Chapter 11 8th edition.ppt - Transcription DNA RNA Proteins...

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Transcription DNA RNA Proteins Multiple functions in the cell -DNA is replicated into mRNA -In prokaryotes mRNA can be translated while it is still being transcribed -Eukaryotes the mRNA is sent to the ER where is will be translated into a protein Proteins Catalyst Structural Antibodies Receptors Transporters
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DNA strands Template Strand : (antisense strand) the strand that will be copied into mRNA Coding Strand : (non template strand/ sense strand) shares the same code as the mRNA strand; can be used to control synthesis of mRNA RNA Polymerase Subunits: α ββ’ω α,ββω: combine to form an active site for polymerization sigma: loosely bound to the polymerase; is responsible for recognizing specific promoter -The core enzyme of RNA polymerase would transcribe both strands of DNA but recognizes the promoter DNA sequence that signals the start of transcription -comes off after about 10 nucleotides have been added -prokaryotes have more than one subunit so the RNA polymerase can detect different promoters
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Promoters -DNA sequences that provide direction for RNA polymerase; determines what DNA will be transcribed -Binding site for RNA pol to bind promoter on DNA is 10 nucleotides upstream of the first nucleotide to be added (-10) -When nucleotides are upstream of the start site they are given negative numbers (-10 and -35) -UP elements: Enhance the binding of RNA polymerase (-40 - -60) -Strong/Weak promoters determine how often a protein will be made
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Phases of Transcription 1 st phase: chain initiation: begins when RNA polymerase binds to DNA at the promoter (forms a bridge between -10 and -35) - directs the polymerase to the promoter - and β are responsible for melting the DNA strands -purines are always added first, with A added more often than G -The first ribonucleoside triphosphate keeps all its phosphates 2 nd phase: Chain Elongation: after strands have seperated a transcription bubble (17 base pairs long) moves down the DNA sequence -Polymerase catalyzes the formation of phospodiester bonds between the ribonucleotides -Speed of synthesis varies; polymerase moves fast through some DNA and slowly through others Chain Termination: 2 types (located downstream of the gene) Instrinsic Termination : inverted repeats that are complementary base pairs so
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