Unit 2 Notes.docx - Unit 2 Basic Issues of the Region in...

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Unit 2 Basic Issues of the Region in the 1800s 1. Issues and problems common to the region a. Form of government i. Three forms of government develop 1. Democra±c republicanism a. Canada – parliamentary confedera±on ±ed to Great Britain b. United States – republican form of federal government 2. Cons±tu±onal Monarchy – Brazil 3. Dictatorship – most o²en under the guise of a cons±tu±on ii. Condi±on in La±n America and the Caribbean more complex 1. Spanish viceroyal±es replaced with newly created countries and new borders 2. French colonies in the Caribbean seized by other powers remain as colonies iii. Form of government a major issue 1. Who was to hold power the key issue 2. How was the power of government to be distributed a. Who to be included and representa±ve b. Who to be excluded 3. Ba³le between the conserva±ves and liberals to be the dominate the poli±cal issue into the 20 th century in La±n America a. Liberals strongly in´uenced by the Enlightenment i. Strong supporter of free-trade economy ii. Support of civil liber±es and republican form of government iii. Reduce power and in´uence of Catholic Church iv. Ideas of the Enlightenment – mostly in theory but not prac±ce b. Conserva±ves supported the status quo i. Keep strong ±es between government and the Church ii. Go slow with reforms iii. Supported maintain the colonial tradi±ons – suppor±ng the elites 4. Con´ict a. Civil wars common b. Governments frequently unstable 5. Non-white races a. Usually ignored as far as rights go b. Slavery remained in region to late 19 th century c. Na±ves kept low on the social scale – denied right to vote, in many cases un±l 20 th century Time of the Caudillo For at least the µrst century following independence the independent of La±n America were dominated by the rule and whims of individuals who took power because they could and kept it as long as they could. This despo±c rule hindered any sort of growth that might have occurred had there been freedom of thought or ac±on allowed. The fact that this one-man rule came immediately a²er the struggle for independence helped to set a precedent for this to be the expected structure of these na±ons. Four individuals dominated the years immediately a²er the revolu±on for independence 1. Dr. José Gasper Rodríguez Francia – Paraguay (1811-1840) 2. Juan Manuel de Rosas – Argen±na (1829-1852) 3. José Antonio Páez – Venezuela (1830-48 & 1858-63)
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4. Antonio López de Santa Anna – México (1833-55) There are not diferent From those who came a±er them, but they Forged the mold From which other caudillos would be cast 2. Rise oF the Caudillo a. Key ²gures in the development oF na³ons oF La³n America i. Stereotype does not always ²t ii. Regional strongmen that rose to posi³ons oF power and dominance 1. In some cases in power For years 2. Chaos and disorder in countries made it possible For them to rise to power 3. New revised viewpoint on caudillos see them as pushing modern poli³cal prac³ces into place 4.
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