Messages window. Choose between: All Messages Warnings Errors Shows all messages, including compiler and linker information. Shows messages, warnings, and errors. Shows warnings and errors. Show errors only. Log File Use the options in this area to log build messages in a file. To enable the options, select the Enable build log file option. Choose between: Append to end of file Overwrite old file Appends the messages at the end of the specified file. Replaces the contents in the file you specify. Type the filename you want to use in the text box. A browse button is available for your convenience. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 290 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Editor page On the Editor page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can change the editor options. Figure 136: Editor page Options Option Description Tab Size Indent Size Tab Key Function EOL character Specifies the number of character spaces corresponding to each tab. Specifies the number of character spaces to be used for indentation. Specifies how the tab key is used. Either as Insert Tab or as Indent with Spaces. Selects line break character. PC (default) uses Windows and DOS end of line character. Unix uses UNIX end of line characters. Preserve uses the same end of line character as the file had when it was read from the disc drive. The PC format is used by default, and if the read file did not have any breaks, or if there is a mixture of break characters used in the file. HistoryShows the area of the editor window outside the right-side margin as a light gray field. You can choose to set the size of the text field between the left-side margin and the right-side margin using one of the options Printing edge or Columns. Displays the syntax of C or C++ applications in different text styles. Show right margin Syntax Highlighting Table 77: Editor page options Part 7. Reference information 291 Menus Option Description Auto Indent Ensures that when you press Return, the new line will automatically be indented. For C/C++ source files, indentation will be performed as configured in the Configure Auto Indent dialog box. Click the Configure button to open the dialog box where you can configure the automatic indentation; see Configure Auto Indent dialog box, page 292. For all other text files, the new line will have the same indentation as the previous line. Displays line numbers in the Editor window. Checks if files have been modified by some other tool and automatically reloads them. If a file has been modified in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, you will be prompted first. Displays a column on the left side in the editor window, with icons for compiler errors and warnings, Find in Files results, user bookmarks and breakpoints. Allows the insertion point to move outside the text area. Removes trailing blanks from files when they are saved to disk. Trailing blanks are blank spaces between the last non-blank character and the end of line character. Show Line Numbers Scan for Changed Files Show Bookmarks Enable Virtual Space Remove trailing blanks Table 77: Editor page options (Continued) For more information about the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE Editor and how it can be used, see Editing, page 95.For more information about the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE editor and how it can be used, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Configure Auto Indent dialog box Use the Configure Auto Indent dialog box to configure the automatic indentation performed by the editor for C/C++ source code. To open the dialog box: 1 Choose Tools>Options. 2 Click the Editor tab. 3 Select the Auto indent option. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 292 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference 4 Click the Configure button. Figure 137: Configure Auto Indent dialog box To read more about indentation, see Automatic text indentation, page 98the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Type the number of spaces to indent in the appropriate text box for each category of indentation: Opening Brace (a) Body (b) Label (c) The number of spaces used to indent an opening brace. The number of additional spaces used to indent code after an opening brace, or a statement that continues onto a second line. The number of additional spaces used to indent a label, including case labels. Sample code Reflects the settings made in the text boxes for indentation. All indentations are relative to the preceding line, statement, or other syntactic structures. Part 7. Reference information 293 Menus Editor Setup Files page On the Editor Setup Files page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can specify setup files for the editor. Figure 138: Editor Setup Files page Use Custom Keyword File Use this option to specify a text file containing keywords that you want the editor to highlight. For information about syntax coloring, see Syntax coloring, page 97the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Use Code Templates Use this option to specify a text file with code templates that you can use for inserting frequently used code in your source file. For information about using code templates, see Using and adding code templates, page 99the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 294 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Editor Colors and Fonts page The Editor Colors and Fonts page--available by choosing Tools>Options--allows you to specify the colors and fonts used for text in the Editor windows. Figure 139: Editor Colors and Fonts page Options Option Description Font Syntax Coloring Opens a dialog box to choose font and its size. Lists the possible items for which you can specify font and style of syntax. The elements you can customize are: C or C++, compiler keywords, assembler keywords, and user-defined keywords. Chooses a color from a list of colors. Chooses a type style from a drop-down list. Displays the current setting. Color Type Style Sample Table 78: Editor Colors and Fonts page options The keywords controlling syntax highlighting for assembler and C or C++ source code are specified in the files syntax_icc.cfg and syntax_asm.cfg, respectively. These files are located in the config directory. Part 7. Reference information 295 Menus Project page On the Project page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can set options for Make and Build. The following table describes the options and their available settings. Figure 140: Projects page Options Option Description Stop build operation on Specifies when the build operation should stop. Never: Do not stop. Warnings: Stop on warnings and errors. Errors: Stop on errors. Always: Always save before Make or Build. Ask: Prompt before saving. Never: Do not save. Always: Always save before Make or Build. Ask: Prompt before saving. Never: Do not save. Always: Always make before debugging. Ask: Always prompt before Making. Never: Do not make. Save editor windows before building Save workspace and projects before building Make before debugging Reload last workspace at startup Select this option if you want the last active workspace to load automatically the next time you start IAR Embedded Workbench. Play a sound after build operations Plays a sound when the build operations are finished. Table 79: Project page options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 296 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Option Description Generate browse information Enables the use of the Source Browser window. Table 79: Project page options (Continued) Debugger page On the Debugger page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can set options for configuring the debugger environment. Figure 141: Debugger page Options Option Description When source resolves to multiple function instances: Automatically choose all instances Source code color in Disassembly window Table 80: Debugger page options Some source code corresponds to multiple code instances, for example template code. When specifying a source location in such code, for example when setting a source breakpoint, you can make C-SPY act on all instances or a subset of instances. This option lets C-SPY act on all instances without first asking. Specifies the color of the source code in the Disassembly window. Part 7. Reference information 297 Menus Option Description Step into functions This option controls the behavior of the Step Into command. If you choose the Functions with source only option, the debugger will only step into functions for which the source code is known. This helps you avoid stepping into library functions or entering disassembly mode debugging. The value decides how many elements that are shown initially when a container value is expanded in, for example, the Watch window. Additional elements can be shown by clicking the expansion arrow. The value decides how often the C-SPY Live Watch window is updated during execution. Sets the default integer format in the Watch, Locals, and related windows. STL container expansion Live watch Default integer format Table 80: Debugger page options (Continued) Register Filter page On the Register Filter page--available by choosing Tools>Options when the IAR C-SPY Debugger is running--you can choose to display registers in the Register window in groups you have created yourself. See Register groups, page 138, for more information about how to create register groups.For information about register groups, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Figure 142: Register Filter page MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 298 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Options Option Description Use register filter Filter Files Groups New Group Group members Base Enables the usage of register filters. Displays a dialog box where you can select or create a new filter file. Lists available groups in the register filter file, alternatively displays the new register group. The name for the new register group. Lists the registers selected from the register scroll bar window. Changes the default integer base. Table 81: Register Filter options Terminal I/O page On the Terminal I/O page--available by choosing Tools>Options when the IAR C-SPY Debugger is running--you can configure the C-SPY terminal I/O functionality. Figure 143: Terminal I/O page Part 7. Reference information 299 Menus Options Option Description Input Mode: Keyboard Buffered: All input characters are buffered. Direct: Input characters are not buffered. Input Mode: File Input Echoing Input characters are read from a file, either a text file or a binary file. A browse button is available for locating the file. Input characters can be echoed either in a log file, or in the C-SPY Terminal I/O window. To echo input in a file requires that you have enabled the option Enable log file that is available by choosing Debug>Logging. When the target resets, a message is displayed in the C-SPY Terminal I/O window. Show target reset in Output window Table 82: Terminal I/O options Source Code Control page On the Source Code Control page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can configure the interaction between an IAR Embedded Workbench project and an SCC project. Figure 144: Source Code Control page MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 300 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Keep items checked out when checking in Determines the default setting for the option Keep Checked Out in the Check In Files dialog box; see Check In Files dialog box, page 246. Save editor windows before performing source code control commands Specifies whether editor windows should be saved before you perform any source code control commands. The following options are available: Ask Never Always When you perform any source code control commands, you will be asked about saving editor windows first. Editor windows will never be saved first when you perform any source code control commands. Editor windows will always be saved first when you perform any source code control commands. Stack page HistoryOn the Stack page--available by choosing Tools>Options--you can set options specific to the Stack window. Figure 145: Stack page Part 7. Reference information 301 Menus Enable graphical stack display and stack usage tracking Use this option to enable the graphical stack bar available at the top of the Stack window. At the same time, it enables the functionality needed to detect stack overflows. To read more about the stack bar and the information it provides, see The graphical stack bar, page 333. % stack usage threshold Use this text field to specify the percentage of stack usage above which C-SPY should issue a warning for stack overflow. Warn when exceeding stack threshold Use this option to make C-SPY issue a warning when the stack usage exceeds the threshold specified in the % stack usage threshold option. Warn when stack pointer is out of bounds Use this option to make C-SPY issue a warning when the stack pointer is outside the stack memory range. Stack pointer(s) not valid until reaching Use this option to specify a location in your application code from where you want the stack display and verification to take place. The Stack window will not display any information about stack usage until execution has reached this location. By default, C-SPY will not track the stack usage before the main function. If your application does not have a main function, for example, if it is an assembler-only project, your should specify your start label. Typically, the stack pointer is set up in the system initialization code cstartup, but not necessarily from the very first instruction. By using this option you can avoid incorrect warnings or misleading stack display for this part of the application. Warnings You can choose to issue warnings using one of the following options: Log Log and alert Warnings are issued in the Debug Log window Warnings are issued in the Debug Log window and as alert dialog boxes. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 302 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Limit stack display to Use this option to limit the amount of memory displayed in the Stack window by specifying a number, counting from the stack pointer. This can be useful if you have a big stack or if you are only interested in the topmost part of the stack. Using this option can improve the Stack window performance, especially if reading memory from the target system is slow. By default, the Stack window shows the whole stack, or in other words, from the stack pointer to the bottom of the stack. If the debugger cannot determine the memory range for the stack, the byte limit is used even if the option is not selected. Note: The Stack window does not affect the execution performance of your application, but it might read a large amount of data to update the displayed information when the execution stops. Configure Tools dialog box In the Configure Tools dialog box--available from the Tools menu--you can specify a user-defined tool to add to the Tools menu. Figure 146: Configure Tools dialog box Part 7. Reference information 303 Menus Note: If you intend to add an external tool to the standard build tool chain, see Extending the tool chain, page 93the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Options Option Description Menu Content Menu Text Lists all available user defined menu commands. Specifies the text for the menu command. By adding the sign &, the following letter, N in this example, will then appear as the mnemonic key for this command. The text you type in this field will be reflected in the Menu Content field. Specifies the command, and its path, to be run when you choose the command from the menu. A browse button is available for your convenience. Optionally type an argument for the command. Specifies an initial working directory for the tool. Command Argument Initial Directory Redirect to Output window Specifies any console output from the tool to the Tool Output page in the Messages window. Tools that are launched with this option cannot receive any user input, for instance input from the keyboard. Tools that require user input or make special assumptions regarding the console that they execute in, will not work at all if launched with this option. Prompt for Command Line Tool Available Displays a prompt for the command line argument when the command is chosen from the Tools menu. Specifies in which context the tool should be available, only when debugging or only when not debugging. Table 83: Configure Tools dialog box options Note: Variables can be used in the arguments, allowing you to set up useful tools such as interfacing to a command line revision control system, or running an external tool on the selected file. You can remove a command from the Tools menu by selecting it in this list and clicking Remove. Click OK to confirm the changes you have made to the Tools menu. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 304 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference The menu items you have specified will then be displayed on the Tools menu. Figure 147: Customized Tools menu Specifying command line commands or batch files Command line commands or batch files need to be run from a command shell, so to add these to the Tools menu you need to specify an appropriate command shell in the Command text box. These are the command shells that can be entered as commands: System Command shell Windows 98/Me Windows NT/2000/XP Table 84: Command shells command.com cmd.exe (recommended) or command.com Filename Extensions dialog box In the Filename Extensions dialog box--available from the Tools menu--you can customize the filename extensions recognized by the build tools. This is useful if you have many source files that have a different filename extension. If you have an IAR Embedded Workbench for a different microprocessor installed on your host computer, it can appear in the Tool Chain box. In that case you should select the tool chain you want to customize. Figure 148: Filename Extensions dialog box Note the * sign which indicates that there are user-defined overrides. If there is no * sign, factory settings are used. Click Edit to open the Filename Extension Overrides dialog box. Part 7. Reference information 305 Menus Filename Extension Overrides dialog box The Filename Extension Overrides dialog box--available by clicking Edit in the Filename Extensions dialog box--lists the available tools in the build chain, their factory settings for filename extensions, and any defined overrides. Figure 149: Filename Extension Overrides dialog box Select the tool for which you want to define more recognized filename extensions, and click Edit to open the Edit Filename Extensions dialog box. Edit Filename Extensions dialog box The Edit File Extensions dialog box--available by clicking Edit in the Filename Extension Overrides dialog box--lists the filename extensions accepted by default, and you can also define new filename extensions. Figure 150: Edit Filename Extensions dialog box Click Override and type the new filename extension you want to be recognized. Extensions can be separated by commas or semicolons, and should include the leading period. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 306 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Configure Viewers dialog box The Configure Viewers dialog box--available from the Tools menu--lists the filename extensions of document formats that IAR Embedded Workbench can handle, and which viewer application that will be used for opening the document type. Explorer Default in the Action column means that the default application associated with the specified type in Windows Explorer is used for opening the document type. Figure 151: Configure Viewers dialog box To specify how to open a new document type or editing the setting for an existing document type, click New or Edit to open the Edit Viewer Extensions dialog box. Edit Viewer Extensions dialog box Type the filename extension for the document type--including the separating period (.)--in the Filename extensions box. Figure 152: Edit Viewer Extensions dialog box Then choose one of the Action options: Built-in text editor--select this option to open all documents of the specified type with the IAR Embedded Workbench text editor. Use file explorer associations--select this option to open all documents with the default application associated with the specified type in Windows Explorer. Part 7. Reference information 307 Menus Command line--select this option and type or browse your way to the viewer application, and give any command line options you would like to the tool. WINDOW MENU Use the commands on the Window menu to manipulate the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE windows and change their arrangement on the screen. The last section of the Window menu lists the windows currently open on the screen. Choose the window you want to switch to. Figure 153: Window menu Window menu commands Menu command Description Close Tab Close Window Split CTRL+F4 Closes the active tab. Closes the active editor window. Splits an editor window horizontally or vertically into two, or four panes, to allow you to see more parts of a file simultaneously. Opens a new empty window next to current editor window. Opens a new empty window under current editor window. Moves all tabs in current window to next window. Moves all tabs in current window to previous window. Closes all the tabs except the active tab. Closes all tabs currently available in editor windows. New Vertical Editor Window New Horizontal Editor Window Move Tabs To Next Window Move Tabs To Previous Window Close All Tabs Except Active Close All Editor Tabs Table 85: Window menu commands MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 308 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference HELP MENU The Help menu provides help about the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE and displays the version numbers of the user interface and of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Menu command Description Content Index Search Release notes Opens the contents page of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help. Opens the index page of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help. Opens the search page of the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE online help. Provides access to late-breaking information about IAR Embedded Workbench. MSP430 Embedded Workbench User Guide Provides access to an online version of this user guide, available in PDF format. MSP430 Assembler Reference Guide Provides access to an online version of the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide, available in PDF format. MSP430 C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide Provides access to an online version of the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide, available in PDF format. MSP430 Migration Guide Provides access to an online version of the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench Migration Guide, available in hypertext PDF format. Provides access to the online version of the IAR Embedded Workbench MISRA C Reference Guide, available in PDF format. Provides access to the latest product updates available on the IAR Systems web site. Provides access to the online version of the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide, available in PDF format. Allows you to browse the home page, the news page, and the technical notes search page of the IAR Systems web site, and to contact IAR Technical Support. IAR MISRA C Reference Guide Product updates Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide IAR on the Web Table 86: Help menu commands Part 7. Reference information 309 Menus Menu command Description Startup Screen Displays the Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box; see Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box, page 311. Displays detailed information about the installed IAR products. Copy this information (using the Ctrl+C keyboard shortcut) and include it in your message if you contact IAR Technical Support via electronic mail. Opens the license manager log file lms.log in the editor. Attach this file to the email message if you contact IAR Technical Support regarding any problems related to the license management system. About>Product Info About>Install Log Table 86: Help menu commands (Continued) Note: Additional documentation might be available on the Help menu depending on your product installation. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 310 User Guide IAR Embedded Workbench IDE reference Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box The Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box--available from the Help menu--provides an easy access to ready-made example workspaces that can be built and executed out of the box for a smooth development startup. Figure 154: Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box Part 7. Reference information 311 Menus MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 312 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference This chaptersection contains detailed reference information about the windows, menus, menu commands, and the corresponding components that are specific for the IAR C-SPY Debugger. C-SPY windows The following windows specific to C-SPY are available in the IAR C-SPY Debugger: IAR C-SPY Debugger main window Disassembly window Memory window Register window Watch window Locals window Auto window Live Watch window Quick Watch window Call Stack window Terminal I/O window Code Coverage window Profiling window Stack windowHistory LCD window. Additional windows will be available depending on which C-SPY driver you are using. For information about driver-specific windows, see the driver-specific documentation. EDITING IN C-SPY WINDOWS You can edit the contents of the Memory, Register, Auto, Watch, Locals, Live Watch, and Quick Watch windows. Use the following keyboard keys to edit the contents of the Register and Watch windows: Key Description Enter Makes an item editable and saves the new value. Table 87: Editing in C-SPY windows Part 7. Reference information 313 C-SPY windows Key Description Esc Cancels a new value. Table 87: Editing in C-SPY windows (Continued) IAR C-SPY DEBUGGER MAIN WINDOW When you start the IAR C-SPY Debugger, the following debugger-specific items appear in the main IAR Embedded Workbench IDE window: A dedicated debug menu with commands for executing and debugging your application Depending on the C-SPY driver you are using, a driver-specific menu. Typically, this menu contains menu commands for opening driver-specific windows and dialog boxes. See the driver-specific documentation for more information A special debug toolbar Several windows and dialog boxes specific to C-SPY. The window might look different depending on which components you are using. Each window item is explained in greater detail in the following sections. Menu bar In addition to the menus available in the development environment, the Debug menu is available when C-SPY is running. The Debug menu provides commands for executing and debugging the source application. Most of the commands are also available as icon buttons in the debug toolbar. The following menus are available when C-SPY is running: Menu Description Debug The Debug menu provides commands for executing and debugging the source application. Most of the commands are also available as icon buttons in the debug toolbar. The Simulator menu provides access to the dialog boxes for setting up interrupt simulation and memory maps. Only available when the C-SPY Simulator is used. The Emulator menu provides access to commands specific to the C-SPY FET debugger. Only available when the C-SPY FET debugger is used. Simulator Emulator Table 88: C-SPY menu Additional menus might be available, depending on which debugger drivers have been installed; for information, see the driver-specific documentation. Debug toolbar The debug toolbar provides buttons for the most frequently-used commands on the Debug menu. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 314 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference You can display a description of any button by pointing to it with the mouse pointer. When a command is not available the corresponding button will be dimmed and you will not be able to select it. The following diagram shows the command corresponding to each button: Next Statement Go Break Step Into Reset Step Over Step Out Run To Cursor Stop Debugging Figure 155: C-SPY debug toolbar DISASSEMBLY WINDOW The C-SPY Disassembly window--available from the View menu--shows the application being debugged as disassembled application code. Part 7. Reference information 315 C-SPY windows The current position--highlighted in green--indicates the next assembler instruction to be executed. You can move the cursor to any line in the Disassembly window by clicking on the line. Alternatively, you can move the cursor using the navigation keys. Breakpoints are indicated in red. Code that has been executed--code coverage--is indicated with a green diamond. Zone display Go to memory address Toggle embedded source mode Code coverage information Current position Breakpoint Figure 156: C-SPY Disassembly window To change the default color of the source code in the Disassembly window, choose Tools>Options>Debugger. Set default color using the Set source code coloring in Disassembly window option. To view the corresponding assembler code for a function, you can select it in the editor window and drag it to the Disassembly window. Disassembly window operations At the top of the window you can find a set of useful text boxes, drop-down lists and command buttons: Operation Description Go to The memory location you want to view. Table 89: Disassembly window operations MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 316 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Operation Description Zone display Disassembly mode Lists the available memory or register zones to display. Read more about Zones in section Memory zones, page 114. Toggles between showing only disassembly or disassembly together with the corresponding source code. Source code requires that the corresponding source file has been compiled with debug information. Table 89: Disassembly window operations (Continued) Disassembly context menu Clicking the right mouse button in the Disassembly window displays a context menu which gives you access to some extra commands. Figure 157: Disassembly window context menu Operation Description Move to PC Run to Cursor Code Coverage Enable Show Clear Displays code at the current program counter location. Executes the application from the current position up to the line containing the cursor. Opens a submenu with commands for controlling code coverage. Enable toggles code coverage on and off. Show toggles between displaying and hiding code coverage. Executed code is indicated by a green diamond. Clear clears all code coverage information. Toggle Breakpoint (Code) Toggles a code breakpoint. Assembler instructions at which code breakpoints have been set are highlighted in red. For information about code breakpoints, see Code breakpoints dialog box, page 256. Toggle Breakpoint (Log) Toggles a log breakpoint for trace printouts. Assembler instructions at which log breakpoints have been set are highlighted in red. For information about log breakpoints, see Log breakpoints dialog box, page 258. Enable/Disable Breakpoint Enables and Disables a breakpoint. Table 90: Disassembly context menu commands Part 7. Reference information 317 C-SPY windows Operation Description Set Next Statement Copy Window Contents Sets program counter to the location of the insertion point. Copies the selected contents of the Disassembly window to the clipboard. Table 90: Disassembly context menu commands (Continued) MEMORY WINDOW The Memory window--available from the View menu--gives an up-to-date display of a specified area of memory and allows you to edit it. You can open several instances of this window, which is very convenient if you want to keep track of different memory or register zones, or monitor different parts of the memory. Zone display Go to memory address Figure 158: Memory window To view the memory corresponding to a variable, you can select it in the editor window and drag it to the Memory window. Memory window operations At the top of the window you can find commands for navigation: Operation Description Go to Zone display The address of the memory location you want to view. Lists the available memory or register zones to display. Read more about Zones in section Memory zones, page 114. Table 91: Memory window operations MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 318 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Memory window context menu The context menu available in the Memory window provides above commands, edit commands, and a command for opening the Fill dialog box. Figure 159: Memory window context menu Menu command Description Copy, Paste Zone x1, x2, x4 Units Little Endian Big Endian Data Coverage Enable Show Clear Memory Fill Memory Upload Set Data Breakpoint Standard editing commands. Lists the available memory or register zones to display. Read more about Zones in Memory zones, page 114. Switches between displaying the memory contents in units of 8, 16, or 32 bits Switches between displaying the contents in big-endian or little-endian order. An asterisk (*) indicates the default byte order. Enable toggles data coverage on and off. Show toggles between showing and hiding data coverage. Clear clears all data coverage information. Opens the Fill dialog box, where you can fill a specified area with a value. Displays the Memory Upload dialog box, where you can save a selected memory area to a file in Intel Hex format. Sets breakpoints directly in the Memory window. The breakpoint is not highlighted; you can see, edit, and remove it in the Breakpoints dialog box. The breakpoints you set in this window will be triggered for both read and write access. Table 92: Commands on the memory window context menu Part 7. Reference information 319 C-SPY windows Data coverage display Data coverage is displayed with the following colors: Yellow indicates data that has been read Blue indicates data that has been written Green indicates data that has been both read and written. Fill dialog box In the Fill dialog box--available from the context menu available in the Window memory--you can fill a specified area of memory with a value. Figure 160: Fill dialog box Options Option Description Start Address Length Zone Value Type the start address--in binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal notation. Type the length--in binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal notation. Select memory zone. Type the 8-bit value to be used for filling each memory location. Table 93: Fill dialog box options These are the available memory fill operations: Operation Description Copy AND The Value will be copied to the specified memory area. An AND operation will be performed between the Value and the existing contents of memory before writing the result to memory. Table 94: Memory fill operations MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 320 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Operation Description XOR OR An XOR operation will be performed between the Value and the existing contents of memory before writing the result to memory. An OR operation will be performed between the Value and the existing contents of memory before writing the result to memory. Table 94: Memory fill operations (Continued) REGISTER WINDOW The Register window--available from the View menu--gives an up-to-date display of the contents of the processor registers, and allows you to edit them. When a value changes it becomes highlighted. Some registers are expandable, which means that the register contains interesting bits or sub-groups of bits. You can open several instances of this window, which is very convenient if you want to keep track of different register groups. Figure 161: Register window You can select which register group to display in the Register window using the drop-down list. To define application-specific register groups, see Defining application-specific groups, page 139.For more information about register groups, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Part 7. Reference information 321 C-SPY windows WATCH WINDOW The Watch window--available from the View menu--allows you to monitor the values of C-SPY expressions or variables. You can view, add, modify, and remove expressions in the Watch window. Tree structures of arrays, structs, and unions are expandable, which means that you can study each item of these. Figure 162: Watch window Every time execution in C-SPY stops, a value that has changed since the last stop is highlighted. In fact, every time memory changes, the values in the Watch window are recomputed, including updating the red highlights.History Watch window context menu The context menu available in the Watch window provides commands for adding and removing expressions, changing the display format of expressions, as well as commands for changing the default type interpretation of variables. Figure 163: Watch window context menu MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 322 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference The menu contains the following commands: Menu command Description Add, Remove Default Format, Binary Format, Octal Format, Decimal Format, Hexadecimal Format, Char Format Show As Adds or removes the selected expression. Changes the display format of expressions. The display format setting affects different types of expressions in different ways, see Table 96, Effects of display format setting on different types of expressions. Your selection of display format is saved between debug sessions. Provides a submenu with commands for changing the default type interpretation of variables. The commands on this submenu are mainly useful for assembler variables--data at assembler labels--as these are by default displayed as integers. For more information, see Viewing assembler variables, page 128. Table 95: Watch window context menu commands The display format setting affects different types of expressions in different ways: Type of expressions Effects of display format setting Variable Array element Structure field The display setting affects only the selected variable, not other variables. The display setting affects the complete array, that is, same display format is used for each array element. All elements with the same definition--the same field name and C declaration type--are affected by the display setting. Table 96: Effects of display format setting on different types of expressions LOCALS WINDOW The Locals window--available from the View menu--automatically displays the local variables and function parameters. Figure 164: Locals window Part 7. Reference information 323 C-SPY windows Locals window context menu The context menu available in the Locals window provides commands for changing the display format of expressions; for information about these commands, see Watch window context menu, page 322. AUTO WINDOW The Auto window--available from the View menu--automatically displays a useful selection of variables and expressions in, or near, the current statement. Figure 165: Auto window Auto window context menu The context menu available in the Auto window provides commands for changing the display format of expressions; for information about these commands, see Watch window context menu, page 322. LIVE WATCH WINDOW The Live Watch window--available from the View menu--repeatedly samples and displays the value of expressions while your application is executing. Variables in the expressions must be statically located, such as global variables. Figure 166: Live Watch window Typically, this window is useful for hardware target systems supporting this feature. