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Students name Institution/affiliation Date Gene mapping
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Abstract Gene mapping is a system used to determine the exact position of a gene on a chromosome. It is also used to determine the distance between two genes. An Augustinian monk Gregor Johann Mendel is said to be the father of genetics. He engineered the first experiment using garden peas. Garden peas have a wide variety showing gene inheritance. He studied the variation in flower color, flower position, seed color, seed shape, pod color, pod shape and size of the stem. In this study, we shall experiment using the fruit fly. The fruit fly has various variation in the eye color, types of wing and many others. The aim of this experiment is to show the relationship between the phenotype of an organism and its genotype. The conclusion was that an organism genotype determines its phenotype. We also found out that two or more organisms can have the same phenotype but different genotype. The experiment was carried out using Fly Lab.
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General introduction To fully understand genetics we need to know the various terminologies found in the unit. All living things have genes. They are the specific information encoded for a particular trait. Genes are located on the chromosomes. Each gene occupies a specific location known as Loci. Human beings have a total of twenty-three chromosomes. The first twenty-two is located in the somatic cells. They are known as autosomes. They are diploid in number. The twenty-third chromosome is found in the gametes. They are known as sex chromosomes. They are responsible for sex determination. They are haploid in number. The outward appearance of an organism is known as its phenotype. The genetic composition of an organism is known as its genotype. Each individual organism has a specific genotype and phenotype throughout its lifetime. The specific form of a gene for studying genetics is known as alleles. For each trait, an organism has two forms of the allele. If the alleles are the same type then the organism is said to be homozygous. If the alleles are different types the organism is said to be heterozygous. There are two different types of genes, dominant gene, and recessive genes. Dominant genes are genes that are expressed irrespective of being homozygous or heterozygous. Recessive genes are genes whose effect is sometimes masked and not expressed. These genes are only expressed in the heterozygous state. The character of a gene is determined by the nature of the gene or the allele. A trait is a particular form of character. For example, a character could be eye color and the trait is the different forms of color, for example, white or red color.
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Mendel, the father of genetics, developed a means to study genes through monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, trihybrid cross and the use of a chi square. Mendel also discovered that a gene separates individually during a cross such that the offspring will have one gene from each parent.
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