Topic 4 - Taxonomy and Phylogeny.pptx

Topic 4 - Taxonomy and Phylogeny.pptx - BIOL 3030 Evolution...

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BIOL 3030: Evolution and Systematics Topic 4: Taxonomy and Phylogeny
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Systematics Taxonomy + Phylogeny Taxonomy - naming and classifying organisms Phylogeny - evolutionary history Phylogeny Taxonomy Classification
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Taxonomy Humans have an innate desire to name things Classic example, the 100’s of Inuit words for snow Turns out not to be true, but they have 16 word families for snow and related phenomena - more than us We name what is important to us and part of our environment
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Scala Naturae Aristotle’s concept of the scale of nature Organisms were placed on this scale based on their proposed complexity Held until Renaissance when we began to discover more species Needed more complex system
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Polynomials Species began to be referred to via polynomials Sentences or paragraphs (in Latin) that described an organism Obviously cumbersome, so polynomials began to be whittled down into the first few words of the description Eventually just a binomial - genus and species
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Order Carl von Linne or Carolous Linnaeus - Swedish botanist Introduced in Species Plantarum (1753) Still largely used (although modified) today - Linnean Classification Scheme Start from bottom - the species.
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Linnean Classification Scheme (modified) Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primata Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens ( H. sapiens )
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Rules Species name (or specific epithet) never stands alone - binomial All taxon names capitalized except specific epithet Genus and species names must stand out - underlined or italicized using normal text Governed by codes ICZN - International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ICBN - International Code of Botanical Nomenclature INNB - International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria
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Rules Can’t name a species after yourself No animal, plant or fungus, or bacterium may have the same genus name An animal genus can be repeated in plants Codes address Family and below (animals) and from Division (Phylum) in plants Priority - whoever named a taxon first wins Unless you appeal to the code to use a more recent name that has been widely used
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Rules Endings (Family and above): Division (Phylum) –phyta (P) Class –opsida (P) Order –ales (P); usually –iformes (A) Family –aceae (P), -idae (A) Endings (species) -i: named for a man -ae: named for a woman -orum: named for more than one man or a combination of men and woman -arum: named for more than one woman -ense, -ensis: from a place
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Rules Genera must have type species Species properly stated as Genus species Author, year - Peckoltia lineola Armbruster, 2008 If the author described the species in a different
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