MI EOC Study Guide.pdf - 1.1 The Mystery Infection One Page...

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1.1 The Mystery Infection One Page Wonder (MI) by Taylor Brown 1.1.1 Medical Interventions Personal Hygiene Physical Treatment Daily Living Toothpaste, soap, hand sanitizer Casts, splint, braces Glasses, wheelchair, cane 1.1.2 Patient Zero Patient Zero: the person who passed the disease to others, they typically get the pathogen from an outside source, they are the start of the outbreak, they will have the highest concentration of antigen Epidemiologists track down patient zero by interviewing those who are sick and linking them together, then they use ELISA to figure out who is patient zero for sure based on the highest concentration of antigen. They can use serial dilutions to help figure out the concentration. 1.1.3 Using DNA to Identify Pathogens Bioinformatics: field of science that combines biology, computers, and information technology to store and analyze genetic data 1- Sample Prep 2- PCR Amplification 3- PCR Purification 4-Sequencing Prep 5-DNA Sequencing 6- Sequencing Analysis Isolating single colony, extract DNA, dispose of waste run PCR (melt-separate DNA strands, anneal-cool and add primers, extend-make copies) Electrophoresis and microfiltration; spin in microcentrifuge using column Add primers and fluorescent tags to tag the nucleotides so they’ll show up in step 6 Run a gel with each product, load into computer (will do the work) Compare the genome sequence to known sequences; exact match is pathogen
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1.1.4 Serial Dilutions A stepwise dilution of a substance in a solution. Calculations involves creating a fraction (solute/solvent). You can use the fractions to figure out the concentration of each tube. 1.1.5 ELISA ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) detects antigens by detecting antibodies that the body makes to fight off the antigen. This can be used to identify patient zero of an outbreak. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Bacteria is added and the antigen binds to the tube wall (primary antibody will bind to it in the next step) Primary antibody binds to the antibody (allows for secondary antibody to attach) Enzyme-linked secondary antibody is added to the primary (here so the substrate will attach) Enzyme catalyzes oxidation of substrate which results in color change (used then in a serial dilution to determine concentration)
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1.2 Antibiotic Treatment One Page Wonder (MI) by Taylor Brown 1.2.1 Bacterial Structures Nucleoid: holds DNA Capsule: protection Plasmid: circular ring of DNA Cytoplasm: holds organelles in place Cell Wall: gives shape Ribosomes: produce proteins Plasma Membrane: regulates what enters and exits cell Pili: attach to other cells, transfer plasmids Flagella: help bacteria move (only some have) Endotoxins: poison other cells/protection 1.2.1 Classes of Antibiotics Penicillins (Beta-lactams) Tetracyclines Fluoroquinolones Sulfa antibiotics (sulfonamides) -attacks the cell wall when producing peptidoglycan/ multiplying -creates holes so water enters and bursts the cell -Prevent protein synthesis by binding to 30s ribosome and stopping tRNA -affect cytoplasmic membrane (leak organelles, etc)
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