Topic 20 - Evolution and Society.pptx

Topic 20 - Evolution and Society.pptx - BIOL 3030 Evolution...

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BIOL 3030: Evolution and Systematics Topic 20: Evolution and Society
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Evolution and Society Mix at many levels Farming and artificial selection Genetically modified organisms Evolutionary Medicine Science and Religion
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Artificial Selection What is this?
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Genetically Modified Organisms Have gene added through technology instead of breeding Corn with gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills certain insects Monsanto’s Roundup Ready Roundup is a potent herbicide that attacks most plants Weeds are now adapting
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Genetically Modified Organisms Golden Rice – engineered to produce β- carotene – Vitamin A Vitamin A deficiencies can lead to night blindness, blind spots, excess keratinization throughout body. In children, growth retardation, infections, and 50% mortality rate in severe deficiencies
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Evolutionary Medicine Using concepts of evolution to examine disease Using appropriate animal models to examine human diseases
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Aniridia Defective Pax6 gene Heterozygous individuals without iris Vision may be compromised Homozygous is lethal
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Eye Evolution and Disease Jellyfish don’t have Pax6 , but they do have a gene that is homologous to both Pax6 and Pax8 Pax8 is involved in developing hearing This may be why many genetic abnormalities affect eyes and ears Most common of such is Usher Syndrome – 4 in 100,000 live births in US.
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Usher Syndrome Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Hearing Profound deafness in both ears from birth Moderate to severe hearing loss from birth Normal at birth; progressive loss in childhood or early teens Vision Decreased night vision before age 10 Decreased night vision begins in late childhood or teens Varies in severity; night vision problems often begin in teens Vestibular Balance problems from birth Normal Normal to near-normal, chance of later problems function (balance) The optic nerve (arrow) looks very pale, the vessels (stars) are very thin and there is characteristic pigment, called bone spicules (double arrows – Retinitis Pigmentosa). Usher Normal
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Vertebral Models Human vertebral malformations No suitable tetrapod model Fishes have many similar malformations We know the genetics We can eliminate gravity and the appendicular skeleton from the equation K.F. Gorman and F. Breden. 2007. Teleosts as models for human vertebral stability and deformity, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part C Pharmacol. Toxicol. 145 (2007), pp. 28–38
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Re-evolutionary Approach To Regenerative Medicine Newts and zebrafish can regenerate lost limbs or hearts Mammals can’t Had been believed that it was multipotent cells that formed a blastema from which new limbs were formed
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Re-evolutionary Approach To Regenerative Medicine But, recently found that it was individual cells that normally could not divide Regained the ability Amniotes lost ability in tradeoff with cancer Retinoblastoma (Rb) gene inhibits G1-S transition Deactivated in newt regeneration Regenerating heart in Zebrafish
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