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 324 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Live Watch window context menu The context menu available in the Live Watch window provides commands for adding and removing expressions, changing the display format of expressions, as well as commands for changing the default type interpretation of variables. For information about these commands, see Watch window context menu, page 322. In addition, the menu contains the Options command, which opens the Debugger dialog box where you can set the Update interval option. The default value of this option is 1000 milliseconds, which means the Live Watch window will be updated once every second during program execution. QUICK WATCH WINDOW In the Quick Watch window--available from the View menu--you can watch the value of a variable or expression and evaluate expressions. Figure 167: Quick Watch window Type the expression you want to examine in the Expressions text box. Click the Recalculate button to calculate the value of the expression. For examples about how to use the Quick Watch window, see Using the Quick Watch window, page 126 and Executing macros using Quick Watch, page 148the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Part 7. Reference information 325 C-SPY windows Quick Watch window context menu The context menu available in the Quick Watch window provides commands for changing the display format of expressions, as well as commands for changing the default type interpretation of variables. For information about these commands, see Watch window context menu, page 322. In addition, the menu contains the Add to Watch window command, which adds the selected expression to the Watch window. CALL STACK WINDOW The Call stack window--available from the View menu--displays the C function call stack with the current function at the top. To inspect a function call, double-click it. C-SPY now focuses on that call frame instead. Destination for Step Into Figure 168: Call Stack window Each entry has the format: function(values) where (values) is a list of the current value of the parameters, or empty if the function does not take any parameters. If the Step Into command steps into a function call, the name of the function is displayed in the grey bar at the top of the window. This is especially useful for implicit function calls, such as C++ constructors, destructors, and operators. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 326 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Call Stack window context menu The context menu available by right-clicking in the Call Stack window provides the following commands: Figure 169: Call Stack window context menu Commands Go to Source Show Arguments Run to Cursor Toggle Breakpoint (Code) Toggle Breakpoint (Log) Enable/Disable Breakpoint Displays the selected functions in the Disassembly or editor windows. Shows function arguments. Executes to the function selected in the call stack. Toggles a code breakpoint. Toggles a log breakpoint. Enables or disables the selected breakpoint. Part 7. Reference information 327 C-SPY windows TERMINAL I/O WINDOW In the Terminal I/O window--available from the View menu--you can enter input to the application, and display output from it. To use this window, you need to link the application with the option Debug info with terminal I/O. C-SPY will then direct stdin, stdout and stderr to this window. If the Terminal I/O window is closed, C-SPY will open it automatically when input is required, but not for output. Figure 170: Terminal I/O window Clicking the Ctrl codes button opens a menu with submenus for input of special characters, such as EOF (end of file) and NUL. Figure 171: Ctrl codes menu Clicking the Input Mode button opens the Change Input Mode dialog box where you choose whether to input data from the keyboard or from a text file. Figure 172: Change Input Mode dialog box MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 328 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference For reference information about the options available in the dialog box, see Terminal I/O page, page 299. CODE COVERAGE WINDOW Code coverage is only supported by the C-SPY Simulator. The Code Coverage window--available from the View menu--reports the status of the current code coverage analysis, that is, what parts of the code that have been executed at least once since the start of the analysis. The compiler generates detailed stepping information in the form of step points at each statement, as well as at each function call. The report includes information about all modules and functions. It reports the amount of all step points, in percentage, that have been executed and lists all step points that have not been executed up to the point where the application has been stopped. The coverage will continue until turned off. Figure 173: Code Coverage window Note: You can enable the Code Coverage plugin module on the Debugger>Plugins page available in the Options dialog box. Code coverage is not supported by all C-SPY drivers. For information about whether the C-SPY driver you are using supports code coverage, see Differences between the C-SPY drivers, page 192the driver-specific documentation. Code coverage is supported by the C-SPY Simulator. Part 7. Reference information 329 C-SPY windows Code coverage commands In addition to the commands available as icon buttons in the toolbar, clicking the right mouse button in the Code Coverage window displays a context menu that gives you access to these and some extra commands. Figure 174: Code coverage context menu You can find the following commands on the menu: Activate/Deactivate Switches code coverage on and off during execution. Clear Refresh Clears the code coverage information. All step points are marked as not executed. Updates the code coverage information and refreshes the window. All step points that has been executed since the last refresh are removed from the tree. Toggles the automatic reload of code coverage information on and off. When turned on, the code coverage information is reloaded automatically when C-SPY stops at a breakpoint, at a step point, and at program exit. Saves the current code coverage information in a text file. Auto-refresh Save As The following icons are used to give you an overview of the current status on all levels: A red diamond signifies that 0% of the code has been executed A green diamond signifies that 100% of the code has been executed A red and green diamond signifies that some of the code has been executed A yellow diamond signifies a step point that has not been executed. For step point lines, the information displayed is the column number range and the row number of the step point in the source window, followed by the address of the step point. <column start>-<column end>:<row>. PROFILING WINDOW The Profiling window--available from the View menu--displays profiling information, that is, timing information for the functions in an application. Profiling must be turned on explicitly using a button in the window's toolbar, and will stay active until it is turned off. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 330 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference The profiler measures time at the entry and return of a function. This means that time consumed in a function is not added until the function returns or another function is called. You will only notice this if you are stepping into a function. Figure 175: Profiling window Note: You can enable the Profiling plugin module on the Debugger>Plugins page available in the Options dialog box. Profiling is not supported by all C-SPY drivers. For information about whether the C-SPY driver you are using supports profiling, see Differences between the C-SPY drivers, page 192the driver-specific documentation. Profiling is supported by the C-SPY Simulator. Profiling commands In addition to the toolbar buttons, the context menu available in the Profiling window gives you access to these and some extra commands: Figure 176: Profiling context menu You can find the following commands on the menu: Activate New measurement Toggles profiling on and off during execution. Starts a new measurement. By clicking the button, the values displayed are reset to zero. Part 7. Reference information 331 C-SPY windows Graph Show details Displays the percentage information for Flat Time and Accumulated Time as graphs (bar charts) or numbers. Shows more detailed information about the function selected in the list. A window is opened showing information about callers and callees for the selected function. Updates the profiling information and refreshes the window. Toggles the automatic update of profiling information on and off. When turned on, the profiling information is updated automatically when C-SPY stops at a breakpoint, at a step point, and at program exit. Saves the current profiling information in a text file. Refresh Auto refresh Save As Profiling columns The Profiling window contains the following columns: Column Description Function Calls Flat Time The name of each function. The number of times each function has been called. The total time spent in each function in cycles or as a percentage of the total number of cycles, excluding all function calls made from that function. Time spent in each function in cycles or as a percentage of the total number of cycles, including all function calls made from that function. Accumulated Time Table 97: Profiling window columns There is always an item in the list called Outside main. This is time that cannot be placed in any of the functions in the list. That is, code compiled without debug information, for instance, all startup and exit code, and C/C++ library code. STACK WINDOW HistoryThe Stack window is a memory window that displays the contents of the stack. In addition, some integrity checks of the stack can be performed to detect and warn about problems with stack overflow. For example, the Stack window is useful for determining the optimal size of the stack. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 332 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Before you can open the Stack window you must make sure it is enabled: choose Project>Options>Debugger>Plugins and select Stack from the list of plugins. In C-SPY, you can then open a Stack window by choosing View>Stack. You can open several Stack windows, each showing a different stack--if several stacks are available--or the same stack with different display settings. Figure 177: Stack window The stack drop-down menu If the microcontroller you are using has multiple stacks, you can use the stack drop-down menu at the top of the window to select which stack to view. The graphical stack bar At the top of the window, a stack bar displays the state of the stack graphically. To view the stack bar you must make sure it is enabled: choose Tools>Options>Stack and select the option Enable graphical stack display and stack usage tracking. The left end of the stack bar represents the bottom of the stack, in other words, the position of the stack pointer when the stack is empty. The right end represents the end of the memory space reserved for the stack. A green line represents the current value of the stack pointer. The part of the stack memory that has been used during execution is displayed in a dark gray color, and the unused part in a light gray color. The graphical stack bar turns red when the stack usage exceeds a threshold that you can specify. When your application is first loaded, and upon each reset, the memory for the stack area is filled with the dedicated byte value 0xCD before the application starts executing. Whenever execution stops, the stack memory is searched from the end of the stack until a byte with a value different from 0xCD is found, which is assumed to be how far the stack has been used. Although this is a reasonably reliable way to track stack usage, there is no guarantee that a stack overflow is detected. For example, a stack can incorrectly grow outside its bounds, and even modify memory outside the stack range, Part 7. Reference information 333 C-SPY windows without actually modifying any of the bytes near the stack range. Likewise, your application might modify memory within the stack range by mistake. Furthermore, the Stack window cannot detect a stack overflow when it happens, but can only detect the signs it leaves behind. Note: The size and location of the stack is retrieved from the definition of the segment holding the stack, typically CSTACK, made in the linker command file. If you, for some reason, modify the stack initialization made in the system startup code, cstartup, you should also change the segment definition in the linker command file accordingly; otherwise the Stack window cannot track the stack usage. To read more about this, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. When the stack bar is enabled, the functionality needed to detect and warn about stack overflows is also enabled, see Stack page, page 301. The Stack window columns The main part of the window displays the contents of stack memory in the following columns: Column Description Location Displays the location in memory. The addresses are displayed in increasing order. The address referenced by the stack pointer, in other words the top of the stack, is highlighted in a green color. Displays the contents of the memory unit at the given location. From the Stack window context menu, you can select how the data should be displayed; as a 1-, 2-, or 4-byte group of data. Displays the name of a variable, if there is a local variable at the given location. Variables are only displayed if they are declared locally in a function, and located on the stack and not in registers. Displays the value of the variable that is displayed in the Variable column. Displays the name of the function the call frame corresponds to. Data Variable Value Frame Table 98: Stack window columns MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 334 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference The Stack window context menu The following context menu is available if you right-click in the Stack window: Figure 178: Stack window context menu The following commands are available in the context window: Show variables Separate columns named Variables, Value, and Frame are displayed in the Stack window. Variables located at memory addresses listed in the Stack window are displayed in these columns. When this option is selected, locations in the Location column are displayed as offsets from the stack pointer. When deselected, locations are displayed as absolute addresses. The data in the Data column is displayed as single bytes. The data in the Data column is displayed as 2-byte groups. The data in the Data column is displayed as 4-byte groups. Opens the IDE Options dialog box where you can set options specific to the Stack window, see Stack page, page 301. Show offsets 1x Bytes 2x Bytes 4x Bytes Options LCD WINDOW The LCD window--available from the View menu--simulates a 7- or 14-segments LCD display. Figure 179: LCD window Part 7. Reference information 335 C-SPY menus LCD Settings dialog box Click the Settings button in the LCD window to display the LCD Settings dialog box. Figure 180: LCD Settings dialog box These are the available settings: Setting Description LCD configuration file Selects the LCD display to simulate. Available displays are a 7 segment display and a 14 segment display. LCD control register address Sets up the address to the LCD control register. Table 99: LCD window settings C-SPY menus In addition to the menus available in the development environment, the Debug menu is available when C-SPY is running. Additional menus will be available depending on which C-SPY driver you are using. For information about driver-specific menus, see the online help system available from the Help menu for information about driver-specific documentation. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 336 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference DEBUG MENU The Debug menu provides commands for executing and debugging your application. Most of the commands are also available as toolbar buttons. Figure 181: Debug menu Menu Command Description Go Break Reset Stop Debugging Step Over Step Into F5 Executes from the current statement or instruction until a breakpoint or program exit is reached. Stops the application execution. Resets the target processor. Stops the debugging session and returns you to the project manager. F10 F11 Executes the next statement or instruction, without entering C or C++ functions or assembler subroutines. Executes the next statement or instruction, entering C or C++ functions or assembler subroutines. Step Out SHIFT+F11 Executes from the current statement up to the statement after the call to the current function. Next Statement Run to Cursor If stepping into and out of functions is unnecessarily slow, use this command to step directly to the next statement. Executes from the current statement or instruction up to a selected statement or instruction. Table 100: Debug menu commands Part 7. Reference information 337 C-SPY menus Menu Command Description Autostep Refresh Set Next Statement Displays the Autostep settings dialog box which lets you customize and perform autostepping. Refreshes the contents of the Memory, Register, Watch, and Locals windows. Moves the program counter directly to where the cursor is, without executing any source code. Note, however, that this creates an anomaly in the program flow and might have unexpected effects. Displays the Macro Configuration dialog box to allow you to list, register, and edit your macro files and functions. Displays a dialog box to allow you to log input and output from C-SPY to a file. You can select the type and the location of the log file. You can choose what you want to log: errors, warnings, system information, user messages, or all of these. Displays a dialog box to allow you to log terminal input and output from C-SPY to a file. You can select the destination of the log file. Macros Logging>Set Log file Logging>Set Terminal I/O Log file Table 100: Debug menu commands (Continued) Autostep settings dialog box In the Autostep settings dialog box--available from the Debug menu--you can customize autostepping. Figure 182: Autostep settings dialog box The drop-down menu lists the available step commands. The Delay text box lets you specify the delay between each step. Macro Configuration dialog box In the Macro Configuration dialog box--available by choosing Debug>Macros--you can list, register, and edit your macro files and functions. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 338 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Macro functions that have been registered using the dialog box will be deactivated when you exit the debug session, and will not automatically be registered at the next debug session. Figure 183: Macro Configuration dialog box Registering macro files Select the macro files you want to register in the file selection list, and click Add or Add All to add them to the Selected Macro Files list. Conversely, you can remove files from the Selected Macro Files list using Remove or Remove All. Once you have selected the macro files you want to use click Register to register them, replacing any previously defined macro functions or variables. Registered macro functions are displayed in the scroll window under Registered Macros. Note that system macros cannot be removed from the list, they are always registered. Part 7. Reference information 339 C-SPY menus Listing macro functions Selecting All displays all macro functions, selecting User displays all user-defined macros, and selecting System displays all system macros. Clicking on either Name or File under Registered Macros displays the column contents sorted by macro names or by file. Clicking a second time sorts the contents in the reverse order. Modifying macro files Double-clicking a user-defined macro function in the Name column automatically opens the file in which the function is defined, allowing you to modify it, if needed. Log File dialog box The Log File dialog box--available by choosing Debug>Logging>Set Log File --allows you to log output from C-SPY to a file. Figure 184: Log File dialog box Enable or disable logging to the file with the Enable Log file check box. The information printed in the file is by default the same as the information listed in the Log window. To change the information logged, use the Include options: Option Description Errors Warnings Info User Table 101: Log file options C-SPY has failed to perform an operation. A suspected error. Progress information about actions C-SPY has performed. Printouts from C-SPY macros, that is, your printouts using the __message statement. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 340 User Guide C-SPY Debugger reference Click the browse button, to override the default file type and location of the log file. Click Save to select the specified file--the default filename extension is log. Terminal I/O Log File dialog box The Terminal I/O Log Files dialog box--available by choosing Debug>Logging--allows you to select a destination log file, and to log terminal I/O input and output from C-SPY to this file. Figure 185: Terminal I/O Log File dialog box Click the browse button to open a standard Save As dialog box. Click Save to select the specified file--the default filename extension is log. Part 7. Reference information 341 C-SPY menus MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 342 User Guide General options This chapter describes the general options in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how options can be set, see Setting options, page 89. Target The Target options specify the device, the size of the floating-point type double, whether position-independent code should be generated, whether code for the hardware multiplier unit should be generated, and if the project is an assembler-only project. Figure 186: Target options DEVICE Use the drop-down list to select the device for which you will build your application. The choice of device controls which linker command file and device description file that will be used. Part 7. Reference information 343 Target FLOATING-POINT The compiler represents floating-point values by 32- and 64-bit numbers in standard IEEE 754 format. The Size of type 'double' option specifies the size of the type double. Choose between: 32 bits (default) 64 bits The data type double is represented by the 32-bit floating-point format. The data type double is represented by the 64-bit floating-point format. For more details about the floating-point format, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. POSITION-INDEPENDENT CODE Select normal or position-independent code generation. Note that position-independent code will lead to a rather large overhead in code size. For more details about position-independent code, see MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. HARDWARE MULTIPLIER Generates code for the MSP430 hardware multiplier peripheral unit. The option is only enabled when you have chosen a device containing the hardware multiplier from the Device drop-down list. ASSEMBLER-ONLY PROJECT Use this option if your project only contains assembler source files. The option will make the necessary settings required for an assembler only project, for instance, disabling the use of a C or C++ runtime library and the cstartup system. The Run to option will be disabled. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 344 User Guide General options Output With the Output options you can specify the type of output file--Executable or Library. You can also specify the destination directories for executable files, object files, and list files. Figure 187: Output options OUTPUT FILE Use these options to choose the type of output file. Choose between: Executable (default) As a result of the build process, the XLINK linker will create an application (an executable output file). When this option is selected, linker options will be available in the Options dialog box. Before you create the output you should set the appropriate linker options. As a result of the build process, the XAR library builder will create a library file. When this option is selected, XAR library builder options will be available in the Options dialog box, and Linker will disappear from the list of categories. Before you create the library you can set the XAR options. Library OUTPUT DIRECTORIES Use these options to specify paths to destination directories. Note that incomplete paths are relative to your project directory. You can specify the paths to the following destination directories: Executables/libraries Use this option to override the default directory for executable or library files. Type the name of the directory where you want to save executable files for the project. Part 7. Reference information 345 Library Configuration Object files Use this option to override the default directory for object files. Type the name of the directory where you want to save object files for the project. Use this option to override the default directory for list files. Type the name of the directory where you want to save list files for the project. List files Library Configuration With the Library Configuration options you can specify which library to use. Figure 188: Library Configuration options For information about the runtime library, library configurations, the runtime environment they provide, and the possible customizations, see MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. LIBRARY In the Library drop-down list you choose which runtime library to use. For information about available libraries, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. Note: For C++ projects, you must use one of the DLIB library variants. The library object file and library configuration file that actually will be used are displayed in the Library file and Configuration file text boxes, respectively. LIBRARY FILE The Library file text box displays the library object file that will be used. A library object file is automatically chosen depending on your project settings. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 346 User Guide General options If you have chosen Custom DLIB or Custom CLIB in the Library drop-down list, you must specify your own library object file. CONFIGURATION FILE The Configuration file text box displays the library configuration file that will be used. A library configuration file is chosen automatically depending on the project settings. If you have chosen Custom DLIB in the Library drop-down list, you must specify your own library configuration file. Note: A library configuration file is only required for the DLIB library. Library Options With the options on the Library Options page you can choose printf and scanf formatters. Figure 189: Library Options page See the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide for more information about the formatting capabilities. PRINTF FORMATTER The full formatter version is memory-consuming, and provides facilities that are not required in many embedded applications. To reduce the memory consumption, alternative versions are also provided: Printf formatters in the IAR DLIB Library are: Full, Large, Small, and Tiny Printf formatters in the IAR CLIB Library are: Large, Medium, and Small. Part 7. Reference information 347 Stack/Heap SCANF FORMATTER The full formatter version is memory-consuming, and provides facilities that are not required in many embedded applications. To reduce the memory consumption, alternative versions are also provided: Scanf formatters in the IAR DLIB Library are: Full, Large, and Small Scanf formatters in the IAR CLIB Library are: Large, and Medium. Stack/Heap With the options on the Stack/Heap page you can customize the heap and stack sizes. Figure 190: Stack/Heap page OVERRIDE DEFAULT Use this option to override the default heap and stack size settings. STACK SIZE Enter the required stack size in the Stack size text box, using decimal notation. HEAP SIZE Enter the required heap size in the Heap size text box, using decimal notation. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 348 User Guide General options MISRA C Use the options on the MISRA C page to control how IAR Embedded Workbench checks the source code for deviations from the MISRA C rules. The settings will be used for both the compiler and the linker. If you want the compiler to check different sets of rules, you can override these settings in the C/C++ Compiler category. Figure 191: MISRA C general options ENABLE MISRA C Select this option to enable checking the source code for deviations from the MISRA C rules during compilation and linking. Only the rules selected in the scroll list will be checked. LOG MISRA C SETTINGS Select this option to generate a MISRA C log during compilation and linking. This is a list of the rules that are enabled--but not necessarily checked--and a list of rules that are actually checked. SET ACTIVE MISRA C RULES Only the rules you select in the scroll list will be checked during compilation and linking. Click one of the buttons None, Required, or All to select or deselect several rules with one click. The Required button selects all 93 rules that are categorized by the Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software as required and deselects the rules that are categorized as advisory. Part 7. Reference information 349 MISRA C MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 350 User Guide Compiler options This chapter describes the compiler options available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. Language The Language options enable the use of target-dependent extensions to the C or C++ language. Figure 192: Compiler language options LANGUAGE With the Language options you can specify the language support you need. For information about Embedded C++ and Extended Embedded C++, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. C By default, the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler runs in ISO/ANSI C mode, in which features specific to Embedded C++ and Extended Embedded C++ cannot be utilized. Part 7. Reference information 351 Language Embedded C++ In Embedded C++ mode, the compiler treats the source code as Embedded C++. This means that features specific to Embedded C++, such as classes and overloading, can be utilized. Embedded C++ requires that a DLIB library (C/C++ library) is used. Extended Embedded C++ In Extended Embedded C++ mode, you can take advantage of features like namespaces or the standard template library in your source code. Extended Embedded C++ requires that a DLIB library (C/C++ library) is used. Automatic If you select Automatic, language support will be decided automatically depending on the filename extension of the file being compiled: Files with the filename extension c will be compiled as C source files Files with the filename extension cpp will be compiled as Extended Embedded C++ source files. This option requires that a DLIB library (C/C++ library) is used. REQUIRE PROTOTYPES This option forces the compiler to verify that all functions have proper prototypes. Using this option means that code containing any of the following will generate an error: A function call of a function with no declaration, or with a Kernighan & Ritchie C declaration A function definition of a public function with no previous prototype declaration An indirect function call through a function pointer with a type that does not include a prototype. LANGUAGE CONFORMANCE Language extensions must be enabled for the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler to be able to accept MSP430-specific keywords as extensions to the standard C or C++ language. In the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, the option Allow IAR extensions is enabled by default. The option Relaxed ISO/ANSI disables IAR extensions, but does not adhere to strict ISO/ANSI. Select the option Strict ISO/ANSI to adhere to the strict ISO/ANSI C standard. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 352 User Guide Compiler options For details about language extensions, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. PLAIN 'CHAR' IS Normally, the compiler interprets the char type as unsigned char. Use this option to make the compiler interpret the char type as signed char instead, for example for compatibility with another compiler. Note: The runtime library is compiled with unsigned plain characters. If you select the radio button Signed, you might get type mismatch warnings from the linker as the library uses unsigned char. ENABLE MULTIBYTE SUPPORT By default, multibyte characters cannot be used in C or Embedded C++ source code. If you use this option, multibyte characters in the source code are interpreted according to the host computer's default setting for multibyte support. Multibyte characters are allowed in C and C++ style comments, in string literals, and in character constants. They are transferred untouched to the generated code. ENABLE IAR MIGRATION PREPROCESSOR EXTENSIONS Migration preprocessor extensions extend the preprocessor in order to ease migration of code from earlier IAR compilers. If you need to migrate code from an earlier IAR C or C++ compiler, you may want to use this option. Note: If you use this option, not only will the compiler accept code that is not standard conformant, but it will also reject some code that does conform to standard. Important! Do not depend on these extensions in newly written code. Support for them may be removed in future compiler versions. Part 7. Reference information 353 Code Code The Code options specify the use of registers and the stack. Figure 193: Compiler code options R4 UTILIZATION This option controls how register R4 can be used. There are three possible settings: Normal use. This setting allows the compiler to use the register in generated code. __regvar variables. When this setting is selected, the compiler uses the register for locating global register variables declared with the extended keyword __regvar. Not used. If you select this setting, R4 is locked and can be used for a special purpose by the application. R5 UTILIZATION This option controls how register R5 can be used. There are three possible settings: Normal use. This setting allows the compiler to use the register in generated code. __regvar variables. When this setting is selected, the compiler uses the register for locating global register variables declared with the extended keyword __regvar. Not used. If you select this setting, R5 is locked and can be used for a special purpose by the application. REDUCE STACK USAGE Use this option to make the compiler minimize the use of stack space at the cost of somewhat larger and slower code. