Chapter 21 7th edition.ppt - Fatty Acid...

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Fatty Acid Metabolism -Triglycerides are hydrolyzed by lipases which release a fatty acid from the glycerol -More energy is released from fatty acids than carbohydrates
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Epinephrine binds to a receptor of a fat cell and causes the activation of lipase -Glucagon -Insulin
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Activation of the fatty acid; this is the beginning of oxidation *ATP is used in this activation*
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Carnitine Shuttle : acyl CoA can cross the outer mitochrondrial membrane but not the inner membrane. The acyl group is transferred to carnitine carrier; - enzyme: carnitine acyltransferase ; has specificity for acyl groups that are 14-18 C long; -acyl carnitine passes through the inner membrane by a transporter: carnitine translocase -once in the matrix the acyl group is transferred from carnitine to CoASH
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-Oxidation -Oxidation: -Oxidation: a series of reactions that cleaves carbon atoms two at a time from the carboxyl end of a fatty acid The complete cycle of one -oxidation requires four enzymes Reaction 1: Oxidation of the , carbon-carbon single bond to a carbon-carbon double bond Reaction 2: Hydration of the carbon-carbon double bond Reaction 3: Oxidation of the -hydroxyl group to a carbonyl group Reaction 4: Cleavage of the carbon chain by a reverse Claisen reaction
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Β-Oxidation -takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria -successively cleaves 2-C units from the fatty acid
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