hapch6notes.doc - Human Anatomy and Physiology-Chapter...

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Human Anatomy and Physiology-Chapter 6:Muscular System Notes I.Overview of Muscle Tissues Differ in cell structure,location, and how they are stimulated to contract Smooth and skeletal muscle cells are elongated and called ________________________ Contraction-shortening-depends on 2 types of myofilaments Terms myo-,sarco- and mys- refers to muscle-example-muscular cytoplasm is called ___________________. A. skeletal muscle attach to skeleton and form smoother contours of body huge,cigar shaped and ______________________ largest of muscle fibers-as much as 30 cm in length __________________________with obvious stripes ______________________________since only muscle subject to conscious control However,subject to involuntary reflexes Tire easily and requires rest Fairly fragile Bound by ___________________________which provides strength and support Each muscle fiber contained in a declicate connective tissue sheath called ___________________________ _________________________-connective tissue wrapping a bundle of fibers called a _________________ ___________________________= many fascicle bound together w/ this tough coat Epimysia blend into the strong_,cordlike_________ or aponeurose that connect muscle to bones,cartilages or connective tissue Other functions of tendons-besides movement-are durability and conservation of space 1
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B. Smooth Muscle No striations and is involuntary Mainly in walls of hallow visceral organs such as ___________________________________________________ _________________________________ Propel substances on a definite tract or pathway Spindle shaped and uninucleate Scant endomysium Most often in 2 layers-one running circularily and one running longitudinally-alternately contract or relaxing changing size and shape of organ C. Cardiac Muscle 2
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Only in heart Forms most of heart walls ________________________but involuntary Cushioned in bundles w/ small amount of endomysium When heart contracts,internal chambers get smaller,forcing blood into arteries leaving heart Branching cells joined by junctions- ___________________________________These traits and spiral arrangement of bundles allow heart activity to be closely coordinated,giving steady contraction rate ______________________can shift heart into “high gear” ****** We focus mostly on skeletal muscle here! 3
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D. Muscle Functions 1. _______________________as a result of muscle contraction;quick response to environment 2. Maintaining _____________-maintain erect posture despite gravity 3. Stabilizing ________________-esp. w/ poorly fitting articulating surfaces as in shoulder 4. _________________________________-by –product of muscle activity;ATP used for contractions and ~40% released as heat to mostly maintain normal body temp for at least 40% of body mass II. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle 5
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a. ________________________ = plasma membrane of muscle cells b. Nuclei pushed aside by ________________-long ribbonlike organelles;have alternating light (I) and dark (D) bands along myofibrils-give striped appearance c.
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