Exam notes 2 x.doc - What does Mackinder mean by the...

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What does Mackinder mean by the Heartland of the World and why should it be controlled? Most of the World's population resided on the Eurasian and African landmass, and control of this area, or 'World-Island' would ensure world dominance Control of the World-Island and Heartland would ensure power and access to over half of the worlds resources Why did the world become more geographically connected during the late 1800s? The late 1800s was a time of significant colonialism and imperialism on a worldwide scale After 1870, European powers sought out extra European conquests in the global periphery where increases in territory, resources and military bases could be acquired in order to increase power and prestige Advancements in technology- naval and aviation Technological advancement that enabled different states to communicate Transportation Colonisation- demand for resources Geopolitical implications- pursuit of raw materials to add to internal power (faster economic growth) results in spending more on military: More capable of defeating other powers In what ways does geography present dangers for states? Politics and geography of conquest and occupation Geography of rivalry- geography is the key determinant of state death or survival as it endangers some states and secures others Location of valued resources can lead to rivalry From a geopolitical standpoint, how would you define the period leading to WWI? WWII? WWI: characterised by prosperity, industrial development and colonial conquest for the main European powers. The changing balance of power within Europe, especially the rising and declining powers created tension (Rise of Germany caused Britain to feel threatened). This period was also one of strong nationalism and also had remaining strands of imperialism, which contributed to building tension. WWII: The Great Depression was one which affected many states and the economy, and contributed to causing the US to retreat to isolationism. German resentment of the terms imposed on the country also was rising during this time. Also level of desperation from 1929 crisis caused Germans to rely on Hitler, leading to his growing power. What were the political and economic roots of US Isolationism? The manner in which the Great Depression impacted the country. Post WWI, the US experienced a major economic catastrophe, which led to the US having to focus on internal economic affairs. Time after WWI: US government aimed to not get involved in any international activity that would lead to conflict, or involvement in European or Asian conflicts. The US had experienced many losses during WWI and aimed to slowly rebuild and grow into a stronger power What had happened to Mackinder's Heartland after 1945? Why was this important for superpower conflict in the future?
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