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 354 User Guide Compiler options 20-BIT CONTEXT SAVE ON INTERRUPT Use this option to make all interrupt functions be treated as a __save_reg_20 declared function without explicitly using the __save_reg20 keyword. This is useful if your application requires that all 20 bits of registers are preserved. The drawback is that the code will be somewhat slower. Note: This option has no effect when compiling for the MSP430 architecture. Optimizations The Optimizations options determine the type and level of optimization for generation of object code. Figure 194: Compiler optimizations options OPTIMIZATIONS Size or speed, and level The MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler supports two optimization models--size and speed--at different optimization levels. Select the optimization model using either the Size or Speed radio button. Then choose the optimization level--None, Low, Medium, or High--from the drop-down list next to the radio buttons. By default, a debug project will have a size optimization that is fully debuggable, while a release project will have a size optimization that generates an absolute minimum of code. Part 7. Reference information 355 Output For a list of optimizations performed at each optimization level, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. Enabled transformations The following transformations are available on different level of optimizations: Common subexpression elimination Loop unrolling Function inlining Code motion Type-based alias analysis. When a transformation is available, you can enable or disable it by selecting its check box. In a debug project, the transformations are by default disabled. In a release project, the transformations are by default enabled. For a brief description of the transformations that can be individually disabled, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. Output The Output options determine the output format of the compiled file, including the level of debugging information in the object code. Figure 195: Compiler output options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 356 User Guide Compiler options MODULE TYPE By default, the compiler generates program modules. Use this option to make a library module that will only be included if it is referenced in your application. Select the Override default check box and choose one of: Program Module Library Module The object file will be treated as a program module rather than as a library module. The object file will be treated as a library module rather than as a program module. For information about program and library modules, and working with libraries, see the XLIB and XAR chapters in the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide, available from the Help menu. OBJECT MODULE NAME Normally, the internal name of the object module is the name of the source file, without a directory name or extension. Use this option to set the object module name explicitly. First select the Object module name check box, then type a name in the entry field. This option is particularly useful when several modules have the same filename, because the resulting duplicate module name would normally cause a linker error; for example, when the source file is a temporary file generated by a preprocessor. GENERATE DEBUG INFORMATION This option causes the compiler to include additional information in the object modules that is required by C-SPY and other symbolic debuggers. The Generate debug information option is selected by default. Deselect this option if you do not want the compiler to generate debug information. Note: The included debug information increases the size of the object files. Part 7. Reference information 357 List List The List options determine whether a list file is produced, and the information included in the list file. Figure 196: Compiler list file options Normally, the compiler does not generate a list file. Select any of the following options to generate a list file or an assembler file. The list file will be saved in the List directory, and its filename will consist of the source filename, plus the filename extension lst. You can open the output files directly from the Output folder which is available in the Workspace window. OUTPUT LIST FILE Select the Output list file option and choose the type of information to include in the list file: Assembler mnemonics Diagnostics Includes assembler mnemonics in the list file. Includes diagnostic information in the list file. OUTPUT ASSEMBLER FILE Select the Output assembler file option and choose the type of information to include in the list file: Include source Include call frame information Includes source code in the assembler file. Includes compiler-generated information for runtime model attributes, call frame information, and frame size information. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 358 User Guide Compiler options Preprocessor The Preprocessor options allow you to define symbols and include paths for use by the compiler. Figure 197: Compiler preprocessor options IGNORE STANDARD INCLUDE DIRECTORIES If you select this option, the standard include files will not be used when the project is built. ADDITIONAL INCLUDE DIRECTORIES The Additional include directories option adds a path to the list of #include file paths. The paths required by the product are specified by default depending on your choice of runtime library. Type the full file path of your #include files. Note: Any additional directories specified using this option will be searched before the standard include directories. To make your project more portable, use the argument variable $TOOLKIT_DIR$ for the subdirectories of the active product and $PROJ_DIR$ for the directory of the current project. For an overview of the argument variables, see Argument variables summary, page 279. Part 7. Reference information 359 Diagnostics PREINCLUDE FILE Use this option to make the compiler include the specified include file before it starts to read the source file. This is useful if you want to change something in the source code for the entire application, for instance if you want to define a new symbol. DEFINED SYMBOLS The Defined symbols option is useful for conveniently specifying a value or choice that would otherwise be specified in the source file. Type the symbols that you want to define for the project, for example: TESTVER=1 Note that there should be no space around the equal sign. The Defined symbols option has the same effect as a #define statement at the top of the source file. For example, you might arrange your source to produce either the test or production version of your application depending on whether the symbol TESTVER was defined. To do this you would use include sections such as: #ifdef TESTVER ... ; additional code lines for test version only #endif You would then define the symbol TESTVER in the Debug target but not in the Release target. PREPROCESSOR OUTPUT TO FILE By default, the compiler does not generate preprocessor output. Select the Preprocessor output to file option if you want to generate preprocessor output. You can also choose to preserve comments and/or to generate #line directives. Diagnostics The Diagnostics options determine how diagnostics are classified and displayed. Use the diagnostics options to override the default classification of the specified diagnostics. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 360 User Guide Compiler options Note: The diagnostics cannot be suppressed for fatal errors, and fatal errors cannot be reclassified. Figure 198: Compiler diagnostics options ENABLE REMARKS The least severe diagnostic messages are called remarks. A remark indicates a source code construct that might cause strange behavior in the generated code. By default remarks are not issued. Select the Enable remarks option if you want the compiler to generate remarks. SUPPRESS THESE DIAGNOSTICS This option suppresses the output of diagnostics for the tags that you specify. For example, to suppress the warnings Pe117 and Pe177, type: Pe117,Pe177 TREAT THESE AS REMARKS A remark is the least severe type of diagnostic message. It indicates a source code construct that might cause strange behavior in the generated code. Use this option to classify diagnostics as remarks. For example, to classify the warning Pe177 as a remark, type: Pe177 Part 7. Reference information 361 MISRA C TREAT THESE AS WARNINGS A warning indicates an error or omission that is of concern, but which will not cause the compiler to stop before compilation is completed. Use this option to classify diagnostic messages as warnings. For example, to classify the remark Pe826 as a warning, type: Pe826 TREAT THESE AS ERRORS An error indicates a violation of the C or C++ language rules, of such severity that object code will not be generated, and the exit code will be non-zero. Use this option to classify diagnostic messages as errors. For example, to classify the warning Pe117 as an error, type: Pe117 TREAT ALL WARNINGS AS ERRORS Use this option to make the compiler treat all warnings as errors. If the compiler encounters an error, object code is not generated. MISRA C Use these options to override the options set on the MISRA C page of the General Options category. Figure 199: MISRA C compiler options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 362 User Guide Compiler options OVERRIDE GENERAL MISRA C SETTINGS Select this option if you want the compiler to check a different selection of rules than the rules selected in the General Options category. SET ACTIVE MISRA C RULES Only the rules that have been selected in the scroll list will be checked during compilation. To select or deselect several rules with one click, click one of the buttons None, Required, All, or Restore. The Required button selects all 93 rules that are categorized by the Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software as required and deselects the rules that are categorized as advisory. The Restore button restores the MISRA C settings used in the General Options category. Extra Options The Extra Options page provides you with a command line interface to the compiler. Figure 200: Extra Options page for the compiler USE COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Additional command line arguments for the compiler (not supported by the GUI) can be specified here. Part 7. Reference information 363 Extra Options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 364 User Guide Assembler options This chapter describes the assembler options available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. Language The Language options control the code generation of the assembler. Figure 201: Assembler language options USER SYMBOLS ARE CASE SENSITIVE By default, case sensitivity is on. This means that, for example, LABEL and label refer to different symbols. You can deselect User symbols are case sensitive to turn case sensitivity off, in which case LABEL and label will refer to the same symbol. ENABLE MULTIBYTE SUPPORT By default, multibyte characters cannot be used in assembler source code. If you use this option, multibyte characters in the source code are interpreted according to the host computer's default setting for multibyte support. Multibyte characters are allowed in comments, in string literals, and in character constants. They are transferred untouched to the generated code. Part 7. Reference information 365 MACRO QUOTE CHARACTERS The Macro quote characters option sets the characters used for the left and right quotes of each macro argument. By default, the characters are < and >. This option allows you to change the quote characters to suit an alternative convention or simply to allow a macro argument to contain < or >. From the drop-down list, choose one of four types of brackets to be used as macro quote characters: Figure 202: Choosing macro quote characters Output The Output options allow you to generate information to be used by a debugger such as the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Figure 203: Assembler output options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 366 User Guide Assembler options GENERATE DEBUG INFORMATION The Generate debug information option must be selected if you want to use a debugger with your application. By default, this option is selected in a Debug project, but not in a Release project. List The List options are used for making the assembler generate a list file, for selecting the list file contents, and generating other listing-type output. Figure 204: Assembler list file options By default, the assembler does not generate a list file. Selecting Output list file causes the assembler to generate a listing and send it to the file sourcename.lst. Note: If you want to save the list file in another directory than the default directory for list files, use the Output Directories option in the General Options category; see Output, page 345, for additional information. INCLUDE HEADER The header of the assembler list file contains information about the product version, date and time of assembly, and the command line equivalents of the assembler options that were used. Use this option to include the list file header in the list file. Part 7. Reference information 367 INCLUDE LISTING Use the suboptions under Include listing to specify which type of information to include in the list file: Option Description #included text Macro definitions Macro expansions Macro execution info Assembled lines only Multiline code Includes #include files in the list file. Includes macro definitions in the list file. Includes macro expansions in the list file. Prints macro execution information on every call of a macro. Excludes lines in false conditional assembler sections from the list file. Lists the code generated by directives on several lines if necessary. Table 102: Assembler list file options INCLUDE CROSS-REFERENCE The Include cross reference option causes the assembler to generate a cross-reference table at the end of the list file. See the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide for details. LINES/PAGE The default number of lines per page is 80 for the assembler list file. Use the Lines/page option to set the number of lines per page, within the range 10 to 150. TAB SPACING By default, the assembler sets eight character positions per tab stop. Use the Tab spacing option to change the number of character positions per tab stop, within the range 2 to 9. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 368 User Guide Assembler options Preprocessor The Preprocessor options allow you to define include paths and symbols in the assembler. Figure 205: Assembler preprocessor options IGNORE STANDARD INCLUDE DIRECTORIES If you select this option, the standard include files will not be used when the project is built. ADDITIONAL INCLUDE DIRECTORIES The Additional include directories option adds paths to the list of #include file paths. The path required by the product is specified by default. Type the full path of the directories that you want the assembler to search for #include files. To make your project more portable, use the argument variable $TOOLKIT_DIR$ for the subdirectories of the active product and $PROJ_DIR$ for the directory of the current project. For an overview of the argument variables, see Table 67, Argument variables, page 279. See the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide for information about the #include directive. Note: By default the assembler also searches for #include files in the paths specified in the A430_INC environment variable. We do not, however, recommend that you use environment variables in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Part 7. Reference information 369 DEFINED SYMBOLS This option provides a convenient way of specifying a value or choice that you would otherwise have to specify in the source file. Type the symbols you want to define, one per line. For example, you might arrange your source to produce either the test or production version of your application depending on whether the symbol TESTVER was defined. To do this you would use include sections such as: #ifdef TESTVER ... ; additional code lines for test version only #endif You would then define the symbol TESTVER in the Debug target but not in the Release target. Alternatively, your source might use a variable that you need to change often, for example FRAMERATE. You would leave the variable undefined in the source and use this option to specify a value for the project, for example FRAMERATE=3. To delete a user-defined symbol, select in the Defined symbols list and press the Delete key. Diagnostics Use the Diagnostics options to disable or enable individual warnings or ranges of warnings. Figure 206: Assembler diagnostics options The assembler displays a warning message when it finds an element of the source code that is legal, but probably the result of a programming error. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 370 User Guide Assembler options By default, all warnings are enabled. The Diagnostics options allow you to enable only some warnings, or to disable all or some warnings. Use the radio buttons and entry fields to specify which warnings you want to enable or disable. For additional information about assembler warnings, see the MSP430 IAR Assembler Reference Guide. MAX NUMBER OF ERRORS By default, the maximum number of errors reported by the assembler is 100. This option allows you to decrease or increase this number, for example, to see more errors in a single assembly. Extra Options The Extra Options page provides you with a command line interface to the assembler. Figure 207: Extra Options page for the assembler USE COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Additional command line arguments for the assembler (not supported by the GUI) can be specified here. Part 7. Reference information 371 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 372 User Guide Custom build options This chapter describes the Custom Build options available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. Custom Tool Configuration To set custom build options in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose Project>Options to display the Options dialog box. Then select Custom Build in the Category list to display the Custom Tool Configuration page: Figure 208: Custom tool options In the Filename extensions text box, specify the filename extensions for the types of files that are to be processed by this custom tool. You can enter several filename extensions. Use commas, semicolons, or blank spaces as separators. In the Command line text box, type the command line for executing the external tool. In the Output files text box, enter the output files from the external tool. If there are any additional files that are used by the external tool during the building process, these files should be added in the Additional input files text box. If these additional input files, so-called dependency files, are modified, the need for a rebuild is detected. For an example, see Extending the tool chain, page 93. Part 7. Reference information 373 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 374 User Guide Build actions options This chapter describes the options for pre-build and post-build actions available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. Build Actions Configuration To set options for pre-build and post-build actions in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose Project>Options to display the Options dialog box. Then select Build Actions in the Category list to display the Build Actions Configuration page. These options apply to the whole build configuration, and cannot be set on groups or files. Figure 209: Build actions options PRE-BUILD COMMAND LINE Type a command line to be executed directly before a build; a browse button for locating an extended command line file is available for your convenience. The commands will not be executed if the configuration is already up-to-date. Part 7. Reference information 375 POST-BUILD COMMAND LINE Type a command line to be executed directly after each successful build; a browse button is available for your convenience. The commands will not be executed if the configuration was up-to-date. This is useful for copying or post-processing the output file. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 376 User Guide Linker options This chapter describes the XLINK options available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. Note that the XLINK command line options that are used for defining segments in a linker command file are described in the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. Output The Output options are used for specifying the output format and the level of debugging information included in the output file. Figure 210: XLINK output file options OUTPUT FILE Use Output file to specify the name of the XLINK output file. If a name is not specified, the linker will use the project name with a filename extension. The filename extension depends on which output format you choose. If you choose Debug information for C-SPY, the output file will have the filename extension d43. Note: If you select a format that generates two output files, the file type that you specify will only affect the primary output file (first format). Part 7. Reference information 377 Output Override default Use this option to specify a filename or filename extension other than the default. FORMAT The output options determine the format of the output file generated by the IAR XLINK Linker. The output file is used as input to either a debugger or as input for programming the target system. The IAR Systems proprietary output format is called UBROF, Universal Binary Relocatable Object Format. The default output settings are: In a debug project, Debug information for C-SPY, With runtime control modules, and With I/O emulation modules are selected by default In a release project, msp430-txt is selected by default, which is an output format without debug information suitable for target download. Note: For debuggers other than C-SPY, check the user documentation supplied with that debugger for information about which format/variant should be used. Debug information for C-SPY This option creates a UBROF output file, with a d43 filename extension, to be used with the IAR C-SPY Debugger. With runtime control modules This option produces the same output as the Debug information for C-SPY option, but also includes debugger support for handling program abort, exit, and assertions. Special C-SPY variants for the corresponding library functions are linked with your application. For more information about the debugger runtime interface, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. With I/O emulation modules This option produces the same output as the Debug information for C-SPY and With runtime control modules options, but also includes debugger support for I/O handling, which means that stdin and stdout are redirected to the Terminal I/O window, and that it is possible to access files on the host computer during debugging. For more information about the debugger runtime interface, see the MSP430 IAR C/C++ Compiler Reference Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 378 User Guide Linker options Buffered terminal output During program execution in C-SPY, instead of instantly printing each new character to the C-SPY Terminal I/O window, this option will buffer the output. This option is useful when using debugger systems that have slow communication. Allow C-SPY-specific extra output file Use this option to enable the options available on the Extra Output page. If you choose any of the options With runtime control modules or With I/O emulation modules, the generated output file will contain dummy implementations for certain library functions, such as putchar, and extra debug information required by C-SPY to handle those functions. In this case, the options available on the Extra Output page are disabled, which means you cannot generate an extra output file. The reason is that the extra output file would still contain the dummy functions, but would lack the required extra debug information, and would therefore normally be useless. However, for some debugger systems, two output files from the same build process are required--one with the required debug information, and one that you can burn to your hardware before debugging. This is useful when you want to debug code that is located in non-volatile memory. In this case, you must choose the Allow C-SPY-specific extra output file option to make it possible to generate an extra output file. Other Use this option to generate output other than those generated by the options Debug information for C-SPY, With runtime control modules, and With I/O emulation modules. Use the Output format drop-down list to select the appropriate output. If applicable, use Format variant to select variants available for some of the output formats. The alternatives depend on the output format chosen. When you specify the Other>Output format option as either debug (ubrof), or ubrof, a UBROF output file with the filename extension dbg will be created. The generated output file will not contain debugging information for simulating facilities such as stop at program exit, long jump instructions, and terminal I/O. If you need support for these facilities during debugging, use the Debug information for C-SPY, With runtime control modules, and With I/O emulation modules options, respectively. For more information, see the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. Part 7. Reference information 379 Extra Output Module-local symbols Use this option to specify whether local (non-public) symbols in the input modules should be included or not by the IAR XLINK Linker. If suppressed, the local symbols will not appear in the listing cross-reference and they will not be passed on to the output file. You can choose to ignore just the compiler-generated local symbols, such as jump or constant labels. Usually these are only of interest when debugging at assembler level. Note: Local symbols are only included in files if they were compiled or assembled with the appropriate option to specify this. Extra Output The Extra Output options are used for generating an extra output file and for specifying its format. Note: If you have chosen any of the options With runtime control modules or With I/O emulation modules available on the Output page, you must also choose the option Allow C-SPY-specific extra output file to enable the Extra Output options. Figure 211: XLINK extra output file options Use the Generate extra output file option to generate an additional output file from the build process. Use the Override default option to override the default file name. If a name is not specified, the linker will use the project name and a filename extension which depends on the output format you choose. Note: If you select a format that generates two output files, the file type that you specify will only affect the primary output file (first format). MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 380 User Guide Linker options Use the Output format drop-down list to select the appropriate output. If applicable, use Format variant to select variants available for some of the output formats. The alternatives depend on the output format you have chosen. When you specify the Output format option as either debug (ubrof), or ubrof, a UBROF output file with the filename extension dbg will be created. #define You can define symbols with the #define option. Figure 212: XLINK defined symbols options DEFINE SYMBOL Use Define symbol to define absolute symbols at link time. This is especially useful for configuration purposes. Type the symbols that you want to define for the project, for example: TESTVER=1 Note that there should be no space around the equal sign. Any number of symbols can be defined in a linker command file. The symbol(s) defined in this manner will be located in a special module called ?ABS_ENTRY_MOD, which is generated by the linker. XLINK will display an error message if you attempt to redefine an existing symbol. Part 7. Reference information 381 Diagnostics Diagnostics The Diagnostics options determine the error and warning messages generated by the IAR XLINK Linker. Figure 213: XLINK diagnostics options ALWAYS GENERATE OUTPUT Use Always generate output to generate an output file even if a non-fatal error was encountered during the linking process, such as a missing global entry or a duplicate declaration. Normally, XLINK will not generate an output file if an error is encountered. Note: XLINK always aborts on fatal errors, even when this option is used. The Always generate output option allows missing entries to be patched in later in the absolute output image. SEGMENT OVERLAP WARNINGS Use Segment overlap warnings to reduce segment overlap errors to warnings, making it possible to produce cross-reference maps, etc. NO GLOBAL TYPE CHECKING Use No global type checking to disable type checking at link time. While a well-written application should not need this option, there may be occasions where it is helpful. By default, XLINK performs link-time type checking between modules by comparing the external references to an entry with the PUBLIC entry (if the information exists in the object modules involved). A warning is generated if there are mismatches. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 382 User Guide Linker options RANGE CHECKS Use Range checks to specify the address range check. The following table shows the range check options in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE: Option Description Generate errors Generate warnings Disabled Table 103: XLINK range check options An error message is generated Range errors are treated as warnings Disables the address range checking If an address is relocated outside address range of the target CPU --code, external data, or internal data address--an error message is generated. This usually indicates an error in an assembler language module or in the segment placement. WARNINGS/ERRORS By default, the IAR XLINK Linker generates a warning when it detects that something may be wrong, although the generated code might still be correct. The Warnings/Errors options allow you to suppress or enable all warnings, and to change the severity classification of errors and warnings. Refer to the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide for information about the different warning and error messages. Use the following options to control the generation of warning and error messages: Suppress all warnings Use this option to suppress all warnings. Suppress these diagnostics This option suppresses the output of diagnostics for the tags that you specify. For example, to suppress the warnings w117 and w177, type w117,w177. Treat these as warnings Use this option to specify errors that should be treated as warnings instead. For example, to make error 106 become treated as a warning, type e106. Treat these as errors Use this option to specify warnings that should be treated as errors instead. For example, to make warning 26 become treated as an error, type w26. Part 7. Reference information 383 List List The List options determine the generation of an XLINK cross-reference listing. Figure 214: XLINK list file options GENERATE LINKER LISTING Causes the linker to generate a listing and send it to the file projectname.map. Segment map Use Segment map to include a segment map in the XLINK listing file. The segment map will contain a list of all the segments in dump order. Symbols The following options are available: Option Description None Symbol listing Symbols will be excluded from the linker listing. An abbreviated list of every entry (global symbol) in every module. This entry map is useful for quickly finding the address of a routine or data element. A list of all segments, local symbols, and entries (public symbols) for every module in the application. Module map Table 104: XLINK list file options MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 384 User Guide Linker options Module summary Use the Module summary option to generate a summary of the contributions to the total memory use from each module. Only modules with a contribution to memory use are listed. Include suppressed entries Use this option to include all segment parts in a linked module in the list file, not just the segment parts that were included in the output. This makes it possible to determine exactly which entries that were not needed. Static overlay map If the compiler uses static overlay, this option includes a listing of the static overlay system in the list file. Read more about static overlay maps in the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. File format The following options are available: Option Description Text HTML Plain text file HTML format, with hyperlinks Table 105: XLINK list file format options Lines/page Sets the number of lines per page for the XLINK listings to lines, which must be in the range 10 to 150. Part 7. Reference information 385 Config Config With the Config options you can specify the path and name of the linker command file, override the default program entry, and specify the library search path. Figure 215: XLINK config options LINKER COMMAND FILE A default linker command file is selected automatically for the chosen Target settings in the General Options category. You can override this by selecting the Override default option, and then specifying an alternative file. The argument variables $TOOLKIT_DIR$ or $PROJ_DIR$ can be used here too, to specify a project-specific or predefined linker command file. OVERRIDE DEFAULT PROGRAM ENTRY By default, the program entry is the label __program_start. The linker will make sure that a module containing the program entry label is included, and that the segment part containing the label is not discarded. The default program handling can be overridden by selecting Override default program entry. Selecting the option Entry label will make it possible to specify a label other than __program_start to use for the program entry. Selecting the option Defined by application will disable the use of a start label. The linker will, as always, include all program modules, and enough library modules to satisfy all symbol references, keeping all segment parts that are marked with the root attribute or that are referenced, directly or indirectly, from such a segment part. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 386 User Guide Linker options SEARCH PATHS The Search paths option specifies the names of the directories which XLINK will search if it fails to find the object files to be linked in the current working directory. Add the full paths of any further directories that you want XLINK to search. The paths required by the product are specified by default, depending on your choice of runtime library. If the box is left empty, XLINK searches for object files only in the current working directory. Type the full file path of your #include files. To make your project more portable, use the argument variable $TOOLKIT_DIR$ for the subdirectories of the active product and $PROJ_DIR$ for the directory of the current project. For an overview of the argument variables, see Argument variables summary, page 279. RAW BINARY IMAGE Use the Raw binary image options to link pure binary files in addition to the ordinary input files. Use the text boxes to specify the following parameters: File Symbol Segment Align The pure binary file you want to link. The symbol defined by the segment part where the binary data is placed. The segment where the binary data will be placed. The alignment of the segment part where the binary data is placed. The entire contents of the file are placed in the segment you specify, which means it can only contain pure binary data, for example, the raw-binary output format. The segment part where the contents of the specified file is placed, is only included if the specified symbol is required by your application. Use the -g linker option if you want to force a reference to the symbol. Read more about single output files and the -g option in the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. Part 7. Reference information 387 Processing Processing With the Processing options you can specify details about how the code is generated. Figure 216: XLINK processing options FILL UNUSED CODE MEMORY Use Fill unused code memory to fill all gaps between segment parts introduced by the linker with the value you enter. The linker can introduce gaps either because of alignment restriction, or at the end of ranges given in segment placement options. The default behavior, when this option is not used, is that these gaps are not given a value in the output file. Fill pattern Use this option to specify size, in hexadecimal notation, of the filler to be used in gaps between segment parts. Generate checksum Use Generate checksum to checksum all generated raw data bytes. This option can only be used if the Fill unused code memory option has been specified. Size Size specifies the number of bytes in the checksum, which can be 1, 2, or 4. