Nomenclature.pdf - NAMES AND FORMULAS OF COMPOUNDS This...

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NAMES AND FORMULAS OF COMPOUNDS This handout describes the systems that are used for ionic compounds and for binary molecular compounds. Also included is a list of several compounds which are known by common names. ****** IONIC COMPOUNDS ****** The name of an ionic compound is the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. The charges of the ions need to be considered, since the compound as a whole must be neutral. 1. Constant charge monatomic cations For our purposes, all metal elements in Groups 1, 2, and 13 are assumed to form cations of charges 1+, 2+ and 3+, respectively. In addition, Ag and Zn are assumed to be constant charge ions, forming Ag + and Zn 2+ ions only. All ions in this category are named simply by the name of the element. Examples: lithium ion, Li + magnesium ion, Mg 2+ aluminum ion, Al 3+ potassium ion, ________ __________________, Ca 2+ gallium (Ga) ion, ________ 2. Variable charge monatomic cations Many metal elements can form cations of different charges depending on the circumstances. These charges are therefore not predictable unless some other information, such as the formula, is provided. For our purposes, the elements in this category include all metal elements other than the constant charge cases (above). Ions in this category are named with the actual charge specified; in written names, the charge is given by Roman numerals in parentheses. Examples: chromium(II) ion, Cr 2+ chromium(III) ion, Cr 3+ manganese(II) ion, Mn 2+ manganese(III) ion, Mn 3+ manganese(IV) ion, Mn 4+ tin(II) ion, ________ tin(IV) ion, ________ __________________, Pb 2+ __________________, Pb 4+ gold(I) ion, ________ gold(III) ion, ________ 3. Constant charge monatomic anions The common anions formed by the nonmetals and the metalloids are of a charge equal to the quantity [Group number – 18]. The name of the ion is the root of the element name, then -ide . Examples: nitride ion, N 3– oxide ion, O 2– chloride ion, Cl phosphide ion, ________ __________________, Se 2– iodide ion, ________
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4. Hydrogen ions The element hydrogen forms either a cation or an anion as follows. hydrogen ion, H + hydride ion, H 5. Polyatomic ions There is a very large number of polyatomic ions which are composed of two or more atoms and which can carry either a positive or negative charge. By far, the most common and most
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