SOC - Final Exam Study Guide.docx

SOC - Final Exam Study Guide.docx - SOC201 Final Exam Study...

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SOC201 Final Exam Study Guide Chapters 14, 15 (Health, Medicine and the Environment, Social Change) Chapter 14: Population, Health, and Environment >> Population Sociological imagination provides us with a better understanding of the big picture of society and where we fit in by contextualizing our beliefs and practices within a larger social framework that’s often invisible to us Place, population, health, and environment matter Demography : The statistical study of population dynamics o Studies trends o Focuses on how populations change over time with specific attention to growth (or lack there of) o Analysis of the composition of those populations – particularly age and sex – especially to the extent that a group’s makeup influences it’s likelihood for population change o Demographers begin by picking a population to study o Then gather data about that group over some specified period of time (usually by year) o New arrivals Birth and immigration o Departures Death and emigration o Results show how a populations changes from one point in time to another or between populations Birth Primary means by which a population replaces its members from one generation to the next Likelihood of each birth shaped by population dynamics beyond the desires of our biological parents Demographers analyze trends in Fertility : The number of children born in a given period of time Two primary measures: o 1. Crude Birth Rate : The number of live births per 1,000 people in the population in a given year Crude because it’s simple and straightforward One variable in isolation is not sufficient to understand the full scope of population change o 2. Total Fertility Rate : Measures the average number of children a woman would have during her lifetime given current birth rates and assuming she survives through her childbearing years Easier to understand because already familiar with “the average family has 2.5 children” Measures per woman regardless of family status
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More universally comparable statistic Replacement Fertility Rate : The minimum number of children a women would need to average in her lifetime to reproduce the population in the next generation o Must fall no lower than 2.1 o Number is boosted because not all women survive through childbearing years and the men: women isn’t 50/50 o Slowing in the overall population growth rate Death Departures occur through death Crude Death Rate : Measure of the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year o High in Guinea-Bissau and low in United Arab Emirates o Measure is more difficult to interpret because it is influenced by the age composition of the population Ex. Population is on average older, death rate higher even though people are living longer Infant Mortality Rate : The number of deaths infants less than on year old per 1,000 live births per year o Major indicator of overall well-being of a populations because it’s a
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