Exam 2 study guide.pdf - GENETICS I II III GREGOR MENDEL A...

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GENETICS I. GREGOR MENDEL A. Austrian Monk, first to discover some of the rules of heredity B. By chance he was working with simple pea plants (garden peas// pisum sativum) 1. He was actually working with the seeds of the pea plant II. BLENDING A. Inheritance: how you get your characteristics from your parents B. This theory was the prevalent theory pre-mendel, around the 19th Century 1. If dad was 6ft tall and mom was 5 ft tall, then they would have offspring that were 5 and a half ft tall 2. By this theory, the population was gradually homogenizing, and everyone would look the same III. MENDELIAN GENETICS A. Importance because he was the first to quantify inheritance experiments 1. Did 100’s of plant breeding experiments and recorded all the data 2. Figured out that there were a few rules that help explain inheritance B. Genotype: an organism's genetic makeup, the actual alleles/ genes C. Phenotype: the expression of these genes, what the organism actually looks like 1. Can refer to many characteristics or just 1 D. Hybrid: the result of sexual reproduction between a homozygous recessive individual and a homozygous dominant individual// as a result this would produce heterozygous babies E. Cross: the term used to refer to sexual reproduction, specifically in the context of genetic experimentation F. Character: a heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as a flower color G. Trait: each variant for a character, such as purple or white colored flowers H. Dominant: a trait that is always expressed (always shows), masks it recessive friend every time I. Recessive: a trait that is only expressed when you have 2 homozygotes that are recessive, aka 2 recessive alleles J. True breeding: the sperm of a plant can be used to fertilize its own eggs, and when you have this plant and self fertilize it with its own sperm, it will always produce offspring that look a particular way 1. The same genes will be expressed each time without fail 2. This term is mainly used when referring to plants, and never animals 3. For example: if there is a plant that produces round peas, then every time it self fertilizes the offspring will have round peas. The same can be said about a plant that has only wrinkled peas. If this plant true breeds, then all the offspring will have wrinkled peas. However if the round pea plant and the wrinkled pea plant mated, then the offspring would have round peas, indicating that the round trait is the dominant one. The offspring of
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these two parent plants (the P 0 generation) would have round peas but if these offspring bred (the Filial 1 generation; F1 Gen) then the offspring (F2 Gen) would have 3 round and 1 wrinkled, establishing the ratio 3:1 K. Allele: a variation of a gene 1. People are diploid, meaning they have one copy of each of their genes, one from mom and one from dad (homologues) 2. Homologues: are chromosomes with the same genes in the same places, but they may have different alleles 3. If an organism has the same 2 alleles , it is homologous for a trait 4. Homozygous: 2 same alleles for a trait 5.
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