Cornell notes chapter 32.docx - Class Ap World history...

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Class: Ap World history Date : 3/27/16 Questions Chapter: 32 The Building of Global Empires Foundations of empire European imperialism Motives of imperialism Modern imperialism Refers to domination of industrialized countries over subject lands Domination achieved through trade, investment, and business activities Two types of modern colonialism Colonies ruled and populated by migrants Colonies controlled by imperial powers without significant settlement Economic motives of imperialism European merchants and entrepreneurs made personal fortunes Overseas expansion for raw materials: rubber, tin, copper, petroleum Colonies were potential markets for industrial products Political motives Strategic purpose: harbors and supply stations for industrial nations Overseas expansion used to defuse internal tensions Cultural justifications of imperialism Christian missionaries sought converts in Africa and Asia "Civilizing mission" or "white man's burden" was a justification for expansion Tools of empire Transportation technologies supported imperialism Steam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of Africa and Asia Railroads organized local economies to serve imperial power Western military technologies increasingly powerful Firearms: from muskets to rifles to machines guns In Battle of Omdurman 1898, British troops killed eleven thousand Sudanese in five hours Communication technologies linked imperial lands with colonies Oceangoing steamships cut travel time from Britain to India from years to weeks Telegraph invented in 1830s, global reach by 1900 The British empire in India Company rule under the English East India Company EIC took advantage of Mughal decline in India, began conquest of India in 1750s Built trading cities and forts at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay Ruled domains with small British force and Indian
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troops called sepoys Sepoy mutiny, 1857: attacks on British civilians led to swift British reprisals British imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858 British viceroy and high-level British civil service ruled India British officials appointed a viceroy and formulated all domestic and foreign policy Indians held low-level bureaucratic positions Economic restructuring of India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Introduction of commercial crops: tea in Ceylon, also coffee and opium Built railroads and telegraph lines, new canals, harbors, and irrigation methods British rule did not interfere with Indian culture or Hindu religion Established English-style schools for Indian elites Outlawed Indian customs considered offensive, such as the sati
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