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 388 User Guide Linker options Algorithms One of the following algorithms can be used: Algorithms Description Arithmetic sum CRC16 CRC32 Crc polynomial Simple arithmetic sum CRC16, generating polynomial 0x11021 (default) CRC32, generating polynomial 0x104C11DB7 CRC with a generating polynomial of the value you enter Table 106: XLINK checksum algorithms Complement Use the Complement drop-down list to specify the one's complement or two's complement. Bit order By default it is the most significant 1, 2, or 4 bytes (MSB) of the result that will be output, in the natural byte order for the processor. Choose LSB from the Bit order drop-down list if you want the least significant bytes to be output. Alignment Use this option to specify an optional alignment for the checksum. If you do not specify an alignment explicitly, an alignment of 2 is used. Initial value Use this option to specify the initial value of the checksum. This is useful if the microcontroller you are using has its own checksum calculation and you want that calculation to correspond to the calculation performed by XLINK. THE CHECKSUM CALCULATION The CRC checksum is calculated as if the following code was called for each bit in the input, starting with a CRC of 0: unsigned long crc(int bit, unsigned long oldcrc) { unsigned long newcrc = (oldcrc << 1) ^ bit; if (oldcrc & 0x80000000) newcrc ^= POLY; return newcrc; } Part 7. Reference information 389 Extra Options POLY is the generating polynomial. The checksum is the result of the final call to this routine. If the complement is specified, the checksum is the one's or two's complement of the result. The linker will place the checksum byte(s) at the __checksum label in the CHECKSUM segment. This segment must be placed using the segment placement options like any other segment. For additional information about segment control, see the IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide. Extra Options The Extra Options page provides you with a command line interface to the linker. Figure 217: Extra Options page for the linker USE COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Additional command line arguments for the linker (not supported by the GUI) can be specified here. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 390 User Guide Library builder options This chapter describes the XAR Library builder options available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. Output XAR options are not available by default. Before you can set XAR options in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, you must add the XAR Library Builder tool to the list of categories. Choose Project>Options to display the Options dialog box, and select the General Options category. On the Output page, select the Library option. If you select the Library option, Library Builder appears as a category in the Options dialog box. As a result of the build process, the XAR Library Builder will create a library output file. Before you create the library you can set the XAR options. Part 7. Reference information 391 To set XAR options, select Library Builder from the category list to display the XAR options. Figure 218: XAR output options To restore all settings to the default factory settings, click the Factory Settings button. The Output file option overrides the default name of the output file. Enter a new name in the Override default text box. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 392 User Guide Debugger options This chapter describes the C-SPY options available in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. For information about how to set options, see Setting options, page 89. In addition, options specific to the C-SPY FET debugger are described in the chapter C-SPY FET-specific debugging. Setup To set C-SPY options in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, choose Project>Options to display the Options dialog box. Then select Debugger in the Category list. The Setup page contains the generic C-SPY options. Figure 219: Generic C-SPY options To restore all settings to the default factory settings, click the Factory Settings button. The Setup options specify the C-SPY driver, the setup macro file, and device description file to be used, and which default source code location to run to. DRIVER Selects the appropriate driver for use with C-SPY, the Simulator driver or the FET Debugger driver. Part 7. Reference information 393 Setup Contact your distributor or IAR Systems representative, or visit the IAR Systems web site at www.iar.com for the most recent information about the available C-SPY drivers. RUN TO Use this option to specify a location you want C-SPY to run to when you start the debugger and after a reset. The default location to run to is the main function. Type the name of the location if you want C-SPY to run to a different location. You can specify assembler labels or whatever can be evaluated to such, for example function names. If you leave the check-box empty, the program counter will contain the regular hardware reset address at each reset. SETUP MACROS To register the contents of a setup macro file in the C-SPY startup sequence, select Use macro file and enter the path and name of the setup file, for example SetupSimple.mac. If no extension is specified, the extension mac is assumed. A browse button is available for your convenience. DEVICE DESCRIPTION FILE Use this option to load a device description file that contains device-specific information. For details about the device description file, see Device description file, page 113. Device description files for each MSP430 device are provided in the directory 430\config and have the filename extension ddf. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 394 User Guide Debugger options Extra Options The Extra Options page provides you with a command line interface to the C-SPY debugger. Figure 220: Extra Options page for the C-SPY debugger USE COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Additional command line arguments for the C-SPY debugger (not supported by the GUI) can be specified here. Part 7. Reference information 395 Plugins Plugins On the Plugins page you can specify C-SPY plugin modules to be loaded and made available during debug sessions. Plugin modules can be provided by IAR Systems, as well as by third-party suppliers. Contact your software distributor or IAR representative, or visit the IAR Systems web site, for information about available modules. Figure 221: C-SPY plugin options By default, Select plugins to load lists the plugin modules delivered with the product installation. If you have any C-SPY plugin modules delivered by any third-party vendor, these will also appear in the list. The common\plugins directory is intended for generic plugin modules. The 430\plugins directory is intended for target-specific plugin modules. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 396 User Guide C-SPY macros reference This chaptersection gives reference information about the C-SPY macros. First a syntax description of the macro language is provided. Then, the available setup macro functions and the pre-defined system macros are summarized. Finally, each system macro is described in detail. The macro language The syntax of the macro language is very similar to the C language. There are macro statements, which are similar to C statements. You can define macro functions, with or without parameters and return value. You can use built-in system macros, similar to C library functions. Finally, you can define global and local macro variables. You can collect your macro functions in a macro file (filename extension mac). MACRO FUNCTIONS C-SPY macro functions consist of C-SPY variable definitions and macro statements which are executed when the macro is called. An unlimited number of parameters can be passed to a macro function, and macro functions can return a value on exit. A C-SPY macro has the following form: macroName (parameterList) { macroBody } where parameterList is a list of macro parameters separated by commas, and macroBody is any series of C-SPY variable definitions and C-SPY statements. Type checking is neither performed on the values passed to the macro functions nor on the return value. PREDEFINED SYSTEM MACRO FUNCTIONS The macro language also includes a wide set of predefined system macro functions (built-in functions), similar to C library functions. For detailed information about each system macro, see . Part 7. Reference information 397 The macro language MACRO VARIABLES A macro variable is a variable defined and allocated outside your application space. It can then be used in a C-SPY expression. For detailed information about C-SPY expressions, see the chapter C-SPY expressions, page 123.For details about C-SPY expressions, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. The syntax for defining one or more macro variables is: __var nameList; where nameList is a list of C-SPY variable names separated by commas. A macro variable defined outside a macro body has global scope, and it exists throughout the whole debugging session. A macro variable defined within a macro body is created when its definition is executed and destroyed on return from the macro. By default, macro variables are treated as signed integers and initialized to 0. When a C-SPY variable is assigned a value in an expression, it also acquires the type of that expression. For example: Expression What it means myvar = 3.5; myvar is now type float, value 3.5. myvar = (int*)i; myvar is now type pointer to int, and the value is the same as i. Table 107: Examples of C-SPY macro variables In case of a name conflict between a C symbol and a C-SPY macro variable, C-SPY macro variables have a higher precedence than C variables. Note that macro variables are allocated on the debugger host and do not affect your application. Macro strings In addition to C types, macro variables can hold values of macro strings. Note that macro strings differ from C language strings. When you write a string literal, such as "Hello!", in a C-SPY expression, the value is a macro string. It is not a C-style character pointer char*, because char* must point to a sequence of characters in target memory and C-SPY cannot expect any string literal to actually exist in target memory. You can manipulate a macro string using a few built-in macro functions, for example __strFind or __subString. The result can be a new macro string. You can concatenate macro strings using the + operator, for example str + "tail". You can also access individual characters using subscription, for example str[3]. You can get the length of a string using sizeof(str). Note that a macro string is not NULL-terminated. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 398 User Guide C-SPY macros reference The macro function __toString is used for converting from a NULL-terminated C string in your application (char* or char) to a macro string. For example, assume the following definition of a C string in your application: char const *cstr = "Hello"; Then examine the following examples: __var str; /* A macro variable */ str = cstr /* str is now just a pointer to char */ sizeof str /* same as sizeof (char*), typically 2 or 4 */ str = __toString(cstr,512) /* str is now a macro string */ sizeof str /* 5, the length of the string */ str[1] /* 101, the ASCII code for 'e' */ str += " World!" /* str is now "Hello World!" */ See also Formatted output, page 400. MACRO STATEMENTS Statements are expected to behave in the same way as the corresponding C statements would do. The following C-SPY macro statements are accepted: Expressions expression; For detailed information about C-SPY expressions, see C-SPY expressions, page 123.For details about C-SPY expressions, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Conditional statements if (expression) statement if (expression) statement else statement Loop statements for (init_expression; cond_expression; update_expression) statement while (expression) statement Part 7. Reference information 399 The macro language do statement while (expression); Return statements return; return expression; If the return value is not explicitly set, signed int 0 is returned by default. Blocks Statements can be grouped in blocks. { statement1 statement2 . . . statementN } FORMATTED OUTPUT C-SPY provides different methods for producing formatted output: __message argList; Prints the output to the Debug Log window. __fmessage file, argList; Prints the output to the designated file. __smessage argList; Returns a string containing the formatted output. where argList is a comma-separated list of C-SPY expressions or strings, and file is the result of the __openFile system macro, see __openFile, page 407. Examples Use the __message statement, as in the following example: var1 = 42; var2 = 37; __message "This line prints the values ", var1, " and ", var2, " in the Log window."; This should produce the following message in the Log window: This line prints the values 42 and 37 in the Log window. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 400 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Use __fmessage to write the output to the designated file, for example: __fmessage myfile, "Result is ", res, "!\n"; Finally, use __smessage to produce strings, for example: myMacroVar = __smessage 42, " is the answer."; myMacroVar now contains the string "42 is the answer". Specifying display format of arguments It is possible to override the default display format of a scalar argument (number or pointer) in argList by suffixing it with a : followed by a format specifier. Available specifiers are %b for binary, %o for octal, %d for decimal, %x for hexadecimal and %c for character. These match the formats available in the Watch and Locals windows, but number prefixes and quotes around strings and characters are not printed. Another example: __message "The character '", cvar:%c, "' has the decimal value ", cvar; This might produce: The character 'A' has the decimal value 65 Note: A character enclosed in single quotes (a character literal) is an integer constant and is not automatically formatted as a character. For example: __message 'A', " is the numeric value of the character ", 'A':%c; would produce: 65 is the numeric value of the character A Note: The default format for certain types is primarily designed to be useful in the Watch window and other related windows. For example, a value of type char is formatted as 'A' (0x41), while a pointer to a character (potentially a C string) is formatted as 0x8102 "Hello", where the string part shows the beginning of the string (currently up to 60 characters). When printing a value of type char*, use the %x format specifier to print just the pointer value in hexadecimal notation, or use the system macro __toString to get the full string value. Part 7. Reference information 401 Setup macro functions summary Setup macro functions summary The following table summarizes the available setup macro functions: Macro Description execUserPreload Called after communication with the target system is established but before downloading the target application. Implement this macro to initialize memory locations and/or registers which are vital for loading data properly. Called once after the target application is downloaded. Implement this macro to set up the memory map, breakpoints, interrupts, register macro files, etc. Called each time the reset command is issued. Implement this macro to set up and restore data. Called once when the debug session ends. Implement this macro to save status data etc. execUserSetup execUserReset execUserExit Table 108: C-SPY setup macros Note: If you define interrupts or breakpoints in a macro file that is executed at system start (using execUserSetup) we strongly recommend that you also make sure that they are removed at system shutdown (using execUserExit). An example is available in SetupSimple.mac, see Simulating an interrupt, page 57.For an example, see the tutorials in the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. The reason for this is that the simulator saves interrupt settings between sessions and if they are not removed they will get duplicated every time execUserSetup is executed again. This seriously affects the execution speed. C-SPY system macros summary The following table summarizes the pre-defined system macros: Macro Description __cancelAllInterrupts __cancelInterrupt __clearBreak __closeFile __disableInterrupts __driverType __enableInterrupts Table 109: Summary of system macros Cancels all ordered interrupts Cancels an interrupt Clears a breakpoint Closes a file that was opened by __openFile Disables generation of interrupts Verifies the driver type Enables generation of interrupts MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 402 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Macro Description __evaluate __openFile __orderInterrupt Interprets the input string as an expression and evaluates it. Opens a file for I/O operations Generates an interrupt __popSimulatorInterruptExecu Informs the interrupt simulation system that an tingStack interrupt handler has finished executing __readFile __readFileByte __readMemoryByte __readMemory8 __readMemory16 __readMemory32 __registerMacroFile __resetFile __setAdvancedTriggerBreak __setCodeBreak __setConditionalBreak __setDataBreak __setRangeBreak __setSimBreak __sourcePosition __strFind __subString __toLower __toString __toUpper __writeFile __writeFileByte __writeMemoryByte Reads from the specified file Reads one byte from the specified file Reads one byte from the specified memory location Reads one byte from the specified memory location Reads two bytes from the specified memory location Reads four bytes from the specified memory location Registers macros from the specified file Rewinds a file opened by __openFile Sets an advanced trigger breakpoint Sets a code breakpoint Sets a conditional breakpoint Sets a data breakpoint Sets a range breakpoint Sets a simulation breakpoint Returns the file name and source location if current execution location corresponds to a source location Searches a given string for the occurrence of another string Extracts a substring from another string Returns a copy of the parameter string where all the characters have been converted to lower case Prints strings Returns a copy of the parameter string where all the characters have been converted to upper case Writes to the specified file Writes one byte to the specified file Writes one byte to the specified memory location Table 109: Summary of system macros (Continued) Part 7. Reference information 403 Description of C-SPY system macros Macro Description __writeMemory8 __writeMemory16 __writeMemory32 Writes one byte to the specified memory location Writes a two-byte word to the specified memory location Writes a four-byte word to the specified memory location Table 109: Summary of system macros (Continued) Description of C-SPY system macros HistoryThis section gives reference information about each of the C-SPY system macros. __cancelAllInterrupts Syntax Return value Description Applicability __cancelAllInterrupts() int 0 Cancels all ordered interrupts. This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. __cancelInterrupt Syntax Parameter interrupt_id The value returned by the corresponding __orderInterrupt macro call (unsigned long) __cancelInterrupt(interrupt_id) Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful int 0 Non-zero error number Table 110: __cancelInterrupt return values Description Applicability Cancels the specified interrupt. This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 404 User Guide C-SPY macros reference __clearBreak Syntax Parameter break_id The value returned by any of the set breakpoint macros __clearBreak(break_id) Return value Description See also int 0 Clears a user-defined breakpoint. Defining breakpoints, page 129.For details about the breakpoint system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. __closeFile Syntax Parameter filehandle The macro variable used as filehandle by the __openFile macro __closeFile(filehandle) Return value Description int 0 Closes a file previously opened by __openFile. __disableInterrupts Syntax Return value Result Value __disableInterrupts() Successful Unsuccessful int 0 Non-zero error number Table 111: __disableInterrupts return values Description Applicability Disables the generation of interrupts. This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. Part 7. Reference information 405 Description of C-SPY system macros __driverType Syntax Parameter driver_id A string corresponding to the driver you want to check for; one of the following: "sim" corresponds to the simulator driver "fet" corresponds to the FET debugger driver __driverType(driver_id) Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful 1 0 Table 112: __driverType return values Description Checks to see if the current IAR C-SPY Debugger driver is identical to the driver type of the driver_id parameter. __driverType("sim") Example If a simulator is the current driver, the value 1 is returned. Otherwise 0 is returned. __enableInterrupts Syntax Return value Result Value __enableInterrupts() Successful Unsuccessful int 0 Non-zero error number Table 113: __enableInterrupts return values Description Applicability Enables the generation of interrupts. This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 406 User Guide C-SPY macros reference __evaluate Syntax Parameter string valuePtr Expression string Pointer to macro variable storing the result __evaluate(string, valuePtr) Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful int 0 int 1 Table 114: __evaluate return values Description This macro interprets the input string as an expression and evaluates it. The result is stored in a variable pointed to be valuePtr. The following example assumes that the variable i is defined and has the value 5: __evaluate("i + 3", &myVar) Example The macro variable myVar is assigned the value 8. __openFile Syntax Parameters file access The filename as a string The access type (string); one of the following: "r" ASCII read "w" ASCII write __openFile(file, access) Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful The file handle An invalid file handle, which tests as False Table 115: __openFile return values Part 7. Reference information 407 Description of C-SPY system macros Description Opens a file for I/O operations. The default base directory of this macro is where the currently open project file (*.pew or *.prj) is located. The argument to __openFile can specify a location relative to this directory. In addition, you can use argument variables such as $PROJ_DIR$ and $TOOLKIT_DIR$ in the path argument. __var filehandle; /* The macro variable to contain */ /* the file handle */ filehandle = __openFile("Debug\\Exe\\test.tst", "r"); if (filehandle) { /* successful opening */ } Example See also Argument variables summary, page 279. __orderInterrupt Syntax __orderInterrupt(specification, first_activation, repeat_interval, variance, infinite_hold_time, hold_time, probability) Parameters specification The interrupt (string). The specification can either be the full specification used in the device description file (ddf) or only the name. In the latter case the interrupt system will automatically get the description from the device description file. The first activation time in cycles (integer) The periodicity in cycles (integer) The timing variation range in percent (integer between 0 and 100) first_activation repeat_interval variance infinite_hold_time 1 if infinite, otherwise 0. hold_time probability The hold time (integer) The probability in percent (integer between 0 and 100) Return value The macro returns an interrupt identifier (unsigned long). If the syntax of specification is incorrect, it returns -1. Description Applicability Generates an interrupt. This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 408 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Example The following example generates a repeating interrupt using an infinite hold time first activated after 4000 cycles: __orderInterrupt( "USART0RX_VECTOR", 4000, 2000, 0, 1, 0, 100 ); __popSimulatorInterruptExecutingStack Syntax Return value Description __popSimulatorInterruptExecutingStack(void) This macro has no return value. Informs the interrupt simulation system that an interrupt handler has finished executing, as if the normal instruction used for returning from an interrupt handler was executed. This is useful if you are using interrupts in such a way that the normal instruction for returning from an interrupt handler is not used, for example in an operating system with task-switching. In this case, the interrupt simulation system cannot automatically detect that the interrupt has finished executing. Applicability This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. __readFile Syntax Parameters file valuePtr A file handle A pointer to a variable __readFile(file, valuePtr) Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful 0 Non-zero error number Table 116: __readFile return values Description Reads a sequence of hexadecimal digits from the given file and converts them to an unsigned long which is assigned to the value parameter, which should be a pointer to a macro variable. Example __var number; if (__readFile(myFile, &number) == 0) { Part 7. Reference information 409 Description of C-SPY system macros // Do something with number } __readFileByte Syntax Parameter file A file handle __readFileByte(file) Return value Description Example -1 upon error or end-of-file, otherwise a value between 0 and 255. Reads one byte from the file file. __var byte; while ( (byte = __readFileByte(myFile)) != -1 ) { // Do something with byte } __readMemoryByte Syntax Parameters address zone The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 __readMemoryByte(address, zone) Return value Description Example The macro returns the value from memory. Reads one byte from a given memory location. __readMemoryByte(0x0108, "Memory"); __readMemory8 Syntax __readMemory8(address, zone) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 410 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Parameters address zone The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 Return value Description Example The macro returns the value from memory. Reads one byte from a given memory location. __readMemory8(0x0108, "Memory"); __readMemory16 Syntax Parameters address zone The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 __readMemory16(address, zone) Return value Description Example The macro returns the value from memory. Reads a two-byte word from a given memory location. __readMemory16(0x0108, "Memory"); __readMemory32 Syntax Parameters address zone The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 __readMemory32(address, zone) Return value Description Example The macro returns the value from memory. Reads a four-byte word from a given memory location. __readMemory32(0x0108, "Memory"); Part 7. Reference information 411 Description of C-SPY system macros __registerMacroFile Syntax Parameter filename A file containing the macros to be registered (string) __registerMacroFile(filename) Return value Description int 0 Registers macros from a setup macro file. With this function you can register multiple macro files during C-SPY startup. __registerMacroFile("c:\\testdir\\macro.mac"); Example See also Registering and executing using setup macros and setup files, page 147.For details about the macro system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. __resetFile Syntax Parameter filehandle The macro variable used as filehandle by the __openFile macro __resetFile(filehandle) Return value Description int 0 Rewinds a file previously opened by __openFile. __setAdvancedTriggerBreak Syntax __setAdvancedTriggerBreak(type, condition, access, action, mask cond_value) Parameters All parameters are strings. type condition The breakpoint type; either "Address", "Data", or "Register". The breakpoint condition operator, either "==", ">=", "<=", or "!=". MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 412 User Guide C-SPY macros reference access The memory access type. One of the following: "Read" "Write" "ReadWrite" "Fetch" "FetchHold" "NoFetch" "NoFetchRead" "NoFetchNoDMA" "DMA" "NoDMA" "WriteNoDMA" "NoFetchReadNoDMA" "ReadNoDMA" "ReadDMA" "WriteDMA" The action type: "Break", "Trigger", or "BreakTrigger". A 16-bit value that the breakpoint address or value will be masked with. An extra conditional data value. action mask cond_value Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful An unsigned integer uniquely identifying the breakpoint. This value must be used to clear the breakpoint. 0 Table 117: __setAdvancedTriggerBreak return values Description Applicability Example Sets an advanced trigger breakpoint. This macro can only be used with the FET Debugger version of C-SPY. __var brk; brk = __setAdvancedTriggerBreak("Register", ">=", "Write", "Trigger", "0x0000", "0x4000"); ... __clearBreak(brk); See also Defining breakpoints, page 129 and Advanced trigger breakpoints, page 213. For details about the breakpoint system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. Part 7. Reference information 413 Description of C-SPY system macros __setCodeBreak Syntax Parameters location A string with a location description. This can be either: A source location on the form {filename}.line.col (for example {D:\\src\\prog.c}.12.9) An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress (for example Memory:0x42) An expression whose value designates a location (for example main) The number of times that a breakpoint condition must be fulfilled before a break occurs (integer) The breakpoint condition (string) The condition type; either "CHANGED" or "TRUE" (string) An expression, typically a call to a macro, which is evaluated when the breakpoint is detected __setCodeBreak(location, count, condition, cond_type, action) count condition cond_type action Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful An unsigned integer uniquely identifying the breakpoint. This value must be used to clear the breakpoint. 0 Table 118: __setCodeBreak return values Description Sets a code breakpoint, that is, a breakpoint which is triggered just before the processor fetches an instruction at the specified location. __setCodeBreak("{D:\\src\\prog.c}.12.9", 3, "d>16", "TRUE", "ActionCode()"); Examples The following example sets a code breakpoint on the label main in your assembler source: __setCodeBreak("#main", 0, "1", "TRUE", ""); See also Defining breakpoints, page 129.For details about the breakpoint system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 414 User Guide C-SPY macros reference __setConditionalBreak Syntax __setConditionalBreak(location, type, operator, access, action, mask, cond_value, cond_operator, cond_access, cond_mask) Parameters All parameters are strings. location The breakpoint location. This can be either: A source location on the form "{filename}.line.col" (for example "{D:\\src\\prog.c}.12.9") An absolute location on the form "zone:hexaddress" or simply "hexaddress" (for example "Memory:0x42") An expression whose value designates a location (for example "my_global_variable"). A register (for example "R10") type operator access The breakpoint type; either "Address", "Data", or "Register". The breakpoint operator, either "==", ">=", "<=", or "!=". The memory access type: "Read", "Write", "ReadWrite", or "Fetch". The action type: "Break", "Trigger", or "BreakTrigger". A 16-bit value that the breakpoint address or value will be masked with. An extra conditional data value. The condition operator, either "==", ">=", "<=", or "!=". The access type of the condition: "Read" or "Write". The mask value of the condition. action mask cond_value cond_operator cond_access cond_mask Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful An unsigned integer uniquely identifying the breakpoint. This value must be used to clear the breakpoint. 0 Table 119: __setConditionalBreak return values Description Sets a conditional breakpoint. Part 7. Reference information 415 Description of C-SPY system macros Applicability Example This macro can only be used with the FET Debugger version of C-SPY. __var brk; brk = __setConditionalBreak("R10", "Register", "0x5000", ">=", "Write", "Trigger", "0x0000", "0x4000", "<=", "Write", "0x00FF"); ... __clearBreak(brk); See also Defining breakpoints, page 129 and Conditional breakpoints, page 210. For details about the breakpoint system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. __setDataBreak Syntax __setDataBreak(location, count, condition, cond_type, access, action) Parameters location A string with a location description. This can be either: A source location on the form {filename}.line.col (for example {D:\\src\\prog.c}.12.9), although this is not very useful for data breakpoints An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress (for example Memory:0x42) An expression whose value designates a location (for example my_global_variable). count The number of times that a breakpoint condition must be fulfilled before a break occurs (integer) The breakpoint condition (string) The condition type; either "CHANGED" or "TRUE" (string) The memory access type: "R" for read, "W" for write, or "RW" for read/write An expression, typically a call to a macro, which is evaluated when the breakpoint is detected condition cond_type access action MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 416 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful An unsigned integer uniquely identifying the breakpoint. This value must be used to clear the breakpoint. 0 Table 120: __setDataBreak return values Description Sets a data breakpoint, that is, a breakpoint which is triggered directly after the processor has read or written data at the specified location. This system macro is only available in IAR C-SPY Simulator. __var brk; brk = __setDataBreak("Memory:0x4710", 3, "d>6", "TRUE", "W", "ActionData()"); ... __clearBreak(brk); Applicability Example See also Defining breakpoints, page 129.For details about the breakpoint system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. __setRangeBreak Syntax __setRangeBreak(start_loc, end_loc, end_cond, type, access, action, action_when) Parameters All parameters are strings. start_loc The start location. This can be either: A source location on the form "{filename}.line.col" (for example "{D:\\src\\prog.c}.12.9") An absolute location on the form "zone:hexaddress" or simply "hexaddress" (for example "Memory:0x42") An expression whose value designates a location (for example "my_global_variable"). end_loc The end location. This can be either the same as for start_loc above or the length of the range. The type of end condition, either "Location", "Length", or "Automatic". end_cond Part 7. Reference information 417 Description of C-SPY system macros type access The breakpoint type; either "Address" or "Data". The memory access type: "Read", "Write", "ReadWrite", or "Fetch". The action type: "Break", "Trigger", or "BreakTrigger". Specifies if the action should happen at an access inside or outside of the specified range, either "Inside" or "Outside". action action_when Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful An unsigned integer uniquely identifying the breakpoint. This value must be used to clear the breakpoint. 0 Table 121: __setRangeBreak return values Description Applicability Example Sets a range breakpoint. This macro can only be used with the FET Debugger version of C-SPY. __var brk; brk = __setRangeBreak("Memory:0x1240", "Memory:0x1360", "Location", "Address", "Fetch", "Trigger", "Inside"); ... __clearBreak(brk); See also Defining breakpoints, page 129 and Range breakpoints, page 207. For details about the breakpoint system, see the MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE User Guide. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 418 User Guide C-SPY macros reference __setSimBreak Syntax Parameters location A string with a location description. This can be either: A source location on the form {filename}.line.col (for example {D:\\src\\prog.c}.12.9), although this is not very useful for simulation breakpoints. An absolute location on the form zone:hexaddress or simply hexaddress (for example Memory:0xE01E). An expression whose value designates a location (for example my_global_variable). The memory access type: "R" for read or "W" for write An expression, typically a call to a macro function, which is evaluated when the breakpoint is detected __setSimBreak(location, access, action) access action Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful An unsigned integer uniquely identifying the breakpoint. This value must be used to clear the breakpoint. 