Cornel notes chapter 31.docx - Class Ap world history...

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Class: Ap world historyDate:3/27/16QuestionsChapter: 31 Societies at crossroadsOttoman empire, Russia, China, and JapanThe Ottoman empire in declineCommon problemsMilitary weakness, vulnerability to foreign threatsInternal weakness due to economic problems, financial difficulties, and corruptionReform effortsAttempts at political and educational reform and at industrializationTurned to western modelsDifferent results of reformsOttoman empire, Russia, and China unsuccessful; societies onthe verge of collapseReform in Japan was more thorough; Japan emerged as an industrial powerThe nature of declineMilitary decline since the late seventeenth centuryOttoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, trainingJanissary corps politically corrupt, undisciplinedProvincial governors gained power, private armiesExtensive territorial losses in nineteenth centuryLost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia; western frontiers to Austria; Balkan provinces to Greece and SerbiaEgypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern armyAli's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous provinceEconomic difficulties began in seventeenth centuryLess trade through empire as Europeans shifted to theAtlantic Ocean basinExported raw materials, imported European manufactured goodsHeavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interestForeigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economyExtraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empireCould operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman portsDeprived empire of desperately needed incomeReform and reorganizationAttempt to reform military led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-
The Russian empire under pressure1808)Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revoltWhen Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; cleared the way for reformsHe built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraphLegal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876)Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen stateBroad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic codeState reform of education (1846), free and compulsoryprimary education (1869)Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authorityOpposition to Tanzimat reformsReligious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and traditionLegal equality for minorities resented by some, even afew minority leadersYoung Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization

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