CH20.docx - CH 20 nucleophilic addition if there is no...

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CH. 20 nucleophilic addition if there is no leaving group nucleophilic substitution there is a leaving group nucleophilic addition (1) nucleophilic attack: form sp3 configuration (2) protonation: if there is no leaving group, it just takes a proton pi bond broken, two new sigma bonds aldehyde is more reactive - alkyl groups bring more charge, making less positive ketones are less reactive Nucleophilic substitution (1) nucleophilic attack; depending on stability and quality of leaving group will determine how reactive (2) loss of leaving group L.G ability: right, down PT Addition vs. Substitution nucleophilic addition and nucleophilic acyl substitution involve the same first step Oxidation states O = -2 H = +1 C = 0 Halogen = -1 Oxidation and Reductions You can reduce it to aldehydes and ketones or alcohols oxidate to carboxylic acids Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones -if you have to reduce it, use H2 and Pd-C
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