0 Table 122: __setSimBreak return values Description Use this system macro to set immediate breakpoints, which will halt instruction execution only temporarily. This allows a C-SPY macro function to be called when the processor is about to read data from a location or immediately after it has written data. Instruction execution will resume after the action. This type of breakpoint is useful for simulating memory-mapped devices of various kinds (for instance serial ports and timers). When the processor reads at a memory-mapped location, a C-SPY macro function can intervene and supply the appropriate data. Conversely, when the processor writes to a memory-mapped location, a C-SPY macro function can act on the value that was written. Applicability This system macro is only available in the IAR C-SPY Simulator. Part 7. Reference information 419 Description of C-SPY system macros __sourcePosition Syntax Parameters linePtr colPtr Pointer to the variable storing the line number Pointer to the variable storing the column number __sourcePosition(linePtr, colPtr) Return value Result Value Successful Unsuccessful Filename string Empty ("") string Table 123: __sourcePosition return values Description If the current execution location corresponds to a source location, this macro returns the filename as a string. It also sets the value of the variables, pointed to by the parameters, to the line and column numbers of the source location. __strFind Syntax Parameters macroString pattern position The macro string to search in The string pattern to search for The position where to start the search. The first position is 0 __strFind(macroString, pattern, position) Return value Description Example The position where the pattern was found or -1 if the string is not found. This macro searches a given string for the occurrence of another string. __strFind("Compiler", "pile", 0) __strFind("Compiler", "foo", 0) = 3 = -1 See also Macro strings, page 398. __subString Syntax __subString(macroString, position, length) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 420 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Parameters macroString position length The macro string from which to extract a substring The start position of the substring. The first position is 0. The length of the substring Return value Description Example A substring extracted from the given macro string. This macro extracts a substring from another string. __subString("Compiler", 0, 2) The resulting macro string contains Co. __subString("Compiler", 3, 4) The resulting macro string contains pile. See also Macro strings, page 398. __toLower Syntax Parameter Return value Description __toLower(macroString) macroString is any macro string. The converted macro string. This macro returns a copy of the parameter string where all the characters have been converted to lower case. __toLower("IAR") Example The resulting macro string contains iar. __toLower("Mix42") The resulting macro string contains mix42. See also Macro strings, page 398. Part 7. Reference information 421 Description of C-SPY system macros __toString Syntax Parameter string maxlength Any null-terminated C string The maximum length of the returned macro string __toString(C_string, maxlength) Return value Description Example Macro string. This macro is used for converting C strings (char* or char) into macro strings. Assuming your application contains the following definition: char const * hptr = "Hello World!"; the following macro call: __toString(hptr, 5) would return the macro string containing Hello. See also Macro strings, page 398. __toUpper Syntax Parameter Return value Description __toUpper(macroString) macroString is any macro string. The converted string. This macro returns a copy of the parameter macroString where all the characters have been converted to upper case. __toUpper("string") Example The resulting macro string contains STRING. See also Macro strings, page 398. __writeFile Syntax __writeFile(file, value) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 422 User Guide C-SPY macros reference Parameters file value A file handle An integer Return value Description int 0 Prints the integer value in hexadecimal format (with a trailing space) to the file file. Note: The __fmessage statement can do the same thing. The __writeFile macro is provided for symmetry with __readFile. __writeFileByte Syntax Parameters file value A file handle An integer in the range 0-255 __writeFileByte(file, value) Return value Description int 0 Writes one byte to the file file. __writeMemoryByte Syntax Parameters value address zone The value to be written (integer) The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 __writeMemoryByte(value, address, zone) Return value Description Example int 0 Writes one byte to a given memory location. __writeMemoryByte(0x2F, 0x1F, "Memory"); Part 7. Reference information 423 Description of C-SPY system macros __writeMemory8 Syntax Parameters value address zone The value to be written (integer) The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 __writeMemory8(value, address, zone) Return value Description Example int 0 Writes one byte to a given memory location. __writeMemory8(0x2F, 0x8020, "Memory"); __writeMemory16 Syntax Parameters value address zone The value to be written (integer) The memory address (integer) The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 __writeMemory16(value, address, zone) Return value Description Example int 0 Writes two bytes to a given memory location. __writeMemory16(0x2FFF, 0x8020, "Memory"); __writeMemory32 Syntax Parameters value address The value to be written (integer) The memory address (integer) __writeMemory32(value, address, zone) MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 424 User Guide C-SPY macros reference zone The memory zone name (string); for a list of available zones, see Memory addressing, page 135 Return value Description int 0 Writes four bytes to a given memory location. Example __writeMemory32(0x5555FFFF, 0x8020, "Memory"); Part 7. Reference information 425 Description of C-SPY system macros MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 426 User Guide Glossary Glossary A Absolute location A specific memory address for an object specified in the source code, as opposed to the object being assigned a location by the IAR XLINK Linker. Absolute segments Segments that have fixed locations in memory before linking. Address expression An expression which has an address as its value. Application The program developed by the user of the IAR Systems toolkit and which will be run as an embedded application on a target processor. Architecture A term used by computer designers to designate the structure of complex information-processing systems. It includes the kinds of instructions and data used, the memory organization and addressing, and the methods by which the system is implemented. The two main architecture types used in processor design are Harvard architecture and von Neumann architecture. Assembler directives The set of commands that control how the assembler operates. Assembler options Parameters you can specify to change the default behavior of the assembler. Assembler language A machine-specific set of mnemonics used to specify operations to the target processor and input or output registers or data areas. Assembler language might sometimes be preferred over C/Embedded C++ to save memory or to enhance the execution speed of the application. Auto variables The term refers to the fact that each time the function in which the variable is declared is called, a new instance of the variable is created automatically. This can be compared with the behavior of local variables in systems using static overlay, where a local variable only exists in one instance, even if the function is called recursively. Also called local variables. Compare Register variables. B Backtrace Information that allows the IAR C-SPY Debugger to show, without any runtime penalty, the complete stack of function calls wherever the program counter is, provided that the code comes from compiled C functions. Bank See Memory bank. Bank switching Switching between different sets of memory banks. This software technique is used to increase a computer's usable memory by allowing different pieces of memory to occupy the same address space. Banked code Code that is distributed over several banks of memory. Each function must reside in only one bank. Banked data Data that is distributed over several banks of memory. Each data object must fit inside one memory bank. Banked memory Has multiple storage locations for the same address. See also Memory bank. Bank-switching routines Code that selects a memory bank. 425 Batch files A text file containing operating system commands which are executed by the command line interpreter. In Unix, this is called a "shell script" because it is the Unix shell which includes the command line interpreter. Batch files can be used as a simple way to combine existing commands into new commands. Bitfield A group of bits considered as a unit. Breakpoint 1. Code breakpoint. A point in a program that, when reached, triggers some special behavior useful to the process of debugging. Generally, breakpoints are used for stopping program execution or dumping the values of some or all of the program variables. Breakpoints can be part of the program itself, or they can be set by the programmer as part of an interactive session with a debugging tool for scrutinizing the program's execution. 2. Data breakpoint. A point in memory that, when accessed, triggers some special behavior useful to the process of debugging. Generally, data breakpoints are used to stop program execution when an address location is accessed either by a read operation or a write operation. 3. Immediate breakpoint. A point in memory that, when accessed, trigger some special behavior useful in the process of debugging. Immediate breakpoints are generally used for halting the program execution in the middle of a memory access instruction (before or after the actual memory access depending on the access type) while performing some user-specified action. The execution is then resumed. This feature is only available in the simulator version of C-SPY. functions. All code written in assembler language must conform to the rules in the calling convention in order to be callable from C or C++, or to be able to call C and C++ functions. The C calling convention and the C++ calling conventions are not necessarily the same. Cheap As in cheap memory access. A cheap memory access either requires few cycles to perform, or few bytes of code to implement. A cheap memory access is said to have a low cost. See Memory access cost. Checksum A computed value which depends on the contents of a block of data and which is stored along with the data in order to detect corruption of the data. Compare CRC (cyclic redundancy checking). Code banking See Banked code. Code model The code model controls how code is generated for an application. Typically, the code model controls behavior such as how functions are called and in which code segment functions will be located. All object files of an application must be compiled using the same code model. Code pointers A code pointer is a function pointer. As many microcontrollers allow several different methods of calling a function, compilers for embedded systems usually provide the users with the ability to use all these methods. Do not confuse code pointers with data pointers. Compilation unit See Translation unit. C Calling convention A calling convention describes the way one function in a program calls another function. This includes how register parameters are handled, how the return value is returned, and which registers that will be preserved by the called function. The compiler handles this automatically for all C and C++ MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 426 User Guide Glossary Compiler function directives The compiler function directives are generated by the compiler to pass information about functions and function calls to the IAR XLINK Linker. To view these directives, you must create an assembler list file. These directives are primarily intended for compilers that support static overlay, a feature which is useful in smaller microcontrollers. Compiler options Parameters you can specify to change the default behavior of the compiler. Cost See Memory access cost. CRC (cyclic redundancy checking) A number derived from, and stored with, a block of data in order to detect corruption. A CRC is based on polynomials and is a more advanced way of detecting errors than a simple arithmetic checksum. Compare Checksum. C-SPY options Parameters you can specify to change the default behavior of the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Cstartup Code that sets up the system before the application starts executing. C-style preprocessor A preprocessor is either a stand-alone application or an integrated part of a compiler, that performs preprocessing of the input stream before actual compilation takes place. A C-style preprocessor follows the rules set up in the ANSI specification of the C language and implements commands like #define, #if, and #include, which are used to handle textual macro substitution, conditional compilation, and inclusion of other files. Data model The data model specifies the default memory type. This means that the data model typically controls one or more of the following: The method used and the code generated to access static and global variables, dynamically allocated data, and the runtime stack. It also controls the default pointer type and in which data segments static and global variables will be located. A project can only use one data model at a time, and the same model must be used by all user modules and all library modules in the project. Data pointers Many microcontrollers have different addressing modes in order to access different memory types or address spaces. Compilers for embedded systems usually have a set of different data pointer types so they can access the available memory efficiently. Data representation How different data types are laid out in memory and what value ranges they represent. Declaration A specification to the compiler that an object, a variable or function, exists. The object itself must be defined in exactly one translation unit (source file). An object must either be declared or defined before it is used. Normally an object that is used in many files is defined in one source file. A declaration is normally placed in a header file that is included by the files that use the object. For example: /* Variable "a" exists somewhere. Function "b" takes two int parameters and returns an int. */ extern int a; int b(int, int); D Data banking See Banked data. Definition The variable or function itself. Only one definition can exist for each variable or function in an application. See also Tentative definition. 427 For example: int a; int b(int x, int y) { return x + y; } Derivative One of two or more processor variants in a series or family of microprocessors or microcontrollers. Device description file A file used by the IAR C-SPY Debugger that contains various device-specific information such as I/O registers (SFR) definitions, interrupt vectors, and control register definitions. Device driver Software that provides a high-level programming interface to a particular peripheral device. Digital signal processor (DSP) A device that is similar to a microprocessor, except that the internal CPU has been optimized for use in applications involving discrete-time signal processing. In addition to standard microprocessor instructions, digital signal processors usually support a set of complex instructions to perform common signal-processing computations quickly. Disassembly window A C-SPY window that shows the memory contents disassembled as machine instructions, interspersed with the corresponding C source code (if available). Dynamic initialization Variables in a program written in C are initialized during the initial phase of execution, before the main function is called. These variables are always initialized with a static value, which is determined either at compile-time or at link-time. This is called static initialization. In Embedded C++, variables might require initialization to be performed by executing code, for example, running the constructor of global objects, or performing dynamic memory allocation. Dynamic memory allocation There are two main strategies for storing variables: statically at link-time, or dynamically at runtime. Dynamic memory allocation is often performed from the heap and it is the size of the heap that determines how much memory that can be used for dynamic objects and variables. The advantage of dynamic memory allocation is that several variables or objects that are not active at the same time can be stored in the same memory, thus reducing the memory need of an application. See also Heap memory. Dynamic object An object that is allocated, created, destroyed, and released at runtime. Dynamic objects are almost always stored in memory that is dynamically allocated. Compare Static object. E EEPROM Electrically Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be erased electronically, and then be re-programmed. EPROM Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light, and then be re-programmed. Embedded C++ A subset of the C++ programming language, which is intended for embedded systems programming. The fact that performance and portability are particularly important in embedded systems development was considered when defining the language. Embedded system A combination of hardware and software, designed for a specific purpose. Embedded systems are often part of a larger system or product. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 428 User Guide Glossary Emulator An emulator is a hardware device that performs emulation of one or more derivatives of a processor family. An emulator can often be used instead of the actual microcontroller and connects directly to the printed circuit board--where the microcontroller would have been connected--via a connecting device. An emulator always behaves exactly as the processor it emulates, and is used when debugging requires all systems actuators, or when debugging device drivers. Enumeration A type which includes in its definition an exhaustive list of possible values for variables of that type. Common examples include Boolean, which takes values from the list [true, false], and day-of-week which takes values [Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday]. Enumerated types are a feature of typed languages, including C and Ada. Characters, (fixed-size) integers, and even floating-point types might be (but are not usually) considered to be (large) enumerated types. Exceptions An exception is an interrupt initiated by the processor hardware, or hardware that is tightly coupled with the processor, for instance, a memory management unit (MMU). The exception signals a violation of the rules of the architecture (access to protected memory), or an extreme error condition (division by zero). Do not confuse this use of the word exception with the term exception used in the C++ language (but not in Embedded C++). Expensive As in expensive memory access. An expensive memory access either requires many cycles to perform, or many bytes of code to implement. An expensive memory access is said to have a high cost. See Memory access cost. Extended keywords Non-standard keywords in C and C++. These usually control the definition and declaration of objects (that is, data and functions). See also Keywords. F Format specifiers Used to specify the format of strings sent by library functions such as printf. In the following example, the function call contains one format string with one format specifier, %c, that prints the value of a as a single ASCII character: printf("a = %c", a); G General options Parameters you can specify to change the default behavior of all tools that are included in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Generic pointers Pointers that have the ability to point to all different memory types in, for example, a microcontroller based on the Harvard architecture. H Harvard architecture A microcontroller based on the Harvard architecture has separate data and instruction buses. This allows execution to occur in parallel. As an instruction is being fetched, the current instruction is executing on the data bus. Once the current instruction is complete, the next instruction is ready to go. This theoretically allows for much faster execution than a von Neumann architecture, but there is some added silicon complexity. Compare von Neumann architecture. Heap memory The heap is a pool of memory in a system that is reserved for dynamic memory allocation. An application can request parts of the heap for its own use; once memory has been allocated from the heap it remains valid until it is explicitly released back to the heap by the application. This type of memory is 429 useful when the number of objects is not known until the application executes. Note that this type of memory is risky to use in systems with a limited amount of memory or systems that are expected to run for a very long time. Heap size Total size of memory that can be dynamically allocated. Host The computer that communicates with the target processor. The term is used to distinguish the computer on which the debugger is running from the microcontroller the embedded application you develop runs on. Interrupt vector table A table containing interrupt vectors, indexed by interrupt type. This table contains the processor's mapping between interrupts and interrupt service routines and must be initialized by the programmer. Interrupts In embedded systems, the use of interrupts is a method of detecting external events immediately, for example a timer overflow or the pressing of a button. Interrupts are asynchronous events that suspend normal processing and temporarily divert the flow of control through an "interrupt handler" routine. Interrupts can be caused by both hardware (I/O, timer, machine check) and software (supervisor, system call or trap instruction). Compare Trap. Intrinsic An adjective describing native compiler objects, properties, events, and methods. Intrinsic functions 1. Function calls that are directly expanded into specific sequences of machine code. 2. Functions called by the compiler for internal purposes (that is, floating point arithmetic etc.). I IDE (integrated development environment) A programming environment with all necessary tools integrated into one single application. Include file A text file which is included into a source file. This is often performed by the preprocessor. Inline assembler Assembler language code that is inserted directly between C statements. Inlining An optimization that replaces function calls with the body of the called function. This optimization increases the execution speed and can even reduce the size of the generated code. Instruction mnemonics A word or acronym used in assembler language to represent a machine instruction. Different processors have different instruction sets and therefore use a different set of mnemonics to represent them, such as, ADD, BR (branch), BLT (branch if less than), MOVE, LDR (load register). Interrupt vector A small piece of code that will be executed, or a pointer that points to code that will be executed when an interrupt occurs. K Key bindings Key shortcuts for menu commands used in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE. Keywords A fixed set of symbols built into the syntax of a programming language. All keywords used in a language are reserved--they cannot be used as identifiers (in other words, user-defined objects such as variables or procedures). See also Extended keywords. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 430 User Guide Glossary L L-value A value that can be found on the left side of an assignment and thus be changed. This includes plain variables and de-referenced pointers. Expressions like (x + 10) cannot be assigned a new value and are therefore not L-values. Language extensions Target-specific extensions to the C language. Library See Runtime library. Linker command file A file used by the IAR XLINK Linker. It contains command line options which specify the locations where the memory segments can be placed, thereby assuring that your application fits on the target chip. Because many of the chip-specific details are specified in the linker command file and not in the source code, the linker command file also helps to make the code portable. In particular, the linker specifies the placement of segments, the stack size, and the heap size. Local variable See Auto variables. Location counter See Program location counter (PLC). Logical address See Virtual address (logical address). M MAC (Multiply and accumulate) A special instruction, or on-chip device, that performs a multiplication together with an addition. This is very useful when performing signal processing where many filters and transforms have the form: The accumulator of the MAC usually has a higher precision (more bits) than normal registers. See also Digital signal processor (DSP). Macro 1. Assembler macros are user-defined sets of assembler lines that can be expanded later in the source file by referring to the given macro name. Parameters will be substituted if referred to. 2. C macro. A text substitution mechanism used during preprocessing of source files. Macros are defined using the #define preprocessing directive. The replacement text of each macro is then substituted for any occurrences of the macro name in the rest of the translation unit. 3. C-SPY macros are programs that you can write to enhance the functionality of the IAR C-SPY Debugger. A typical application of C-SPY macros is to associate them with breakpoints; when such a breakpoint is hit, the macro is run and can for example be used to simulate peripheral devices, to evaluate complex conditions, or to output a trace. The C-SPY macro language is like a simple dialect of C, but is less strict with types. Mailbox A mailbox in an RTOS is a point of communication between two or more tasks. One task can send messages to another task by placing the message in the mailbox of the other task. Mailboxes are also known as message queues or message ports. 431 Memory access cost The cost of a memory access can be in clock cycles, or in the number of bytes of code needed to perform the access. A memory which requires large instructions or many instructions is said to have a higher access cost than a memory which can be accessed with few, or small instructions. Memory area A region of the memory. Memory bank The smallest unit of continuous memory in banked memory. One memory bank at a time is visible in a microcontroller's physical address space. Memory map A map of the different memory areas available to the microcontroller. Memory model Specifies the memory hierarchy and how much memory the system can handle. Your application must use only one memory model at a time, and the same model must be used by all user modules and all library modules. Microcontroller A microprocessor on a single integrated circuit intended to operate as an embedded system. As well as a CPU, a microcontroller typically includes small amounts of RAM, PROM, timers, and I/O ports. Microprocessor A CPU contained on one (or a small number of) integrated circuits. A single-chip microprocessor can include other components such as memory, memory management, caches, floating-point unit, I/O ports and timers. Such devices are also known as microcontrollers. Module The basic unit of linking. A module contains definitions for symbols (exports) and references to external symbols (imports). When compiling C/C++, each translation unit produces one module. In assembler, each source file can produce more than one module. N Nested interrupts A system where an interrupt can be interrupted by another interrupt is said to have nested interrupts. Non-banked memory Has a single storage location for each memory address in a microcontroller's physical address space. Non-initialized memory Memory that can contain any value at reset, or in the case of a soft reset, can remember the value it had before the reset. Non-volatile storage Memory devices such as battery-backed RAM, ROM, magnetic tape and magnetic disks that can retain data when electric power is shut off. Compare Volatile storage. NOP No operation. This is an instruction that does not perform anything, but is used to create a delay. In pipelined architectures, the NOP instruction can be used for synchronizing the pipeline. See also Pipeline. O Operator A symbol used as a function, with infix syntax if it has two arguments (+, for example) or prefix syntax if it has only one (for instance, bitwise negation, ~). Many languages use operators for built-in functions such as arithmetic and logic. Operator precedence Each operator has a precedence number assigned to it that determines the order in which the operator and its operands are evaluated. The highest precedence operators are evaluated first. Use parentheses to group operators and operands to control the order in which the expressions are evaluated. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 432 User Guide Glossary P Parameter passing See Calling convention. Peripheral A hardware component other than the processor, for example memory or an I/O device. Pipeline A structure that consists of a sequence of stages through which a computation flows. New operations can be initiated at the start of the pipeline even though other operations are already in progress through the pipeline. Pointer An object that contains an address to another object of a specified type. #pragma During compilation of a C/C++ program, the #pragma preprocessing directive causes the compiler to behave in an implementation-defined manner. This can include, for example, producing output on the console, changing the declaration of a subsequent object, changing the optimization level, or enabling/disabling language extensions. Pre-emptive multitasking An RTOS task is allowed to run until a higher priority process is activated. The higher priority task might become active as the result of an interrupt. The term preemptive indicates that although a task is allotted to run a given length of time (a timeslice), it might lose the processor at any time. Each time an interrupt occurs, the task scheduler looks for the highest priority task that is active and switches to that task. If the located task is different from the task that was executing before the interrupt, the previous task is suspended at the point of interruption. Compare Round Robin. Preprocessing directives A set of directives that are executed before the parsing of the actual code is started. Preprocessor See C-style preprocessor. Processor variant The different chip setups that the compiler supports. See Derivative. Program counter (PC) A special processor register that is used to address instructions. Compare Program location counter (PLC). Program location counter (PLC) Used in the IAR Assembler to denote the code address of the current instruction. The PLC is represented by a special symbol (typically $) that can be used in arithmetic expressions. Also called simply location counter (LC). PROM Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be programmed only once. Project The user application development project. Project options General options that apply to an entire project, for example the target processor that the application will run on. Q Qualifiers See Type qualifiers. R R-value A value that can be found on the right side of an assignment. This is just a plain value. See also L-value. 433 Real-time operating system (RTOS) An operating system which guarantees the latency between an interrupt being triggered and the interrupt handler starting, as well as how tasks are scheduled. An RTOS is typically much smaller than a normal desktop operating system. Compare Real-time system. Real-time system A computer system whose processes are time-sensitive. Compare Real-time operating system (RTOS). Register constant A register constant is a value that is loaded into a dedicated processor register when the system is initialized. The compiler can then generate code that assumes that the constants are present in the dedicated registers. Register A small on-chip memory unit, usually just one or a few bytes in size, which is particularly efficient to access and therefore often reserved to function as a temporary storage area during program execution. Register locking Register locking means that the compiler can be instructed that some processor registers shall not be used during normal code generation. This is useful in a number of situations. For example, some parts of a system might be written in assembler language to gain speed. These parts might be given dedicated processor registers. Or the register might be used by an operating system, or by other third-party software. Register variables Typically, register variables are local variables that have been placed in registers instead of on the (stack) frame of the function. Register variables are much more efficient than other variables because they do not require memory accesses, so the compiler can use shorter/faster instructions when working with them. See also Auto variables. Relocatable segments Segments that have no fixed location in memory before linking. Reset A reset is a restart from the initial state of a system. A reset can originate from hardware (hard reset), or from software (soft reset). A hard reset can usually not be distinguished from the power-on condition, which a soft reset can be. ROM-monitor A piece of embedded software that has been designed specifically for use as a debugging tool. It resides in the ROM of the evaluation board chip and communicates with a debugger via a serial port or network connection. The ROM-monitor provides a set of primitive commands to view and modify memory locations and registers, create and remove breakpoints, and execute your application. The debugger combines these primitives to fulfill higher-level requests like program download and single-step. Round Robin Task scheduling in an operating system, where all tasks have the same priority level and are executed in turn, one after the other. Compare Pre-emptive multitasking. RTOS See Real-time operating system (RTOS). Runtime library A collection of useful routines, stored as an object file, that can be linked into any application. Runtime model attributes A mechanism that is designed to prevent modules that are not compatible to be linked into an application. A runtime attribute is a pair constituted of a named key and its corresponding value. Two modules can only be linked together if they have the same value for each key that they both define. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 434 User Guide Glossary S Saturated mathematics Most, if not all, C and C++ implementations use mod2N 2-complement-based mathematics where an overflow wraps the value in the value domain, that is, (127 + 1) = -128. Saturated mathematics, on the other hand, does not allow wrapping in the value domain, for instance, (127 + 1) = 127, if 127 is the upper limit. Saturated mathematics is often used in signal processing, where an overflow condition would have been fatal if value wrapping had been allowed. Scheduler The part of an RTOS that performs task-switching. It is also responsible for selecting which task that should be allowed to run. There are many different scheduling algorithms, but most of them are either based on static scheduling (performed at compile-time), or on dynamic scheduling (where the actual choice of which task to run next is taken at runtime, depending on the state of the system at the time of the task-switch). Most real-time systems use static scheduling, because it makes it possible to prove that the system will not violate the real-time requirements. Scope The section of an application where a function or a variable can be referenced by name. The scope of an item can be limited to file, function, or block. Segment A chunk of data or code that should be mapped to a physical location in memory. The segment can either be placed in RAM (read-and-writeable memory) or in ROM (read-only memory). Segment map A set of segments and their locations. Semaphore A semaphore is a type of flag that is used for guaranteeing exclusive access to resources. The resource can be a hardware port, a configuration memory, or a set of variables. If several different tasks have to access the same resource, the parts of the code (the critical sections) that access the resource have to be made exclusive for every task. This is done by obtaining the semaphore that protects that resource, thus blocking all other tasks from it. If another task wishes to use the resource, it also has to obtain the semaphore. If the semaphore is already in use, the second task has to wait until the semaphore is released. After the semaphore is released, the second task is allowed to execute and can obtain the semaphore for its own exclusive access. Severity level The level of seriousness of the diagnostic response from the assembler, compiler, or debugger, when it notices that something is wrong. Typical severity levels are remarks, warnings, errors, and fatal errors. A remark just points to a possible problem, while a fatal error means that the programming tool exits without finishing. Short addressing Many microcontrollers have special addressing modes for efficient access to internal RAM and memory mapped I/O. Short addressing is therefore provided as an extended feature by many compilers for embedded systems. See also Data pointers. Side effect An expression in C or C++ is said to have a side-effect if it changes the state of the system. Examples are assignments to a variable, or using a variable with the post-increment operator. The C and C++ standards state that a variable that is subject to a side-effect should not be used more that once in an expression. As an example, this statement violates that rule: *d++ = *d; Signal Signals provide event-based communication between tasks. A task can wait for one or more signals from other tasks. Once a task receives a signal it waits for, execution continues. A task in an RTOS that waits for a signal does not use any processing time, which allows other tasks to execute. 