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Chapter 16 Vocabulary: 1. Evolution - change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. 2. Fossil- preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms. 3. Artificial Selection - the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits 4. Adaptation- heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment. 5. Fitness- how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment 6. Natural selection- process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest 7. Biogeography- study of past and present distribution of organisms 8. Homologous Structure- structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry. 9. Analogous Structure- body parts that share common function, but not structure 10. Vestigial Structure- structure that is inherited from ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function.
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