HBONLINE 5 biol.docx - List 3 functions and 5 main...

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List 3 functions and 5 main components of the lymphatic system. Function 1. Fluid balance Function 2. Fat absorption Function 3. Defence Component 1. Lymph / fluid / lymph fluid Component 2. Capillaries / lymphatic capillaries Component 3. Vessels / lymphatic vessels Component 4. Ducts Component 5. Lymphatic organs / organs Lymph is excess fluid from extracellular spaces that drain into lymphatic vessels. It contains lymphocytes. The lymphatic organs include tonsils , spleen , thymus , and lymph nodes. (Any order is correct) Lymphatic capillaries lie near blood capillaries and take up fluid from surrounding tissue that has diffused from and has not been reabsorbed by the blood capillaries . Pressure imposed by movement of surrounding skeletal muscles and/or changes in intra- abdominal pressure causes lymph to move through the lymph vessels. Valves prevent backflow in the lymph vessels. To return lymph to the blood vascular system the lymphatic capillaries join to form lymphatic vessels that merge before entering one of two ducts . From the lower extremities and the top left side of the body the vessels merge with the thoracic duct. The lymphatic vessels of the right upper quadrant of the body drain into the right lymphatic duct. The thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct merge into the left and right subclavian veins respectively, near the junction with the jugular veins which in turn drain eventually into the vena cava . Accumulation of fluid in the tissues, and swelling due to blockage of lymphatic vessels causes oedema . Individuals with high blood pressure would be more susceptible to oedema compared to individuals with low blood pressure because increased pressure n the capillaries would cause more fluid to be pushed into the tissue spaces. The body's Non-Specific Defence Mechanisms help prevent entrance of pathogens (micro-organisms that cause disease) and destroy them quickly if they do penetrate the body's barriers.
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Fill in the components of the 6 non-specific defence mechanisms. 1. Mechanical mechanisms Skin, mucous membranes Tears, saliva, urine 2. Chemical mediators Complement Interferons 3. Phagocytic cells Neutrophils Macrophages 4. Cells of inflammation Basophils Mast cells Eosinophils 5. Natural killer cells N/A 6. Inflammatory response Local inflammation Systemic inflammation The two main types of specific immunity area antibody/humoral and cell mediated immunity. Match the specific immune defence characteristics to their descriptions Description Characteristic Ability to adapt to, recognise and eliminate particular organisms and foreign molecules (antigens). Specificity Ability to respond to millions of kinds of invaders by making specific antibodies as well as other adaptive actions Diversity Ability to remember antigens that have been encountered and to react against them promptly and effectively on subsequent exposures Memory Cytotoxic T cells kill other cells. They attack cancer cells or cells infected with a pathogen by docking on their surface and discharging Perforin
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