435 Simulator A debugging tool that runs on the host and behaves as similar to the target processor as possible. A simulator is used to debug the application when the hardware is unavailable, or not needed for proper debugging. A simulator is usually not connected to any physical peripheral devices. A simulated processor is often slower, or even much slower, than the real hardware. Single stepping Executing one instruction or one C statement at a time in the debugger. Skeleton code An incomplete code framework that allows the user to specialize the code. Special function register (SFR) A register that is used to read and write to the hardware components of the microcontroller. Stack frames Data structures containing data objects as preserved registers, local variables, and other data objects that need to be stored temporary for a particular scope (usually a function). Earlier compilers usually had a fixed size and layout on a stack frame throughout a complete function, while modern compilers might have a very dynamic layout and size that can change anywhere and anytime in a function. Stack segments The segment or segments that reserve space for the stack(s). Most processors use the same stack for calls and parameters, but some have separate stacks. Statically allocated memory This kind of memory is allocated once and for all at link-time, and remains valid all through the execution of the application. Variables that are either global or declared static are allocated this way. Static object An object whose memory is allocated at link-time and is created during system startup (or at first use). Compare Dynamic object. Static overlay Instead of using a dynamic allocation scheme for parameters and auto variables, the linker allocates space for parameters and auto variables at link time. This generates a worst-case scenario of stack usage, but might be preferable for small chips with expensive stack access or no stack access at all. Structure value A collecting names for structs and unions. A struct is a collection of data object placed sequentially in memory (possibly with pad bytes between them). A union is a collection of data sharing the same memory location. Symbol A name that represents a register, an absolute value, or a memory address (relative or absolute). Symbolic location A location that uses a symbolic name because the exact address is unknown. T Target 1. An architecture. 2. A piece of hardware. The particular embedded system you are developing the application for. The term is usually used to distinguish the system from the host system. Task (thread) A task is an execution thread in a system. Systems that contain many tasks that execute in parallel are called multitasking systems. Because a processor only executes one instruction stream at the time, most systems implement some sort of task-switch mechanism (often called context switch) so that all tasks get their share of processing time. The process of determining which task that should be allowed to run next is called scheduling. Two common scheduling methods are Pre-emptive multitasking and Round Robin. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 436 User Guide Glossary Tentative definition A variable that can be defined in multiple files, provided that the definition is identical and that it is an absolute variable. Terminal I/O A simulated terminal window in the IAR C-SPY Debugger. Timeslice The (longest) time an RTOS allows a task to run without running the task-scheduling algorithm. It is possible that a task will be allowed to execute during several consecutive timeslices before being switched out. It is also possible that a task will not be allowed to use its entire time slice, for example if, in a preemptive system, a higher priority task is activated by an interrupt. Timer A peripheral that counts independent of the program execution. Translation unit A source file together with all the header files and source files included via the preprocessor directive #include, with the exception of the lines skipped by conditional preprocessor directives such as #if and #ifdef. Trap A trap is an interrupt initiated by inserting a special instruction into the instruction stream. Many systems use traps to call operating system functions. Another name for trap is software interrupt. Type qualifiers In standard C/C++, const or volatile. IAR compilers usually add target-specific type qualifiers for memory and other type attributes. V Virtual address (logical address) An address that needs to be translated by the compiler, linker or the runtime system into a physical memory address before it is used. The virtual address is the address seen by the application, which can be different from the address seen by other parts of the system. Virtual space An IAR Embedded Workbench Editor feature which allows you to place the insertion point outside of the area where there are actual characters. Volatile storage Data stored in a volatile storage device is not retained when the power to the device is turned off. In order to preserve data during a power-down cycle, you should store it in non-volatile storage. This should not be confused with the C keyword volatile. Compare Non-volatile storage. von Neumann architecture A computer architecture where both instructions and data are transferred over a common data channel. Compare Harvard architecture. W Watchpoints Watchpoints keep track of the values of C variables or expressions in the C-SPY Watch window as the application is being executed. X XAR options The set of commands that control how the IAR XAR Library Builder operates. XLIB options The set of commands that control how the IAR XLIB Librarian operates. U UBROF (Universal Binary Relocatable Object Format) File format produced by the IAR Systems programming tools. 437 XLINK options Parameters you can specify to change the default behavior of the IAR XLINK Linker. Z Zero-overhead loop A loop in which the loop condition, including branching back to the beginning of the loop, does not take any time at all. This is usually implemented as a special hardware feature of the processor and is not available in all architectures. Zone Different processors have widely differing memory architectures. Zone is the term C-SPY uses for a named memory area. For example, on processors with separately addressable code and data memory there would be at least two zones. A processor with an intricate banked memory scheme might have several zones. MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 438 User Guide Index Index A absolute location, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 absolute segments, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Access Type (Breakpoints dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 174 Action (Breakpoints dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 174, 257 Additional include directories (assembler option) . . . . . . . 369 Additional include directories (compiler option) . . . . . . . 359 address expression, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 address range check, specifying in XLINK . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 advanced trigger breakpoints, setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Allow C-SPY-specific output file (XLINK option) . . . . . . 379 Allow erase/write access to locked flash memory (FET debugger option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Always generate output (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 application built outside the IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92, 151 architecture, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 argument variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 in #include file paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359, 369, 387 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 asm (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 assembler command line version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 on the Help menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 assembler comments, text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 assembler directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 assembler labels, viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 assembler language, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 assembler list files compiler call frame information, including . . . . . . . . . 358 conditional information, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 cross-references, generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 header, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 lines per page, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 tab spacing, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Assembler mnemonics (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 assembler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Additional include directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Cross-reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Defined symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Enable multibyte support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Generate debug info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Include header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Include listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Lines/page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Macro quote characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Max number of errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Preprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Tab spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 User symbols are case sensitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 assembler output, including debug information . . . . . . . . 366 assembler preprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Assembler Reference Guide (Help menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 assembler symbols defining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 using in C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 assembler variables, viewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 assert, in built applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 assumptions, programming experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv Attach to running target (C-SPY Download option) . . . . . 199 Auto indent (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 auto variables, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Auto window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 439 Automatic (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Autostep settings dialog box (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . 338 a43 (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 B backtrace information definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 generated by compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 bank switching, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 banked code, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 banked data, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 banked memory, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 bank-switching routines, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Batch Build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Batch Build Configuration dialog box (Project menu) . . . 285 Batch Build dialog box (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 batch files definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 specifying in Embedded Workbench IDE . . . . . . . 78, 305 bin, common (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 bin, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 bitfield, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 blocks, in C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 bold style, in this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl bookmarks adding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 showing in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Break (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121, 315 breakpoint condition, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Breakpoint Usage dialog box (Simulator menu) . . . . 175, 216 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 advanced triggers (FET Debugger) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 code, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 conditional in FET Debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 conditional, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 connecting a C-SPY macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 consumers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413, 416418 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 immediate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 in Memory window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 in the simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 listing all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 range, using in FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 setting in memory window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 using system macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 using the dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 single-stepping if not available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 system, description of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 toggling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Breakpoints dialog box Advanced Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Immediate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Breakpoints window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Buffered terminal output (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 -build (iarbuild command line option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Build Actions Configuration (Build Actions options) . . . . 375 build configuration creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Build window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 building commands for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 from the command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 440 User Guide Index options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 the process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 C C comments, text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 C compiler. See compiler C function information, in C-SPY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 C keywords, text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 C symbols, using in C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 C variables, using in C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 c (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 call chain, displaying in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Call stack information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Call Stack window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121, 326 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 calling convention, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 __cancelAllInterrupts (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . 404 __cancelInterrupt (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 category, in Options dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90, 283 cfg (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 295 characters, in assembler macro quotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 cheap memory access, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Check for word access on odd address (C-SPY option) . . 160 Check In Files, dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Check Out Files, dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 checksum definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 generating in XLINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 -clean (iarbuild command line option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 __clearBreak (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 CLIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix, 21 Close Workspace (File menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 __closeFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 code banked, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 skeleton, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 code coverage commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Code Coverage window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 code generation assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 compiler, features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 code integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 code memory, filling unused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 code model, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Code page (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 code pointers, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 code templates, using in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 command line options, specifying in Embedded Workbench IDE . . . . . . . . . . 78, 305 command prompt icon, in this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl Common Fonts (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 common (directory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 compiler command line version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 73 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 20 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 compiler call frame information including in assembler list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 compiler diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 suppressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 compiler function directives, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 compiler list files assembler mnemonics, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 source code, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 compiler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 setting in Embedded Workbench, example . . . . . . . . . . 29 Additional include directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Assembler mnemonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 441 Automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Defined symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Diagnostics (in list file) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Disable language extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Embedded C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Enable multibyte support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Enable remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Extended Embedded C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Generate debug information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Ignore standard include directories . . . . . . . . . . . 359, 369 Include compiler call frame information . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Include source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Language conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 MISRA C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Module type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Object module name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Optimizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Output assembler file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Output list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Plain `char' is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Preinclude file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Preprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Preprocessor output to file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Reduce stack usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Relaxed ISO/ANSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Require prototypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 R4 utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 R5 utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Strict ISO/ANSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Suppress these diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Treat all warnings as errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Treat these as errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Treat these as remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Treat these as warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 20-bit context save on interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 compiler output debug information, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 module name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 compiler preprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Compiler Reference Guide (Help menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 compiler symbols, defining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 computer style, typographic convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl conditional breakpoints setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 conditional breakpoints, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 conditional statements, in C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Conditions (Breakpoints dialog) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173, 258 Config options (XLINK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Configuration file (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Configurations for project dialog box (Project menu) . . . . 280 Configure Auto Indent (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . 292 Configure Tools (Tools menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Configure Viewers dialog box (Tools menu) . . . . . . . . . . . 307 config, common (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 config, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Connection (C-SPY FET option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 context menus Call Stack window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Disassembly window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Editor window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Editor window tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Memory window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Messages window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261264 Source Browser window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Source Code Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Watch window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Workspace window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241, 255 conventions, typographic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii cost. See memory access cost cpp (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 CPU registers, definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 CPU variant, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 442 User Guide Index CRC, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Create New Project dialog box (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . 282 Cross-reference (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 cross-references, in map files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Cstartup, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 current position, in C-SPY Disassembly window . . . . . . . 316 cursor, in C-SPY Disassembly window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 $CUR_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $CUR_LINE$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 custom build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 custom tool configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Custom Tool Configuration (Custom Build options) . . . . . 373 C++ comments, text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 C++ keywords, text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 C++ tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 C-SPY characteristics FET Debugger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 debugger systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 environment overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 IDE reference information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 plugin modules, loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 setting up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 starting the debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 C-SPY Download options Attach to running target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 C-SPY drivers simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 evaluating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 in C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Quick Watch, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Tooltip watch, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Watch window, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143, 397 blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 conditional statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 checking status of register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 checking the status of WDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 creating a log macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 execUserExit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 execUserSetup, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 65 executing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 connecting to a breakpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 using Quick Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 using setup macro and setup file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 397 loop statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 macro statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 setup macro file definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 executing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 setup macro function definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 execUserPreload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 execUserReset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 execUserSetup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 398 __closeFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 __driverType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 __evaluate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 __openFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 __orderInterrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408409 __readFileByte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 __readFileByte (system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 __readMemoryByte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 __registerMacroFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 __resetFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 443 __setCodeBreak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 __setDataBreak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 __setSimBreak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 __sourcePosition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 __strFind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 __subString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 __toLower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 __toString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 __toUpper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeFileByte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 __writeMemoryByte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 __writeMemory16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 __writeMemory32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 __writeMemory8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 C-SPY menus Emulator (FET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 C-SPY options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283, 393 Check for word access on odd address . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Device description file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Run to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 394 Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160, 393 Setup macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Simulator Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 C-SPY windows Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Call Stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Code Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154, 329 Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Find in Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Function Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Live Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Locals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 main . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Terminal I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Trace Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 C-style preprocessor, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 C/C++ syntax styles, options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 D data breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 data model, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 data pointers, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 data representation, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 dbg (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 dbgt (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ddf (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 112 Debug info with terminal I/O (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . 328 debug information generating in assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 in compiler, generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Debug information for C-SPY (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . 378 Debug Log window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Debug menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Debug protocol (C-SPY FET option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 debugger concepts, definitions of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 debugger drivers FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 debugger system overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Debugger (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 debugging projects externally built applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 444 User Guide Index in disassembly mode, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 declaration, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 default installation path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 #define options (XLINK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 #define statement, in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Define symbol (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Defined symbols (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Defined symbols (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 definition, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 demo application, running with C-SPY FET. . . . . . . . . . . 195 dep (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 derivative, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 description (interrupt property) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 design considerations (FET) boot-strap loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 device signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 external power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 development environment, introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Device description file (C-SPY option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 device description files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 112 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 428 memory zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114, 135 modifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 register zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114, 135 specifying interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 device driver, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Device (target option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 diagnostics compiler including in list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 suppressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 XLINK, suppressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Diagnostics (assembler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Diagnostics (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Diagnostics (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 dialog boxes Advanced Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Autostep settings (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Batch Build Configuration (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . 285 Batch Build (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Breakpoint Usage (Simulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . 175, 216 Check In Files (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Check Out Files (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Code breakpoints (Breakpoints window) . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Common fonts (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . 288 Conditional breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Configurations for project (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . 280 Configure Auto Indent (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . 292 Configure Viewers (Tools menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Create New Project (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Data breakpoints (Breakpoints window) . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Debugger (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Edit Filename Extensions (Tools menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Edit Interrupt (Interrupt Setup dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . 182 Edit Memory Access (Memory Access Setup dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Editor Colors and Fonts (IDE Options dialog box) . . . 295 Editor Setup Files (IDE Options dialog) . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Editor (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Embedded Workbench Startup (Help menu) . . . . . . . . 311 Enter Location (Breakpoints dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . 260 External Editor (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . 287 Filename Extensions Overrides (Tools menu) . . . . . . . 