Lecture+3+Competition.pdf - Basics of Ecology Practice Quiz...

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Basics of Ecology Practice Quiz 1. Groups of individuals of the same species, responding to the same environmental factors & exchanging genetic material with each other are which of the following? (A) Organisms (B) Populations (C) Communities (D) Ecosystems (E) Biospheres
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Basics of Ecology Practice Quiz 2. What is the difference between exponential and logistic growth? (A) The exponential growth equation is more complex, containing more parameters (B) The logistic growth equation only describes population change as a function of r , the intrinsic rate of growth (C) Logistic growth incorporates a carrying capacity (D) Exponential growth assumes a closed population, whereas logistic growth does not (E) Exponential growth is more realistic
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Basics of Ecology Practice Quiz 3. True or False (A = true, B = false): A species’ fundamental niche includes not only that species’ physiological tolerances, but also its interactions with other species.
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Basics of Ecology Practice Quiz 4. Where is r the greatest? (A) Between 0 and 20 days. (B) Between 20 and 40 days. (C) Between 40 and 60 days. (D) Between 60 and 80 days. (E) Between 80 and 100 days.
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Basics of Ecology Practice Quiz 5. What is evolution? (A) The mutation of an organism during its lifetime (B) A pseudoscience that has no relevance to the way the world works (C) The process that leads to adaptation and diversification of populations and species (D) Something that happens over such long time scales that I don’t need to worry about how it affects my life (E) The inheritance of acquired characteristics
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Competition The struggle for existence Definitions Theory Experiments Evolution
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Competition: the struggle for existence “…the contest was a struggle for existence , and they fought with a desperate courage, inspired by the rejection that death was the punishment of defeat and life the prize of victor” (Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population , 1798) Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) 1700 1800 1900 2000
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Competition: the struggle for existence “I use the term Struggle for Existence in a large & metaphorical sense, including dependence of one being on another, & including (which is more important) not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny . … A struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high rate at which all organic beings tend to increase.” (Darwin, On the Origin of Species , 1859) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) 1700 1800 1900 2000
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Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) Competition: the struggle for existence “Ecology is the study of all those complex interactions referred to by Darwin as the conditions of the struggle for existence (Haeckel, Generelle Morphologie der Organismen , 1866) 1700 1800 1900 2000
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Competition: the struggle for existence Georgii Gause (1910-1986) “…if we know the properties of two species growing separately, then connecting these values into a theoretical equation of the struggle for existence we can calculate in what proportion a certain limited amount of energy will be distributed between the populations of two competing species ” ( Gause, The Struggle for Existence , 1934) 1700 1800 1900 2000
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Competition:
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