Study Guide for 131 Tech Prep2010.doc - Study Guide Tech...

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Study Guide Tech Prep bio 131 Challenge 5/20/2013 Study Guide for Bio 131 Articulation Program Exam 40 points multiple choice Fill in the Black 20 points Short answer questions: 20 points Graphing Problem: 10 points _____MAYDAY: JUNE 1ST______ Cell Theory - Cell organelle : a cell organelle is a membrane bound structure within the cell that performs a specific set of functions - Nucleus : The nucleus is the most important organelle of the cell. It is also known as the control centre of cell. It also contains the genetic material which has instructions required by the cell for making other proteins and other molecules. It is surrounded by two membranes with many openings which allow various molecules in and out of the Nucleus. - Nucleons : Within the nucleus of eukaryotic cell there is structure called nucleons. This is the site for ribosome formation. Prokaryotic cells lack nucleons and have free flowing genetic material in their nucleus. - Ribosomes : Ribosomes are small pieces of RNA found throughout the cytoplasm and other organelles. Their function is the formation of proteins. - Mitochondria : It is an organelle in the cell which forms energy by converting food to other forms which can be easily absorbed by cell. Thus it is also known as powerhouse of cell. It has two layers. The inner layer is folded with many twist and turn to increase surface area where energy is formed - Cytoplasm : this is a gel like organelle within the cell membrane but outside the nucleus (also called cytosol). It consists mostly of water and dissolved salts. It acts as a medium through which materials move around in cell - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum : The endoplasmic reticulum is a collection of lipid membranes which function to move proteins from one area of cell to other. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have any ribosome on surface. This is where the lipid part of cell membrane is assembled. - Rough E. R. : The E. R. Is a collection of lipid membranes which function to move proteins from one area of cell to other. The rough E. R. has ribosomes on it surface which synthesise the proteins scheduled to leave the cell. - Lysosome : the lysosomes are structures filled with digestive enzymes that break down those items that would become toxic if left in cell. They also break down protein, lipids and carbohydrates to more usable forms by cell. - Golgi apparatus : The golgi apparatus performs the function of packaging the proteins formed by ribosomes in such a way that they can leave the cell and be taken by other parts that need them. It has appearance like stack of pancakes. It changes, sorts and packages the proteins as they leave E. R. It is always found near the cell membrane. - Plasma membrane : The plasma membrane is the boundary between the cell and its environment. It regulates what enters and exits the cell.The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
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