306 Filename Extensions (Tools menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Fill (Memory window) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Find in Files (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Find in Trace (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Find (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Immediate breakpoints (Breakpoints window) . . . . . . . 173 Incremental Search (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Interrupt Setup (Simulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Key Bindings (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . 289 LCD settings (LCD window) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Log breakpoints (Breakpoints window) . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Log File (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Macro Configuration (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Memory Access Setup (Simulator menu). . . . . . . . . . . 168 Messages (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 New Configuration (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 445 Options (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Range breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Register Filter (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Replace (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Select SCC Provider (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Sequencer Control (Emulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Set Log file (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Source Code Control (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . 300 Stack (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Template (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Terminal I/O Log File (Debug menu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Terminal I/O (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 digital signal processor, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 directories common\bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 common\config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 common\doc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 common\plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 common\src . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 compiler include files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 430\bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 430\config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 430\doc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 430\drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 430\FET_examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 430\inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 430\lib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 430\plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 430\src . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 430\tutor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 directory structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Disable language extensions (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . 352 Disable memory cache (C-SPY FET option) . . . . . . . . . . 200 __disableInterrupts (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . 405 disassembly mode debugging, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Disassembly window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii DLIB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix, 21 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 DLIB library functions, reference information . . . . . . . . . . 96 dni (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1819 do (macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 dockable windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 document conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 MISRA C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617 other guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 runtime libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv XLIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 XLINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 doc, common (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 doc, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 drag-and-drop of files in Workspace window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 text in editor window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Driver (C-SPY option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 drivers, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 __driverType (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 DSP. See digital signal processor Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 calling external editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 dynamic initialization, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 dynamic memory allocation, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 dynamic object, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 d43 (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 446 User Guide Index E Edit Filename Extensions dialog box (Tools menu) . . . . . 306 Edit Interrupt dialog box (Simulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Edit Memory Access dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Edit menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 editing source files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 edition, user guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii editor code templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 customizing the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 external . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 indentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 keyboard commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 matching parentheses and brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 shortcut to functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101, 249 splitter controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 status bar, using in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Editor Colors and Fonts (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . 295 Editor Setup Files (IDE Options dialog) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 editor setup files, options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Editor window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 tab, context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Editor (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 EEC++ syntax (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 EEPROM, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Embedded C++ definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 syntax, enabling in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Embedded C++ Technical Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix Embedded C++ (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 embedded system, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Embedded Workbench editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 exiting from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74, 238 reference information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 running. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 version number, displaying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Embedded Workbench Startup dialog box (Help menu) . . 311 Embedded Workbench User Guide (Help menu) . . . . . . . 309 Emulator menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 emulator (C-SPY version) definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 third-party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Enable MISRA C (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Enable multibyte support (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . 365 Enable multibyte support (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Enable remarks (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Enable Virtual Space (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 enabled transformations, in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 __enableInterrupts (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Enter Location (Breakpoints dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 enumeration, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 EOL character (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 EPROM, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Erase main and Information memory (FET debugger option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Erase main memory (FET debugger option) . . . . . . . . . . . 199 error messages compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 XLINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 __evaluate (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 ewd (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ewp (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 eww (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 75 $EW_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 examples assembler mixing C and assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 running project with C-SPY FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 viewing list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 447 executing up to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 setting using dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 using macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 C example, running with C-SPY FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 calling convention, examining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 compiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 conditional breakpoint triggering state storage. . . . . . . 217 C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 C/C++ and assembler, mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 ddf file, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 debugging a program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 disassembly mode debugging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 function calls, displaying in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 interrupts timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 using macro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 linking a compiler program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 viewing the map file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 macros checking status of register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 checking status of WDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 creating a log macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 for interrupts and breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 using Quick Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Memory window, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 memory, monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 performing tasks without stopping execution . . . . . . . . 131 project adding files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2526 reaching program exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 registers, monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Scan for Changed Files (editor option), using . . . . . . . . 33 setting project options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 state storage, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Terminal I/O, displaying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 tracing incorrect function arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 using libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 variables setting a watch point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 watching in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 viewing compiler list files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 workspace, creating a new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 exceptions, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 execUserExit (C-SPY setup macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 execUserPreload (C-SPY setup macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 execUserReset (C-SPY setup macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 execUserSetup (C-SPY setup macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 65 Executable (output directory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 executing a program up to a breakpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 execution history, tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 execution time, reducing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 $EXE_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Exit (File menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 exit, of user application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 expensive memory access, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 expressions. See C-SPY expressions Extended Embedded C++, enabling in compiler . . . . . . . . 352 extended keywords, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 extended linker command line file. See linker command file extensions. See filename extensions or language extensions External Editor (IDE Options dialog box). . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 external editor, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Extra Options for assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371, 390, 395 for compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Extra Output (XLINK options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 F factory settings restoring default settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 XLINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 448 User Guide Index features assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 source code control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 XLIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 FET Debugger design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 functionality state storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 stepping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 FET Debugger driver, features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 FET_examples, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 file extensions. See filename extensions File menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 file types device description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 specifying in Embedded Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 include . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 linker command file templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 394 map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 project templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 readme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617 special function registers description files . . . . . . . . . . . 16 syntax coloring configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 filename extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 asm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 a43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 cfg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 295 cpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 dbg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 dbgt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ddf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 112 dep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 dni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1819 d43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ewd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ewp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 eww . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 75 fmt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 lst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 mac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 111, 144 map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1920 pbd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 pbi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 prj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 r43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 sfr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 register definitions for C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 s43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 wsdt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 xcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 xlb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Filename Extensions dialog box (Tools menu) . . . . . . . . . 305 Filename Extensions Overrides dialog box (Tools menu) . 306 files adding to a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 checking in and out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 compiling, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 navigating among . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 readme.htm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 $FILE_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $FILE_FNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $FILE_PATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Fill dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Fill pattern (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Fill unused code memory (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 449 Find dialog box (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Find in Files dialog box (Edit menu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Find in Files window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Find in Trace (dialog box). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Find in Trace (window). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Find (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 first activation time (interrupt property) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 floating windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Floating-point (target option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 fmt (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 for (macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Forced Interrupt window (Simulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . . 183 format specifiers, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Format (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 formats assembler list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 compiler list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 C-SPY input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 standard IEEE (floating-point) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 XLINK output default, overriding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379, 381 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 function calls, displaying in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 function level profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Function Trace (C-SPY window) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 function trace, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 functions C-SPY running to when starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 394 intrinsic, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 shortcut to in editor windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101, 249 MISRA C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Stack/Heap options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Generate checksum (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Generate debug info (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Generate debug information (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . 357 Generate extra output file (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Generate linker listing (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 generating extra output file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 generic pointers, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Getting started, using the C-SPY FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Go to function (editor button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101, 249 Go to (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Go (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Go (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 groups, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 H h (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 hardware breakpoints in FET debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Hardware multiplier (target option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Harvard architecture, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 header files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 quick access to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 heap memory, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Heap size (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 heap size, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Help menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Assembler Reference Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Compiler Reference Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Embedded Workbench User Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 IAR MISRA C Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . 309 Product updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 highlighting, in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 G general options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 specifying, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Library Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Library Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 450 User Guide Index hold time (interrupt property) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 host, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 I i (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 IAR Assembler Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 IAR Compiler Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 IAR Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . 21 IAR MISRA C Reference Guide (Help menu) . . . . . . . . . 309 IAR Systems web site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 iarbuild, building from the command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 IarIdePm.exe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 icons in this guide command prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl lightbulb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 IEEE format, floating-point values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 if else (macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 if (macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Ignore standard include directories (compiler option)359, 369 illegal memory accesses, checking for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 immediate breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 inc (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Include compiler call frame information (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 include files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 assembler, specifying path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 compiler, specifying path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359, 369 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 XLINK, specifying path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Include header (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Include listing (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Include source (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Include suppressed entries (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Incremental Search dialog box (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . 273 inc, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Indent Size (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 indentation, in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 information, product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 inherited settings, overriding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 ini (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 inline assembler, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 inlining, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 input redirecting to Terminal I/O window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 special characters in Terminal I/O window . . . . . . . . . 328 input formats, C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 insertion point, shortcut key for moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 installation path, default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 installed files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617 executable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 include . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 instruction mnemonics, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Integrated Development Environment (IDE) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Intel-extended, C-SPY input format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 109 Internet, IAR Systems web site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Interrupt Log window (Simulator menu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Interrupt Setup dialog box (Simulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . 180 interrupt system, using device description file . . . . . . . . . 180 interrupt vector table, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 interrupt vector, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 interrupts adapting C-SPY system for target hardware . . . . . . . . 180 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 in device description file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 nested, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 simulated, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 timer, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 using system macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 intrinsic functions, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 451 intrinsic, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 ISO/ANSI C compiler adhering to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 library compliance with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 italic style, in this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl K Key bindings (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 key bindings, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 key summary, editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 keywords, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 L labels (assembler), viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Language conformance (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 language extensions definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 disabling in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 language facilities, in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Language (assembler options). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Language (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 layout, of Embedded Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 LCD Settings dialog box (LCD window) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 LCD window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 librarian. See XLIB libraries, creating a project for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 libraries, runtime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 library builder. See XAR Library Configuration (general options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Library file (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 library files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 17 library functions configurable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 reference information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 library modules example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 specifying in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Library Options (general options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Library (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 library, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 lib, 430 (subdirectory). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 lightbulb icon, in this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl #line directives, generating in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Lines/page (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Lines/page (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Linker and Library Tools Reference Guide (Help menu) . 309 linker command file definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 path, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 specifying in XLINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Linker command file (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 linker. See XLINK list files assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 compiler runtime information, including. . . . . . . . . 358 conditional information, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 cross-references, generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 header, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 lines per page, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 tab spacing, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 compiler assembler mnemonics, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 source code, including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 option for specifying destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 XLINK generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 including segment map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 specifying lines per page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 List (assembler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 List (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 List (XLINK options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 452 User Guide Index $LIST_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Live Watch window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325326 lms.log, licence management system log file . . . . . . . . . . 310 local variables. See auto variables Locals window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 location counter, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 -log (iarbuild command line option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Log File dialog box (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Log MISRA C settings (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 logical address, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 loop statements, in C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 lst (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 L-value, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 M mac (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 111, 144 Macro Configuration dialog box (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . 338 macro files, specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 394 Macro quote characters (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 macro statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 macros definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 executing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 MAC, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 mailbox (RTOS), definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 main function, C-SPY running to when starting . . . . 111, 394 main.s99 (assembler tutorial file) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 -make (iarbuild command line option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 managing projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 map files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 map (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1920 Max number of errors (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 memory filling unused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 filling with value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 memory access checking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167, 169 memory access cost, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Memory Access Setup dialog box (Simulator menu) . . . . 168 memory accesses, illegal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 memory area, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 memory bank, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 memory map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 memory model, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 memory usage, summary of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Memory window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 memory zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 in device description file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 C-SPY-specific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 menus Debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Emulator (FET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Messages window, amount of output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Messages (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 microcontroller, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 microprocessor, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 migration, from earlier IAR compilers . . . . . . . . . xxxix, 353 453 MISRA C, documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 MISRA C (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 MISRA C (general options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 module map, in map files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 module name, specifying in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Module summary (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Module type (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 MODULE (assembler directive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 modules definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 including local symbols in input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 maintaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Module-local symbols (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Motorola, C-SPY input format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 109 Multiply and accumulate, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 multitasking, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 N Navigate Backward (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 NDEBUG, preprocessor symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 nested interrupts, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 New Configuration dialog box. (Project menu). . . . . . . . . 281 Next Bookmark (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Next Statement (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 No global type checking (XLINK option). . