FINAL - MUSCULOSKELETAL ch 15.docx

FINAL - MUSCULOSKELETAL ch 15.docx - MUSCULOSKELETAL ch 15...

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MUSCULOSKELETAL ch 15 Functions of the Musculoskeletal System Framework that supports the body Allowing movement of the body Protection for internal organs Mineral storage site and production of red blood cells Generating body heat The human skeleton = 206 bones Composition of Bones Moist living cells (osteocytes) OSTEOCYTES - regulate amount of calcium salts deposited in or removed from bone matrix - OSTEOCYTES are responsible for BONE GROWTH AND CHANGES IN THE SHAPE OF BONE PERIOSTEUM - tough membrane surrounded each bone - network of blood vessels with supply oxygen and nutrients to the bone - a fibrous connective tissue membrane whose collagen fibers mege with tendons and liagments Living tissue Fibers (collagen) Compact bone - enables shaft of long bone to endure stress with solid object - contains nerve and blood vessels carrying nourishment to cells of living bone tissue Matrix (deposits) of CALCIIUM SALTS = aid in strength and protection Spongy bone - second type of bone tissue inside leayer of compact bone - it is strong , helps make bones light and strong
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GROWTH OCCURS - in the epiphyseal disc or growth plates at junction of diaphysis Bone Marrow - cavities of bone contain soft tissue - produces RED BLOOD CELLS and special WBC (lymphocytes) and platelets Axial skeleton Skull Facial bones Ribs = 12 pairs Vertebral column - contains 24 vertebrae plus sacrum and coccyx Appendicular skeleton Pectoral girdle and upper limbs Pelvic girdle and lower limbs JOINTS - where two bones come together allow movement SYNOVIAL JOINT = most common joint! o SYNOVIAL JOINT allows bones to move freely, stabilized by ligaments EX OF SYNOVIAL JOINT = BALL AND SOCKET JOINT Most common; oily to allow the bones to move freely Stabilized by ligaments (ball and socket) Cartilaginous = NO GAP Those between the vertebrae having no gap but held together by cartilage; move only a little Fibrous = HARDLY MOVE The flat cranial bones, FIBROUS = no gap between the bones and hardly move Ligaments Connect bone to bone Tendons Connect muscles to bone, carry tensile forces from bone to bone SPRAIN - Injury due to tearing of the ligament and capsule
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STRAIN - Injury to tendons or muscles Connective Tissue/ Perimysium - Binds muscle fibers into fascicle Ligaments of the Shoulder Complex - These LIGAMENTS HELP HOLD SHOULDER IN PLACE - These must move normally to keep shoulder functioning CCL—coracoclavicular ligaments CAL—coracoacromial ligaments GHL—glenohumeral ligaments SHOULDER =involves thorax and three bones - Shoulder = - HUMERUS (long bone of arm) - SCAPULA (shoulder blade) - CLAVICLE (Collarbbone) ROTATOR CUFF TENDONS -
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