Document.rtf - 2 What is co-stimulation how is it mediated...

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2. What is co-stimulation, how is it mediated and why is it required? Costimulation:In some immune responses, a B cell or T lymphocyte becomes activated once associate degree substance or nonself cell binds to that. Activation then initiates proliferation. In most immune responses, however, activation needs the presence of a costimulator. Activation of resting human CD4+ T cells mediated by mAb ligation of the TCR/CD3 complex requires costimulatory signals to result in proliferation; these can be provided by intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) a natural ligand of leukocyte function-associated Ag-1
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