Cornell Notes Chapter 28.docx - Selena Kukui 1 Class Ap...

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Selena Kukui 1 Class: Ap world history Date: 2/21/16 Questions Chapter: 28 Revolutions and National States in the Alantic world Enlightened and revolutionary ideas The American Revolution The French Revolution Popular sovereignty: relocating sovereignty in the people Traditionally monarchs claimed a "divine right" to rule The Enlightenment challenged this right, made the monarch responsible to the people John Locke's theory of contractual government: authority comes from the consent of the governed Freedom and equality: important values of the Enlightenment Demands for freedom of worship and freedom of expression Demands for political and legal equality Condemned legal and social privileges of aristocrats Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract Equality not extended to women, peasants, laborers, slaves, or people of color Ideals of Enlightenment were significant global influence Tension between Britain and the North American colonies Legacy of Seven Years' War: British debt, North American tax burden Mounting colonial protest over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule Colonial boycott of British goods Attacks on British officials; Boston Tea Party, 1773 Political protest over representation in Parliament: Continental Congress, 1774 British troops and colonial militia skirmished at the village of Lexington, 1775 The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776 Thirteen united States of America severed ties with Britain Declaration inspired by Enlightenment and Locke's theory of government The American Revolution, 1775-1781 British advantages: strong government, navy, army, plus loyalists in colonies American advantages: European allies, George Washington's leadership Weary of a costly conflict, British forces surrendered in 1781 Building an independent state: Constitutional Convention, 1787 Constitution guaranteed freedom of press, of speech, and of religion American republic based on principles of freedom, equality, popular sovereignty Full legal and political rights were granted only to men of property Summoning the Estates General Financial crisis: half of government revenue went to national debt King Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General to raise new taxes Many representatives wanted sweeping political and social reform First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried to limit Third Estate (commoners) The National Assembly formed by representative of Third Estate, 17 June 1789 Demanded a written constitution and popular sovereignty
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