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Running head: Participatory Management Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Murango Mike Njeru HDC222-2925/2015 Public Management & Development Studies Dr. Alwanga
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Running head: Participatory Management Sustainable development is a challenging social process. The different objectives of society - social, economic and environmental - need to be integrated where possible, and traded- off where they are in compatible. Institutional and individual roles and responsibilities have to change, so that new patterns of behavior will foster sustainable development. These challenges demand new approaches to decision-making and action. It has long been understood that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to handle the analysis of social, economic and environmental dimensions and their interactions; and coordination is required amongst the various authorities and interests. Realization of these needs during the 1980s led to a proliferation of national strategic approaches to dealing with environment and development. National Conservation Strategies(NCSs)an National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPs), for example, were built around a multidisciplinary, coordinated approach to planning. However, these strategies contained few provisions for participation, beyond consultation amongst a few select groups. The strategies were essentially led by a small group (usually government, and often with a significant donor input in developing countries). Successes were
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