Topic 10 - Genome Evolution PPT.pptx

Topic 10 - Genome Evolution PPT.pptx - BIOL 3030 Evolution...

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BIOL 3030: Evolution and Systematics Topic 10: Genome Evolution
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Genomes One would think that primitive organisms have less DNA Started measuring C-value – amount of DNA in a haploid cell Amount of DNA not correlated with complexity – C-value Paradox Lungfishes have 40X the DNA of humans Why?
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Whole Genome Sequencing The first, 1976, Bacteriophage MS2 (an RNA virus) – 5,386 bp 18 yrs later (1995): Haemophilus influenzae Saccromyces cerevisiae a year later Caenorabitis elegans round worm (1998) Human draft (2001), final (2003) Mostly old Sanger Sequencing
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$3,000,000,000
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Illumina HiSeqX 1.8 terabases of data — 16 human genomes' worth — per three-day run 18,000 human genomes per year. Each genome 30x Machine is $1,000,000, but genome ~$1,000 Oxford Nanopore MinION Connects to a computer through USB Uses Nanopore technology - draw DNA through a small hole Each chip would be about $1000 Can’t handle big genomes yet
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Why the C-Value Paradox Noncoding DNA About the same # of genes in multicellular organisms Larger % noncoding in Eukaryotes
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A Tradeof Transposons move sections of DNA around Selection for replication speed, small size and energetic efficiency Evolutionary history Drosophila has lots of active transposons Humans had them in past, but few active now Balance of these forces leads to C-value paradox Increase in DNA leads to increase in cell size
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G-value Paradox G – number of protein-coding genes Does not appear correlated with complexity Its all about the regulatory genes
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G-Value Paradox Transcription factors Bind to specific regions of DNA When, where, and to what degree specific genes are expressed nematode:500, Fruitfly:700, human:2000 Often act upon one another if they act in pairs, 4 2 as many combinations in humans than fruitflies Trios: 4 3 It is much more complex than that
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G-Value Paradox Degree of regulatory control of non-coding regions Increase # regulatory elements with C-value One protein-coding gene ≠ one protein Alternative splicing – put the exons together in diferent ways Humans: more alternative spliced genes and more introns than nematodes Posttranscriptional changes to newly transcribed RNA
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Alternative Splicing Pre-mRNA Alternatively spliced mRNA Different protein isoforms For Example: CD44 gene (cell surface glycoprotein) has 21 exons, 12 of which can undergo AS
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The Viral Genome RNA or DNA Single linear, set of linear, or circular chromosomes
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