3_MultiElectronAtoms.pdf

3_MultiElectronAtoms.pdf - Structure of the Atom Part II...

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Structure of the Atom – Part II Multi-electron Atoms Spin Quantum Number (m s ) Pauli Exclusion Principle Hund’s Rule Electron Configurations (using the Periodic Table of the Elements) Chem 110 1 Orbital Energies Remember Orbital energy: is the energy needed to remove an electron from the orbital ( positive ) OR the energy released when an electron goes into an empty orbital ( negative ). Chem 110 2
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ORBITAL ENERGIES: (BOHR MODEL) H atom: Energy does not depend on or m Chem 110 3 n = 4 n = 6 Energy n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 5 What about the ORBITAL ENERGIES of other atoms? Chem 110 4
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What about the ORBITAL ENERGIES of other atoms? 1 e atom with nuclear charge Z (He + , Li +2 ) : ( still using BOHR MODEL) He + Li +2 Multi-electron atom: What is Z eff ? = effective nuclear charge Chem 110 5 Hydrogen : E = R y n 2 E = R y Z n 2 E = R y Z eff n 2 Electrons in inner orbitals act as screens for outer electrons. This is also called shielding. Outer electrons experience a lesser nuclear charge (less attraction), called effective charge ( Z eff ) Approximate: Z eff Z – m where m = average number of electrons between nucleus and electron in question (often use # of core electrons).
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