Cornel notes chapter 31.docx - Class Ap world history...

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Class: Ap world history Date : 3/27/16 Questions Chapter: 31 Societies at crossroads Ottoman empire, Russia, China, and Japan The Ottoman empire in decline Common problems Military weakness, vulnerability to foreign threats Internal weakness due to economic problems, financial difficulties, and corruption Reform efforts Attempts at political and educational reform and at industrialization Turned to western models Different results of reforms Ottoman empire, Russia, and China unsuccessful; societies on the verge of collapse Reform in Japan was more thorough; Japan emerged as an industrial power The nature of decline Military decline since the late seventeenth century Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training Janissary corps politically corrupt, undisciplined Provincial governors gained power, private armies Extensive territorial losses in nineteenth century Lost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia; western frontiers to Austria; Balkan provinces to Greece and Serbia Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798 Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern army Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous province Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest Foreigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882 The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy Extraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empire Could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman ports Deprived empire of desperately needed income Reform and reorganization Attempt to reform military led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-
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The Russian empire under pressure 1808) Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt When Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; cleared the way for reforms He built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph Legal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876) Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic code State reform of education (1846), free and compulsory primary education (1869) Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authority Opposition to Tanzimat reforms Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and tradition Legal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leaders Young Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization
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