Ch21 - Immune System.pptx

Ch21 - Immune System.pptx - Immune System Ch 21 1 Pathology...

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Immune System Ch. 21 1
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Pathology- Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) 1. Cause Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmitted through body fluids HIV destroys helper T cells decline in B cells & cytotoxic T cells severely suppresses immune function HIV is a retrovirus - produces DNA from its viral RNA & inserts in healthy cells to produce more viral RNA 2. Treatment Antiviral drugs, - but HIV has high mutation rate so drug resistance can become a problem 2 33 million people have HIV. 50% affected are women. 90% of cases in developing countries of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa No cure
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Overview – Immune Functions Understanding the signs of healthy immune response will help you assess your patients Immune system provide resistance to disease 1. Remove dead, dying body cells 2. Destroy abnormal (cancerous) cells 3. Protect the body against pathogens and foreign substances (parasites, bacteria, viruses) 3
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Overview – Immune components Immune system – 3 lines of defense against foreign pathogens: 1. Innate (nonspecific) immunity = Innate system used the first and /or second lines of defense to stop attachks by pathogens what you are born with a) Non-specific defense against variety of pathogens b) Fast response c) Types i. Physical and chemical barriers (1 st line of defense) ii. Internal defenses (2 nd line of defense) 2. Adaptive (specific) immunity – many develop after birth, protection against particular threats a) Responds to specific pathogens b) Slow response 4
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5 Surface barriers are the physical/chemical barriers we just talked about. Chemical are secretions from the physical barriers Internal - in the body Adaptive further split into humoral & cellular
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Innate immunity – Physical & chemical barriers 1. Physical barrier – keeps hazardous organisms and substances from entering body a) Skin – physical barrier to the exterior b) Mucous membrane – trap pathogens c) Hair within nose – filters air of microbes, dust, pollutants d) Cilia in the upper respiratory tract traps and expel dust/bacteria 6
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Innate immunity – Physical & chemical barriers 2. Chemical barriers a) Lysozyme – an enzyme found in tears, perspiration, respiratory mucus, and saliva; break down cell walls and kills microorganisms b) Gastric juice – acidity destroys bacteria and most toxin c) Acidity of skin and vagina – inhibits bacterial growth d) Defensins – antimicrobial peptides secreted by mucous membranes and skin (e.g., found in saliva) 7
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Innate immunity – Internal defenses 1. Phagocytes – engulf and destroy microbes that pass into the body tissues A. Types 1) Macrophages - develop from monocytes a) Free macrophages - wander through tissues, looking for cellular debris/ invading microbes b) Fixed macrophages - confined to specific organs 2) Neutrophils - move to a site of injury or infection and become phagocytic 8
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Lysosome Phagosome (phagocytic vesicle) Acid hydrolase enzymes Innate immunity – Internal defenses Phagocytosis - process whereby phagocyte engulfs foreign particles 1. Phagocytes – engulf and destroy
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