introduction.pdf - SURVEYING to locate the positions of...

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SURVEYING – to locate the positions of points on or near the surface of the earth Two types of measurements: 1. Data-gathering measurements – involve the measurement of distances and angles for the following reasons: a. To determine horizontal positions of arbitrary points on the earth’s surface b. To determine the elevations of arbitrary points above or below a reference surface, such as a mean sea level, c. To determine the configuration of the ground, d. To determine the directions of lines, e. To determine the lengths of lines, f. To determine the positions of boundary lines, and g. To determine the areas of tracts bounded by given lines. 2. Layout measurements – it is required to lay off distances, angles, and grade lines to locate construction lines for buildings, bridges, highways, and other engineering works, and to establish the positions of boundary lines on the ground. Types of Surveys 1. Control survey – a survey made to establish the horizontal or vertical positions of arbitrary points 2.
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