10.Muscular system(3).pdf - ANAT20006 PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ANAT20006 PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN STRUCTURE MUSCULAR SYSTEM AND MUSCLES Dr. Varsha Pilbrow Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience Room E526 5th Floor, East Wing, Medical Building Email: [email protected] Phone: 83445775 WARNING This material has been provided to you pursuant to section 49 of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) for the purposes of research or study. The contents of the material may be subject to copyright protection under the Act. Further dealings by you with this material may be a copyright infringement. To determine whether such a communication would be an infringement, it is necessary to have regard to the criteria set out in Part 3, Division 3 of the Act. References • Eizenberg, Briggs, et al. 2008, ‘General Anatomy: Principles and Applications’. Ch 6, pp 50-65 • Anatomedia CD ROM: General Anatomy: Systems Frames 19-26 • Drake et al. 2010: Gray’s Anatomy for Students: Ch 1, pp 27-28 Functions of Muscles • • • • Produce movement Provide stability Communication Control body openings • Produce heat through movement there is stability in all different ways. facial expression, arms to wave orophesis, moutt, eyes , 85% of body heat Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 63. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Types of muscle • 3 types depending on striated/not striated, voluntary/involuntary, somatic/visceral: visceral: internal organs – Skeletal striated – Cardiac striated – Smooth through oout the body, involuntary,hypotrophy or and atrophy, can grow if it complete grown it will have slow reheal heart, pulminary artary, -- found around the heart and blood vesels around heart Short rythem contraction relaxation involuntary Moore K L. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 6th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2010, ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0. Table 1.1 short , doesnt heal very well, short fibre and each has nucleus visceral, no striation and involuntary it can hypotraphy, eg the uterus when having baby grows connective tissue connects fibbre each fibre is rapped around by connective tissue = endomysium perimysium - encircle the group of endomysium forms a deep fascia at the end and superficial to that is the third most layer of skin if u follow the epimysiun it Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X Fig 11.1 Deep fascia a layer of tissue surrounding muscle • Intermuscular septa intermuscular septa divides the compartments of muscle muscle are put in functional compartments • Fascial compartments functional compartment of muscles akilis tendon • Retinacula binds the musle at wrist and ankle holds the tendons in place to allow tendons to work in the proper manner fascia is con Moore K L. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 6th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2010, ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0. Figs 1.9, 5.76 Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 21. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 More connective tissue • Tendon tendenous origin and tendenous insertion connecting rope like proximal end • Aponeurosis broad sheet abdomen aponeurous attache the muscle fibre • Raphe when two muscle mmet togetherat seam which is called raphe mouth and pelvic region stable end of the muscle distal end • Fascial sheath fascia sheet the encircles the connective tissue • Synovial tendon sheaths fibrous tissue covering at the digits Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 20. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Infection in synovial sheath Tenosynovitis only little finger has a sheat connected to bursae little finger infection spread infection in the synovial sheats Brukner & Khan Clinical Sports Medicine 2006 Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 23. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 starts from a wide part and converges to tiny part tendenous insertion provide extra stability bbsed on shape and function Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X Fig. 11.3 pennate means feather eg shoulder, really strong alot of mosion in bilateral direction Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X Fig 11.3 eye opening Movement • First order levers – stability 1st • Second order levers – power 2nd • Third order levers – range 3rd Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X Fig. 10.18 Form of skeletal muscle Parallel – ‘length proportional to range of movement’ provide legnth of moment Oblique – ‘power proportional to mass’ (greatest in multipennate muscles) provide the power Trade-off between power and range Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 24. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Names of muscles 600 musces • nominar anatomica Size: – pectoralis major, gluteus maximus, extensor pollicis brevis • Shape: – trapezius, deltoid, rhomboid major • Location: – rectus abdominis, splenius capitis, extensor digiti minimi • Number of heads: – biceps brachii, triceps brachii, quadriceps femoris • Action: – flexor carpi ulnaris, Levator scapulae, depressor anguli oris • Quirky – sartorius, soleus, gastrocnemius Moore K L. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 6th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2010, ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0. Fig 1.18 Muscle contractions • Reflexive contraction – Diaphragm movement – Knee-jerk used to check nerve action • Tonic contraction – Normal muscle tone • Phasic contraction – Isometric contraction first u brace yourself to do • Increase in muscle tension, no change in length, no movement – Isotonic contraction tone of the muscle increase • Concentric contraction – High muscle tension, muscle shortens, movement occurs • Eccentric contraction – Muscle tension present, muscle lengthens, movement occurs Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X. Fig 12.16 Actions of muscles • Prime mover main muscle that does action Prime mover • Synergist assist prime mover Synergist • Antagonist Antagonist the one that lets go • Fixator the ones that stabilise/hold the joint in place Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X. Fig 11.2 Fixator Types of muscle injury Graded in severity – Types I, II & III Weakest site may be tendon/bone interface – ‘avulsion’ fracture tendon takes away bonee Some muscles especially prone to injury – 2-joint muscles where muscle meet tendon Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 19. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Neurovascular supply of muscles mouth of neurovascular muscle • Neurovascular hilum • Blood supply – Adjacent arteries and veins – Vascular pedicles – Anastomoses main blood vessel Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 26. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Neurovascular supply of muscles • Principles of nerve supply – Motor unit – Cranial-caudal arrangement – Nerve plexi for limb muscles – Functional groups – Between functional groups – Developmental origin muscle get annovation in the segments a group of nerves mixed together set of nerves anterior compartment and posterior compart muscel takes nerve supply with it a move eg the diaphragm Saladin, K 2001, Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-070290786-X P.556 Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker & Grkovic, [email protected] General Anatomy Systems Frame 26. Melbourne, Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 • Muscle may be invaded by fat, connective tissue or even bone Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva Image from Harry Brooks Allen Museum ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern