FDEGD4W-2015-10-E-1.pdf - UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS ‘5 U N...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS UNIVERSITEITSEKSAMENS ‘5 U N I SA mm FDEGD4W OctoberlNovember 2015 CHILD DEVELOPMENT ll: PROBLEMS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE Duration 2 Hours 100 Marks EXAMINERS FIRST DR RJ TABANE SECOND DR MY MATLALA Closed book examlnation This examinatlon question paper remains the property of the University of South Africa and may not be removed from the examination venue This paper consist of 11 pages. ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS. QUESTION 1: MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS Write only the number of the question and the number of the answer E9- 1 (b) 2 (d) 3. (a) [TURN OVER] 2 FDEGD4W OCTI’NOV 2015 QUESTION 1 1 Read the followmg statements and choose the CORRECT alternatrve Regardlng the venous approaches to the Interpretatlon of behawoural problems In chIIdren 1 Each approach attempts to detenmne the “truth” about what causes chIIdren to manIfest disturbed behawour, but generally emphasrses only one aspect 2 Each approach contaIns valuable truths that are useful contnbuttons to understandmg chIldren's behavsour 3 The approaches want to gIve explanatIons for emotIonal problems In chIIdhood 4 The approaches contaIn useful aspects of the dIagnosmg and handlIng of chIIdren WIth behawoural problems Only statements 1 and 3 are correct All the above statements are correct Only statement 4 Is correct Only statements 1, 3 and 4 are correct gnu-m 2 Choose the INCORRECT statement regardan the psychodynamrc approach a SIgmund Freud Is consrdered to be the most Important figure In the development of the psychodynamIc theory b AccordIng to the theory, the ego Is based on the pnmary or InstInctIve needs of human beIngs c Accordrng to the theory, chIIdren expenence theIr emotIons on two levels, the consmous and the unconsmous d Thus approach to behavroural problems emphastses the role of the Inner lIfe (Intrapsychrc dynamIcs) as the cause of emotlonal dIsorders 3 Choose the lNCORRECT statement AccordIng to the behawounst model a Human behaVIour can be explatned only by means of systematIc scrutIny of observable behaVIour b It Is belIeved that humans learn from the effect of the envrronment that the enwronment evokes a SpeCIfiC response An example of the Is that a loud n0Ise can cause fear The nOIse Itself does not abut the fear but someone may have learned to assocrate n0Ise WIth fear, as a result of a certarn event c The theory was Eater expanded by assertrng that people do not want passwely for the enmronment to eIICIt behavrour, but that people (and anImals) produce behawour d Learned behawour can never be untearned [TURN OVER] 3 FDEGD4W OCT/NOV 2015 Evaluate the followmg statements and choose the CORRECT alternative 1 According to the biophy5ica| approach, behawoural problems are caused by biological and phy3ical factors 2 According to the biophysmal approach, a physmal problem can also affect the emotions of a person 3 According to the biological defect approach, dewant behaVIour is viewed as a disease 4 According to the biological defect approach, factors like heredity, temperament and nutrition can contribute to devrant behawour a Only statements1 and 3 are correct b Only statement 4 is correct c All statements are correct d Only statements 1, 3 and 4 are correct Evaluate the followmg statements and choose the CORRECT alternative 1 Toxrc substances such as Zinc. if ingested in excesswe quantities, wrll lead to hyperactiwty. brain damage or even death 2 According to the biological defect approach. there is a link between certain foods such as those containing artifiCial colouring, and hyperactivity 3 Mrmmal brain damage which may occur at birth (or in other ways), could cause behawoural deviations in children 4 The effect of attention defiCIt syndrome may be observed in a child's motor and perceptual functioning, as well as in his or her language development (that is, the child’s written and oral school work) Only alternatives 1, 3 and 4 are correct All the above statements are correct Only alternatives 1, 2 and 3 are correct Only alternatives 1 and 4 are correct an arm [TURN OVER] 4 FDEGD4W OCT/NOV 2015 6 Evaluate the followrng statements and choose the CORRECT altematrve 1 Accordrng to developmental theory, delays "1 a chrld's development could lead to behavroural problems 2 According to developmental theory, children need to pass through the early stages of development successfully before they can face the challenges of the subsequent phases of devetopment 3 The mam focus of the ecosystemrc approach rs that children may suppress their feelings and needs In the subconscrous 4 According to the ecosystemrc approach, every Chlld :5 Viewed as a whole, surrounded by mrnl socral systems. the ecosystem, for example school. home, church and sport Only statements 1 and 2 are correct All the above statements are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 3 are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 4 are correct QOD'DJ 7 Choose the INCORRECT alternative 3 When a chrld has lost contact wrth reality, It rs called psychotrc behavrour b Aggressron and cryrng spells are examples of psychotrc behavrour c Psychotlc behavrour can hrnder the child's darly functronrng and adrustment d People With psychotrc behavnour have a drastlcally drfferent vrew of themselves and the world, or their place In the world, that It has no resemblance to realrty and the Impartral observer may find rt unthrnkable 8 Evaluate the followrng statements and choose the CORRECT alternative When assessrng children With behavroural problems 1 It rs tmportant to evaluate the child as a whole 2 It IS not necessary to look at Intellectual functronlng 3 It rs not necessary to look at the chrld's values and moral standards 4 It rs necessary to know If the Child rs physrcally healthy Only alternatives 1, 3 and 4 are correct All the altematrves are correct Only alternatives 1, 2 and 4 are correct Only altemattves 1 and 4 are correct QOUN [TURN OVER} 10 11 5 FDEGD4W OCTINOV 2015 Choose the INCORRECT statement a d Depressron cannot be seen outwardly In children, for example In their behavrour and their academic performance Children who suffer from depreSSIon often also harbour surcrdal notions Depression can be described as a feeling of despondency, pessamlsm or dejectlon Depressron may be Identified by looking at a child’s concentration, sleeping pattern, eating pattern and feelings Evaluate the followmg alternatives and choose the CORRECT statement 1 2 Censurable behavrour sometimes occurs In the normal development of children We know that a learner has behavuoural devratrons when the learner displays a contlnual pattern of antrsocral behawour that takes place at home and at school daily AntIsOCIaE behavrour Is Viewed as less serious than Juvenile delinquency. since the juvenlle delinquents behawour has already reached such extremes that he or she has clashed Wlth the law or that the offences are punishable bylaw Striking antrsocral behavrour rs characterised by Impulsrveness. Irritablllty. stubbornness, making demands, argumentatrveness, teasmg, poor retatlonshlp wrth peers, rowdlness, aggressrve behavrour, cruelty and fighting a All alternatives are correct b Only alternatrves 1, 3 and 4 are correct c Only alternatrves 2, 3 and 4 are correct d Alternatives 3 and 4 are Incorrect Evaluate the foilovvlng statements and choose the CORRECT alternative 1 Sexual molestatlon may be defined as a sexual act perpetrated against a chrld who Is not yet emotionally. physrcally and Intellectually developed Not all sexual molestation Is caused by physrcal force Although children who are 1n great need of love and attention give therr consent to sexual deeds, It IS not consrdered as an adult and enlightened consent, and does not conststute a defence of an offender In a criminal case Sexual abuse Includes exhlbltlonlsm, touching of private parts, sexual Intercourse wrth and ITIISUSS of the child to produce pornographic maternal All the atternatrves are correct a h Only alternatives 2r 3 and 4 are correct c Only alternatives 1. 2 and 3 are correct d Only alternatrves 1, 2 and 4 are correct [TU RN OVER] 6 FDEGD4W OCTINOV 2015 12 Choose the INCORRECT statement Strategies for treatment and actlon against sumlde are a b G Take all threats of suncnde SBI’IOUSIy Prowde a tot of Information on smelde to teenagers Prowde the kmd of emotional support that changes feelings of alienation or Isolatton Do not leave such Indnnduals on their own If any danger of SUICIde Is suspected 13 Choose the INCORRECT statement The followmg are the most general causes for antisomal behawour a b Single—parent families Behawour wuthm the family such as phySIcaI Violence, threats, Insults, lack of posmve reinforcement and reward for aggressweness Unreasonable use of punishment such as deferred punishment, InconSIstent dlsclpllne or excesswe phySIcal punishment A poor example set by family members 14 Evaluate the followmg statements and choose the CORRECT alternative 1 2 A juvemle lS someone who ts under the age of eighteen Over the age of fourteen, a Child Is conSIdered to be accountable or culpable, thus the term “juvenile delinquency“ Some of the crimes that are committed by Juvenile delinquents are theft and burglary, drug abuse, kidnapping and traffic offences Cnme IS a conscmus Infringement of a standard of cnmlnai justice whrch Is essential for maintaining a community Only statements 2, 3 and 4 are correct All the statements are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 3 are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 4 are correct CLOU'Q) [TURN OVER] 15 16 17 7 FDEGD4W OCTINOV 2015 Evaluate the followmg statements and choose the CORRECT alternative The follovvlng criteria may be used to judge whether or not an act Is a crime 1 2 3 4 The act shows lack of respect for an individual or group It demonstrates lack of respect for the possessrons of the indiwdual or group It shows lack of control and rejection of authority It could place the perpetrator(s) or others in danger lf. for examplefif it involves speeding or sexual misbehawour All the statements are correct Only statements 2. 3 and 4 are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 3 are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 4 are correct goo-m Choose the INCORRECT alternative The followmg are personality traits of 3 Juvenile offender a b C Trust in people who are in a position of authority over them A hostile. challenging attitude Their temperament shows Signs of restlessness, impulsweness, aggressnreness, destructiveness and sadism A seeming inability to understand and maintain somal conventions Choose the CORRECT alternative 8 ADHD (Attention DefiCit Hyperactiwty Disorder) IS a developmental dewation in the areas of sustained concentration. impulse control and the regulation of an actIVity level tn response to environmental demands ADHD is not responSIble for poor school performance and somally unsatisfactory behavuour All the symptoms of ADHD are evident by the age of three The symptoms have to have been present for at least two weeks in order for a child to be conSidered a sufferer from ADHD [TURN OVER] 18 19 20 8 FDEGD4W OCTINOV 2015 Choose the INCORRECT alternative Symptoms of ADHD are the followmg a The children are always fldgetlng wrth therr hands or feet or squrrmrng In their seats They find It difficult to sut sttll when It |S expected of them They find It drfficult to focus thetr attentlon on a task and maintain It They frequently listen and do what they are told Evaluate the followrng statements and choose the CORRECT alternatrve The followmg are consrdered to be the causes of ADHD 1 #OJN Bram damage Hereditary factors Dysfunction In the nervous system The toxrc effects of artrfimal colourants. preservatives and natural saluoylates (salts of salicylic acrd used tn the manufacture of aspmn, dyes. perfumes and fungrcrdes) as well as allergles to foods such as milk, wheat and eggs a All the statements are correct h Only statements 1. 3 and 4 are correct c d Only statements 1 and 3 are correct Only statements 1, 2 and 4 are correct Choose the INCORRECT alternative When young children are angry, they wrll scream, cry, slap or kick the floor Many parents grve In to therr children's outbursts m order to save embarrassment If a chlld over the age of one sttil perSIS’ts In thus type of conduct. something should be done about It Parents sometlmes gave In to therr children's outbursts In order to prevent them from hurting themselves or damagtng property [TURN OVER] 21 22 23 9 F DEGD4W OCTINOV 2015 Choose the INCORRECT alternative a Selective mutism is the term used to describe involuntary urination after the age at which a child is expected to be able to control his or her bladder Attitudes to l0ilet training differ from one culture to the next and even wathin somal groups Research shows that most parents expect their children to have complete bladder control by the age of three. while doctors set the limit at apprmamately five years EnureSIS could be caused by disturbed family relationships Choose the INCORRECT statement People who suffer from anXiety feel vaguely uneasy Without having a definite object to blame for their feelings Spoial Isolation and a permanent state of extreme anXIety can inhibit some! and personality development When an adult learns that a child's anXIety is unrealistic, he or she can ignore the anXIety and does not have to treat it as if it is real Feelings of inferiority, self—consolousness, shyness, apprehensmn and feelings of rejection are all symptoms of anXIety Choose the lNCORRECT statement Causes of anXIety may be the followmg a b C The absence of a mother figure Overly strict parents Sharing hisf her fears With an adult Early rejection in seeial interaction With peers, as a result of which a child learns to play alone and to av0id somal contact [TURN OVER] 10 FDEGD4W OCTINOV 2015 24 Evaluate the followmg statements and choose the CORRECT alternatlve 1 A phobia IS an Irrational, essentlally obsesswe fear 2 A phobia can take the form of a fantasy 3 Examples of phobias are acrophobla. agoraphobia, claustrophobla and school phobia 4 Individuals suffering from a phobia may experience such high levels of aHXIety about the object or Situation that they are completely Immobilised a Only alternatives 1. 2 and 3 are correct b Only alternatives 1, 3 and 4 are correct 0 Only alternatrves 1 and 4 are correct d All the above alternatives are correct 25 Choose the INCORRECT alternative 3 ObseSSIons are once off and deep—rooted Impulses, Images or thoughts on a tOpIC b Compulsnons are stereotyped actlwtles which the Indlwduals like c Compulswe behavuour often appears when asleep d All of the above [25! QUESTION 2 Explain and bnefly dISCUSS the followmg terms 2 1 Temperament (5) 2 2 Sexual abuse (5) 2 3 Bulimia nervosa (5) 2 4 HIVIAIDS (5) 2 5 Behavioural problems (5) 2 6 AnoreXIa nervosa (5) [30] [TURN OVER] 1 1 FDEGD4W OCTJNOV 2015 QUESTION 3 DISCUSS the symptoms of depressron which may be presented by learners In the classroom [25] QUESTION 4 Explain the Impact of pregnancy on the development of an adolescent under the followmg headmgs 4 1 Career pOSSIbIImes (5) 4 2 Relatlonshlps between the teenager and her parents (5) 4 3 Relationship between the teenager and her mother (5) 4 4 Identity formatlon and psychological Implications (5} [20] [100] @ UNISA 2015 ...
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