05.Human form and function(2).pdf

05.Human form and function(2).pdf - ANAT20006 Human...

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Unformatted text preview: ANAT20006 Human form & function Dr Dagmar Wilhelm Dept of Anatomy & Neuroscience [email protected] COPYRIGHT REGULATIONS 1969 Schedule 4 (regulation 4D) FORM OF NOTICE FOR PARAGRAPH 49 (7A) (c) OF THE COPYRIGHT ACT 1968 COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been provided to you pursuant to section 49 of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) for the purposes of research or study. The contents of the material may be subject to copyright protection under the Act. Further dealings by you with this material may be a copyright infringement. To determine whether such a communication would be an infringement, it is necessary to have regard to the criteria set out in Part 3, Division 3 of the Act. HOX genes and trisomy 21? In human: • 4 HOX gene clusters • On chromosome 7p14, 17q21, 12q13, 2q31 IF ONE IS MUTATED OTHER REPLACE Functional redundancy -­ Mutations in 10 HOX genes found to cause human disorders (Quinonez and Innis, Mol Genet Metab, 2014) Formation of vertebrae from pairs of somites Larsen’s Human Embryology Formation of vertebrae from pairs of somites Larsen’s Human Embryology Reference Eizenberg, Briggs, Adams, Ahern “General Anatomy: principles and applications” Chapter 2 ANAT20006 Human form & function Dr Dagmar Wilhelm Dept of Anatomy & Neuroscience [email protected] Classification of organisms -­ taxonomy = Grouping of organisms based on similar properties 1st attempt: Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) Classified based on: 1) Plant or animal 2) Living space (air, land, or water) Carl Linnaeus (1707 – 1778) Classified based on physical and structural similarities Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: -­ Superphylum: Animalia Coelomate 1 -­ Phylum: Chordata 2 -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate 3 -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate 4 5 -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo 6 -­ Species: Homo sapiens 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM kingdom • PHYLUM Phylum • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS Class Order Family Genus • SPECIES Species • Kids • Prefer • Candy • Over • Fresh • Green • Spinach Keeping Precious Creatures Organized For Grumpy Scientists LOSE ANIMALA GETS MORE SPECIFIC Classification (taxonomy) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM Vehicle • PHYLUM Car • CLASS Ute • ORDER • FAMILY Toyota • GENUS • SPECIES Hilux Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Kingdom: Animalia -­ Features -­ Capable of independent movement -­ External energy source -­ Cells surrounded by cell membrane (and not rigid cell wall) Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Features 1. Three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm 2. Fluid-­filled internal body cavity = coelom 3. Gut tube suspended in coelom Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Features 1. Three germ layers Gilbert 9/10 Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Features 2. Fluid-­filled body cavity = coelom 3. Gut tube suspended in coelom A coelom is a body cavity which is completely lined with mesoderm. An acoelomate is an animal which does not have a coelom. BODYCAVITY BETWEEN MESODERM Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Acoelomate Pseudo-­ coelomate Mesentery Coelomate Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Phylum: Chordata -­ Features During at least some stages of development: 1. Notochord (mesodermal) and tail 2. Dorsal hollow nerve cord (neural tube) – ectodermal 3. Pharyngeal pouches – lined with endoderm, covered by ectoderm 4. Segmentation and polarity Phylum: Chordata -­ Features 1. Notochord formation (mesodermal) Larson’s Human Embryology, Figure 3-­8 Phylum: Chordata -­ Features 2. Neural tube (ectodermal) Phylum: Chordata -­ Features 3. Pharyngeal pouches – lined with endoderm, covered by ectoderm -­development-­of-­the-­craniofacial-­region/ Phylum: Chordata -­ Features Tail 4. Segmentation and polarity Human embryo Somites Each dermatome and myotome supplied by particular spinal cord segment Phylum: Chordata -­ Features 4. Segmentation and polarity Cranial (anterior) Dorsal Left Right Caudal (posterior) Phylum: Chordata -­ Features 4. Segmentation and polarity -­ Axial borders WHERE THUMB FORMS Pre-­axial border Post-­axial border WHERE BIG TOE FORMS Pre-­axial border Post-­axial border Polarity Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Features Presence of 1. Backbone (vertebral column or spine) 2. Skeleton (including skull) 3. Spinal cord and spinal nerves 4. Four limbs with five digits Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Features 4. Basic tetrapod limb pattern Each limb: -­ Principal bone proximal -­ Paired long bones -­ Short bones -­ Five digits What about snakes? Belong to tetrapod Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Class: Mammalia -­ Features Mammal – ‘breast’ (Latin), young suckled by its