BISC - Exam 2 Study Guide.docx

BISC - Exam 2 Study Guide.docx - BISC104 Study Guide Test#2...

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BISC104: Study Guide Test #2 Chapter 4: Fat: How Much Is Right For You? 4.1 Enzymes and Metabolism - All food, whether fat carbs or protein, can be converted into fat when too much is consumed - Amount of fat that a given individual will store depends partly on how quickly or slowly he or she breaks down food molecules Metabolism : All of the chemical reactions occurring in the body Enzymes Enzymes : Proteins that speed up or catalyze reactions - Enzymes that help the body break down the food ingested liberate the energy stored in the food’s chemical bonds - End in “ase” EX. SucrASE breaks down sucrose - To break chemical bonds, molecules must absorb energy from their surroundings, often by absorbing heat - Heating cells extensively can damage or kill cells - Enzymes do not require heat to catalyze the body chemical reactions by eliminating the heat energy required to start a chemical reaction, enzymes allow the breakdown of chemical bonds to occur more quickly Activation Energy Activation Energy : The energy required to start the metabolic reactions serving as a barrier to catalysis - Without barrier, all of the chemical reactions would occur relentlessly - A given chemical reaction will only occur if the correct enzyme is active and available Induced Fit Substrate : Chemicals that are metabolized by an enzyme catalyzed reaction - Enzymes decrease activation energy by binding to their substrate and placing stress on its chemical bonds, decreasing the amount of initial energy required to break the bonds Active Site : The region of the enzyme where the substrate bonds; each has it’s own shape and climate
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Induced Fit: Changes shape slightly results in stress being placed on the bonds of the substrate - Enzyme helps convert the substrate to a reaction product and then resumes it’s original shape Specificity : Different enzymes catalyze different reactions -A result of shape and active site due to varying amino acid sequences - Different organisms will utilize very similar enzymes, likely due to their evolution from a common ancestor - Enzymes mediate all of the metabolic reactions occurring in an organism’s cells - Affect the rate of a particular individual’s metabolism Calories and Metabolic Rate Calorie : A unit of measure for energy - 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories - The energy stored in chemical bonds of food can be used to make a form of energy that the cell can use - The speed and efficiency of many different enzymes will lead to an overall increase or decrease in the rate at which a person can break down food Metabolic Rate : A measure of energy use -Changes according to a person’s activity level Basal Metabolic Rate : The resting energy use of an awake, resting, but alert person -Average is 70 calories per hour - Varies among people due to exercise habits, body weight, sex, age, and genetics - A heavy person utilizes more calories during exercise than a thin person does - Males require more calories than woman because testosterone increases the rate at which far breaks down
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