Thermo2.pdf - NAME DHIVIANDRAN CHADARAN ID ME096483 COURSE...

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NAME: DHIVIANDRAN CHADARAN ID: ME096483 COURSE: THERMODYNAMICS II SECTION: 1A
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Effects and Hazards of Combustion Combustion is a process involving oxidation of fuel to generate energy. It involves fuel, oxidizing agent (air) and heat. Majority fuels are made of hydrogen and carbon. General chemical formula for hydrocarbon fuel: C n H m Combustion generally produces nitrogen, water vapor, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as the by-product. T hese substances have some hazardous effects on organism’s health, safety, culture, society and environment. Health Most of the harmful gases are released as the product of combustion. These gases cause respiratory defects in newborns and severe diseases in adults. For instance diesel engine produces exhaust gases that can cause lung cancer and a study shows that it could also cause heart attack in healthy adults. These gases too will be a factor to cause asthma and emphysema disease. Safety Usage of internal combustion engines in industries processing flammable chemicals or such can cause devastating effect if left unsupervised. The engines should have optimum air-to-fuel ratio. When air enters the cylinder for combustion, flammable gases enters too. Combination of fuel and flammable gases are risky as it increases fuel-to-air ratio and will be highly flammable. Culture Price hikes in fuel industry have given rise to crime such as gasoline smuggling. This will increase the national price rate of fuel which eventually gives rise to a hike in daily-used products. Almost all industries require fuel to complete the manufacturing cycle. Society 80% of energy are generated via combustion, thus it is a major method of energy production. Humans depend on the electricity produced by the means of combustion. Without electricity, many routines will be erupted. Environment Carbon dioxide is a heat-trapping gas that is the reservoir of trapping heat from Sun. This is factor of the greenhouse-effect. At times, sulphur-containing gases are released to the environment. These gases react with the water and oxygen in atmosphere and returns to Earth as acid-rain. Acid rains can cause skin diseases and deteriorate surfaces of constructions. Sometimes these gases contain carcinogenic chemicals that could cause cancer.
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The reaction equation for 100% air C + H 2 + O 2 + N 2 + S + ath ( O 2 + 3.76 N 2 ) x CO 2 + yH 2 O + z SO 2 + w N 2 Substance Mass (kg) Mole numbers (kmol) [Mass/molar mass] Carbon 39.25% x 150kg = 58.8 58.8/12 = 4.9 Hydrogen 6.93% x 150kg = 10.4 10.4/2 = 5.2 Oxygen 41.11% x 150kg = 61.7 61.7/32 = 1.93 Nitrogen 0.72% x 150kg = 1.08 1.08/28 = 0.038 Sulphur 0.79% x 150kg = 1.19 1.19/32 = 0.037 C + H 2 + O 2 + N 2 + S + ath ( O 2 + 3.76 N 2 ) x CO 2 + yH 2 O + z SO 2 + w N 2 Mass balance for constituents Carbon dioxide: x = 4.9 Hydrogen: y=5.2 Sulphur dioxide: z= 0.037 Oxygen: 1.93 + ath = x + 0.5y + z; ath = 5.61 Therefore; w =0.038 + (3.76 x 5.61) = 21.1 4.9C + 5.2H 2 + 1.93O 2 + 0.038N 2 + 0.037S + 5.61 ( O 2 + 3.76 N 2 ) 4.9 CO 2 + 5.2H 2 O + 0.037SO 2 + 21.1N 2 THE ABOVE EQUATION IS FOR 100% AIR EXISTENCE FOR COMBUSTION.
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EQUATION FOR REACTION INVLOVING 35% EXCESS AIR FOR COMBUSTION 4.9C + 5.2H 2 + 1.93O 2 + 0.038N
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