mother 3 groups: 1. Monotremes (echidna and platypus) → oviparous 2. Marsupials → viviparous (born prematurely, development completes in pouch) 3. Eutherians → viviparous (complete development in uterus) -­new-­phylogeny-­of-­the-­mammals/f1-­large-­5/ Class: Mammalia -­ Features - Mammary glands (present in all, but only functional in females) - Hair (from follicle in skin) - Class: Mammalia Sweat and sebaceous (oil) glands FATOR OIL GLANDS - Muscular cheeks - Placenta • Mammalian features IN FEMALES - skin & appendages (hair, sweat & sebaceous glands, mammary glands) - placenta - warm blooded - expanded forebrain Eizenberg, Briggs, Adams, and Ahern “General Anatomy – Principles and Applications” McGraw-­Hill Australia Pty Ltd Class: Mammalia -­ Features - Warm-­blooded - 4-­chambered heart - Expanded forebrain and cerebral cortex - Lower jawbone - Teeth replaced max. once in a lifetime - Three middle ear ossicles eleboo.e-­bookshelf.de Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Order: Primate Order: Primates -­ Features -­ Binocular vision (eyes located at front) HELPS SEE #D -­ Clavicle (collarbone): enables free movement of upper limb -­ Opposable thumbs GRAB THINGS -­ Greater brain and visual capacity ⇒ hand – eye coordination Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Family: Hominidae Used to be only humans, but now (especially through use of molecular techniques) also: Chimps, gorillas, and, slightly less close phylogenetically, orangutans Family: Hominidae -­ Features -­ Thumbs and big toe opposable (except in humans) -­ Flattened nails -­ No tail NO CLAWS NO TAIL -­ Complexity of social behavior -­ Facial expression and complex vocalization Human classification Grouping of organisms based on similar properties -­ Kingdom: Animalia -­ Superphylum: Coelomate -­ Phylum: Chordata -­ Subphylum: Vertebrate -­ Class: Mammalia -­ Order: Primate -­ Family: Hominidae -­ Genus: Homo -­ Species: Homo sapiens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES Species: Homo sapiens -­ Features Homo (Latin, ‘man’ -­ as in ‘human’) -­ sapiens (Latin, ‘wise’) Most distinctive characteristic: upright posture → associated with: - Bipedal locomotion - Peculiar foot - Non-­opposable big toe - Expanded brain Species: Homo sapiens -­ Features Peculiar foot Non-­human primates: also used for grasping Human foot = arched platform with non-­opposable big toe Line of gravity OTHERWISE FALL OVER Eizenberg, Briggs, Adams, and Ahern “General Anatomy – Principles and Applications” McGraw-­Hill Australia Pty Ltd Bipedal locomotion Bipedal locomotion Bipedal locomotion Species: Homo sapiens -­ Features - Cycles of swing and stance phase - Line of gravity moves forward in direction of motion - Gluteus maximus: powerful hip extension in running and jumping - Gluteus medius and minimus: prevent excessive tilting TM General Anatomy Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker Grkovic, [email protected] TM General Eizenberg, Briggs, Barker && Grkovic, [email protected] Anatomy Regions Frame 5 Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Regions Frame 5 Anatomedia Publishing, 2003, ISBN: 0-734-2691-9 Eizenberg, Briggs, Adams, and Ahern “General Anatomy – Principles and Applications” McGraw-­Hill Australia Pty Ltd Species: Homo sapiens -­ Features Bipedal locomotion Species: Homo sapiens -­ Features Speech -­ Sounds formed into words -­ Organ of sound: larynx (consists of cartilage housing vocal cords) Species: Homo sapiens -­ Features Speech Important for shaping sounds for speech: prolong movement of air column ⇒ sufficient distance between mouth and larynx Other mammals (and human infants): high larynx ⇒ air in short bursts only But: can breath and swallow simultaneously Speech High larynx During postnatal development: Pharynx lengthens ⇒ larynx descends into neck LONG DISTANCE BETWEEN LARYNX AND MOUTH TO FORM WORDS Eizenberg, Briggs, Adams, and Ahern “General Anatomy – Principles and Applications” McGraw-­Hill Australia Pty Ltd Summary Category Hierarchical group Features in humans Kingdom Animalia Energy from external source, independent movement, cell membranes Superphylum Coelomate Coelom, gut tube suspended in coelom, three germ layers Phylum Chordata Neural tube, notochord, pharyngeal pouches, segmentation Subphylum Vertebrate Vertebral column, skeleton (including skull), spinal cord and spinal nerves, four limbs with five digits Class Mammal Mammary glands, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands, muscular cheeks, placenta, warm-­blooded, 4-­chambered heart, expanded forebrain and cerebral cortex, three middle ear ossicles Order Primates Binocular vision (eyes located at front), clavicle and no skin between hips and shoulders: enables free movement of upper limb, opposable thumbs, greater brain and visual capacity Family Hominidae Opposable thumbs, flattened nails, no tail, complex social behaviour, facial expression and complex vocalization Species Homo sapiens Upright posture, bipedal locomotion, peculiar foot, non-­ opposable big toe, lengthened larynx ...
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