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 non-banked memory, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 non-initialized memory, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 non-volatile storage, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 NOP, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 O object files, specifying output directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Object module name (compiler option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 $OBJ_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 online documentation guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617, 309 help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 online help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Open Workspace (File menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 __openFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 operator precedence, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 operators, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 optimization levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 optimization models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Optimizations page (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Optimizations (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 optimizations, effects on variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 options typographic convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Custom Build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373, 375 Custom Tool Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283, 393 editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 343 setup files for editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 XAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 XLINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Options dialog box (Project menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 output assembler including debug information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 compiler including debug information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 preprocessor, generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 debug (ubrof) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 from C-SPY, redirecting to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 generating extra file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 XLINK generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 specifying filename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 specifying filename on extra output . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Output assembler file (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Output file (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 454 User Guide Index Output format (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379, 381 Output list file (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Output (assembler option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Output (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Output (general options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Output (XAR options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Output (XLINK options). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Override general MISRA C settings (compiler option) . . . 363 P parameters, typographic convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl parentheses and brackets, matching (in editor) . . . . . . . . . . 99 part number, of user guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii paths assembler include files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 compiler include files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 relative, in Embedded Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 251 source files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 XLINK include files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 pbd (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 pbi (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 peripheral units definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 device-specific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 peripherals, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 pew (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 pipeline, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Plain `char' is (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 plugin modules (C-SPY), loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Plugins (C-SPY options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 plugins, common (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 plugins, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 pointers, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Position-independent code (target option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 #pragma directive, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 precedence, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 preemptive multitasking, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Preinclude file (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 preprocessor definition of. See C-style preprocessor preprocessor directives definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Preprocessor output to file (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . 360 Preprocessor (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 preprocessor (compiler options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 prerequisites, programming experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv Printf formatter (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 prj (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 probability (interrupt property) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Processing options (XLINK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 processor variant, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 product information, obtaining detailed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 product overview assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C-SPY Debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 directory structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 file types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 XAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 XLIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 XLINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Product updates (Help menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 profiling information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Profiling (window) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 program counter, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 program execution, in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 program location counter, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 programming experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv Project Make, options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Project menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 project model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 project options, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 455 Project page (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 projects adding files to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 277 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 build configuration, creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 in batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 compiling, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 82 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 433 excluding groups and files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 files checking in and out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 for debugging externally built applications . . . . . . . . . 113 groups, creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 managing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 79 organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 removing items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 setting options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 source code control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 version control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 workspace, creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 $PROJ_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $PROJ_FNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $PROJ_PATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 PROM, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 PUBLIC (assembler directive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 R Range breakpoints dialog box (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Range checks (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Raw binary image (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 __readFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 __readFileByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 reading guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv readme files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617 readme.htm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 __readMemoryByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . 410 __readMemory16 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 __readMemory32 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 __readMemory8 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 real-time operating system, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 real-time system, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Reduce stack usage (compiler option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 reference information C-SPY IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 IAR Embedded Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 typographic convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl register constant, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Register Filter (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 register groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 application-specific, defining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 predefined, enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 register locking, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 register variables, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Register window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 register zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 registered trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii __registerMacroFile (C-SPY system macro). . . . . . . . . . . 412 registers definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 in device description file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 relative paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 251 Q qualifiers, definition of. See type qualifiers Quick Watch executing C-SPY macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Quick Watch window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 456 User Guide Index Relaxed ISO/ANSI (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 release notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 relocatable segments, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 remarks compiler diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Remove trailing blanks (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 repeat interval (interrupt property) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Replace dialog box (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Replace (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Require prototypes (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Reset (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Reset (Debug menu), example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 __resetFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 reset, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 restoring default factory settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Retain unchanged memory (FET debugger option). . . . . . 199 return (macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 ROM-monitor, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109, 434 root directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Round Robin, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 RTOS awareness (C-SPY plugin module) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 RTOS, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Run to Cursor (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Run to Cursor, description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Run to (C-SPY option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 394 runtime libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 runtime model attributes definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 in map files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 R-value, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 R4 utilization (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 r43 (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R5 utilization (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 S saturated mathematics, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Save All (File menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Save As (File menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Save Workspace (File menu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Save (File menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Scan for Changed Files (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Scanf formatter (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 SCC. See source code control systems scheduler (RTOS), definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 scope, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 scrolling, shortcut key for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Search paths (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 searching in editor windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Segment map (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 segment map, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Segment overlap warnings (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . 382 segment parts, including all in list file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 segments definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 overlap errors, reducing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 range checks, controlling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 section in map files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Select SCC Provider (dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 selecting text, shortcut key for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 semaphores, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Sequencer Control window (Emulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . 223 Set active MISRA C rules (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . 363 Set active MISRA C rules (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Set Log file dialog box (Debug menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 __setCodeBreak (C-SPY system macro). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 __setDataBreak (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 __setSimBreak (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 settings (directory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Setup macros (C-SPY option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 457 setup macros, in C-SPY. See C-SPY macros Setup (C-SPY FET options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198, 200 Setup (C-SPY options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160, 393 severity level, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 SFR definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 header files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 sfr (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 shifts.s43 (assembler tutorial file) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 short addressing, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 shortcut keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Show Bookmarks (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Show Line Number (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Show right margin (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 side-effect, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 signals, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 simulating interrupts, enabling/disabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 simulator definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Simulator menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Simulator Setup (C-SPY options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 size optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Size (Breakpoints dialog) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 257 sizeof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 skeleton code, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Source Browser window context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Source Browser window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Source Browser, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 source code including in compiler list file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Source Code Control context menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 source code control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Source Code Control (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . 300 source code control, features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 source file paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 251 source files adding to a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 managing in projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 __sourcePosition (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 special function registers (SFR) definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 description files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 114 header files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 using as assembler symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 speed optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 src, common (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 src, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 stack frames, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 stack segments, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Stack size (general option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Stack window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Stack (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Stack/Heap (general options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 State Storage Control (Emulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 State Storage window (Emulator menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 state storage, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 static objects, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Static overlay map (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 static overlay, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 statically allocated memory, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 stdin and stdout redirecting to C-SPY window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 redirecting to file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Step Into (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Step Into, description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Step Out (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Step Out, description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Step Over (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Step Over, description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 step points, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 458 User Guide Index example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 using C-SPY FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Stop Debugging (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 __strFind (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Strict ISO/ANSI (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 strings, text style in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 structure value, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 __subString (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 support, technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Suppress all warnings (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Suppress download (FET debugger option) . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Suppress these diagnostics (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . 361 Suppress these diagnostics (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . 383 symbolic location, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 symbols See also user symbols defining in assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 defining in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 defining in XLINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 in input modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 using in C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 syntax coloring configuration files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 in editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Syntax Highlighting (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 syntax highlighting, in editor window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 System breakpoints on (C-SPY FET option) . . . . . . . . . . 201 system macros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 s43 (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 T Tab Key Function (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Tab Size (editor option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Tab spacing (assembler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Target options Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Floating-point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Hardware multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Position-independent code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 target system, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Target VCC (C-SPY FET option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Target (general options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 target, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 $TARGET_BNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_BPATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_FNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_PATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 task, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 technical support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Template dialog box (Edit menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 tentative definition, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 terminal I/O definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 simulating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Terminal I/O Log File dialog box (Debug menu) . . . . . . . 341 Terminal I/O window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122, 328 example of using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Terminal I/O (IDE Options dialog box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 testing, of code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 thread, definition of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 timer interrupt, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 timer, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 timeslice, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Toggle Bookmark (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Toggle Breakpoint (button) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 toggle breakpoint, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 64 __toLower (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 tool chain extending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Tool Output window (View menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 459 Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 $TOOLKIT_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 tools icon, in this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl Tools menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 tools, user-configured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 __toString (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 __toUpper (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Trace toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Trace Expressions (window) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 trace, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii transformations, enabled in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 translation unit, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 trap, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Treat all warnings as errors (compiler option). . . . . . . . . . 362 Treat these as errors (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Treat these as errors (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Treat these as remarks (compiler option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Treat these as warnings (compiler option). . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Treat these as warnings (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 tutor, 430 (subdirectory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 type qualifiers, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 type-checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 12 disabling at link time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 typographic conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl V variables auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 effects of optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 information, limitation on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 using in arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 using in C-SPY expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 watching in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 variance (interrupt property) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Verify download (FET debugger option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 version control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 version number, of Embedded Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 View menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 virtual address, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 virtual space, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 volatile storage, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 von Neumann architecture, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 W warnings compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 XLINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Warnings/Errors (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Watch window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 watchpoints definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 web sites, recommended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix web site, IAR Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 while (macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Window menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 windows See also C-SPY windows U UBROF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 12 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Universal Binary Relocatable Object Format. See UBROF Use Code Templates (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Use Custom Keyword File (editor option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Use virtual breakpoints (C-SPY FET option) . . . . . . . . . . 201 user application, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 User symbols are case sensitive (assembler option) . . . . . 365 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 460 User Guide Index Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Debug Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Find in Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Forced Interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Interrupt Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 organizing on the screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Quick Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Source Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Tool Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 With I/O emulation modules (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . . 378 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 With runtime control modules (XLINK option) . . . . . . . . 378 Workspace window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241, 255 drag-and-drop of files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 workspaces creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 82 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 __writeFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeFileByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeMemoryByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . 423 __writeMemory16 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 __writeMemory32 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 __writeMemory8 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 wsdt (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 www.iar.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 X XAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 XAR options definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 xcl (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 xlb (filename extension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 XLIB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 options, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 XLINK command line version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 diagnostics, suppressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 XLINK list files generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 including segment map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 specifying lines per page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 XLINK options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377, 388 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 factory settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Allow C-SPY-specific output file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Always generate output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Buffered terminal output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Debug information for C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Define symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Extra Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Fill pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Fill unused code memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Generate checksum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Generate extra output file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Generate linker listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Include suppressed entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Lines/page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Linker command file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Module summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 461 Module-local symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 No global type checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Output file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Output format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379, 381 Range checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Raw binary image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Search paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Segment map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Segment overlap warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Static overlay map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Suppress all warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Suppress these diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Treat these as errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Treat these as warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Warnings/Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 With I/O emulation modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 With runtime control modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 XLINK output overriding default format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379, 381 XLINK symbols, defining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Z zero-overhead loop, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 zone definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 in C-SPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 #define options (XLINK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 #define statement, in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 #line directives, generating in compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 #pragma directive, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 $CUR_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $CUR_LINE$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $EW_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $EXE_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $FILE_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $FILE_FNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $FILE_PATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $LIST_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $OBJ_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $PROJ_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $PROJ_FNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $PROJ_PATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_BNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_BPATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_FNAME$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TARGET_PATH$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 $TOOLKIT_DIR$ (argument variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 __cancelAllInterrupts (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . 404 __cancelInterrupt (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 __clearBreak (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 __closeFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 __disableInterrupts (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . 405 __driverType (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 __enableInterrupts (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 __evaluate (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 __fmessage (C-SPY macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 __message (C-SPY macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 __openFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 __orderInterrupt (C-SPY system macro). . . . . . . . . . 408409 __readFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 __readFileByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 __readMemoryByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . 410 __readMemory16 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 __readMemory32 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 __readMemory8 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 __registerMacroFile (C-SPY system macro). . . . . . . . . . . 412 __resetFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 __setCodeBreak (C-SPY system macro). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 __setDataBreak (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 __setSimBreak (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 __smessage (C-SPY macro statement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 MSP430 IAR Embedded Workbench IDE 462 User Guide Index __sourcePosition (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 __strFind (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 __subString (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 __toLower (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 __toString (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 __toUpper (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeFile (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeFileByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 __writeMemoryByte (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . 423 __writeMemory16 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 __writeMemory32 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 __writeMemory8 (C-SPY system macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Numerics 20-bit context save on interrupt (compiler option) . . . . . . 355 430 (directory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 463 ...
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