Chapter2 8th ed.ppt - Chapter 2 Water Water is the...

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Chapter 2: Water Water is the principal component in most cells Ionic compounds : compounds with full (or whole) charges; e.g. KCl, NaCl Polar compounds : have partial charges e.g. ethyl alcohol Polarity: when atoms share a chemical bond (covalent compound); share electrons e - unevenly Electronegativity : tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical bond and become more negative; e.g. oxygen in water
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Partial charges : when atoms share electrons unevenly there is a charge seperation, with the atoms having partial charges δ - and δ + Non polar : when the electronegativity difference between two atoms is small or non existant; -they basically share the electrons evenly -e.g. C-H -there can be polar bonds in a compound and the compound still be non polar
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Dipole : bonds with positive and negative ends
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The polarity of water allows it to interact with ions; the partial positive charge on H interacts with negative ions (Cl - ) and the partial negative on O allows it to interact with positive ions (Na + ); The partial charges in water can also interact with partial charges on other molecules
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Hydrophilic: Ionic and polar substances are water-loving; -any substance with a charge -they will dissolve in water Hydrophobic : water-hating; -non polar molecules -do not dissolve in water Dipole-Induced Dipole interaction :Water can form a very weak bond with at non polar compound by inducing a dipole in the non polar compound; -not favorable -water has a higher attraction for other water molecules than a non polar substance
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Amphipathic : when one molecule has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions
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Micelle : this is formed when a amphipathic compound comes in contact with water; -polar headgroups point out in contact with the water -non polar tails face in
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