2011_GENETICS_TEST_study_guide_with_answers.doc

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1) THE STUDY OF HOW TRAITS ARE PASSED TO OFFSPRING: Genetics 2) THE FATHER OF GENETICS: Gregor Mendal 3) A SEGMENT OF DNA THAT CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT: Gene 4) AN ALTERNATE FORM OF A GENE: Allele 5) In pea plants, purple (P) is dominant to white (p). What is the probability of PURPLE offspring, if a WHITE PLANT fertilized a homozygous PURPLE plant : 100% purple P P p Pp Pp p Pp Pp 6) What is the genotype of both parents (from the previous cross in # 5)? (A) pp * PP (B) pp * pp (C) Pp * Pp (D) pp * Pp A 7) WHAT IS USED TO SHOW ALL POSSIBLE TRAITS OF AN OFFSPRING : Punnet Square 8) 3REASONS WHY PEA PLANTS WERE USED IN THE ORIGINAL GENETICS EXPERIMENTS. Have 7 easy to observe, contrasting traits Can self-pollinate à Fertilize itself Cross-pollinate à Fertilize different plant 9) GENES THAT MASK OR COVER UP OTHER GENES: Dominant 10) GENES THAT DO NOT PRODUCE TRAITS UNLESS 2 ARE PRESENT: Recessive 11. Radish color is due to incomplete dominance. A red radish has the genotype RR. A white radish has the genotype WW. A purple radish represents the heterozygous condition – RW. If two PURPLE radishes ARE CROSSED, what is the probability of the offspring being RED? 25% R W R RR RW W RW WW 12. What is the probability of the offspring being PURPLE (from the previous questions)? 50% purple 13) NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES IN GAMETES COMPARED TO A SOMATIC CELL: Half (23 vs 46) 14) STRUCTURES THAT STORE GENES IN A CELL: Chromosomes 15) THE GENES THAT MAKE UP AN ORGANISM ARE CALLED ITS _______ Genotype example TT Tt tt) 16) THE PHYSICAL TRAIT OF AN ORGANISM IS ITS phenotype WRITE AN EXAMPLE. Tall or short 17. Coat color for short horn cattle is co-dominant. A red cow has the genotype RR. A white cow has the genotype WW. The heterozygous condition produces a roan color. If a RED AND ROAN COW are crossed,
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