Q. Head and Neck.docx - Head and Neck Pharyngeal apparatus...

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Head and Neck Pharyngeal apparatus Contributes to formation of head and neck Consists of o Pharyngeal arches (5) 3 layers Ectoderm: epidermis layer Mesoderm: mscules, connective tissue, blood vessels, dermis layer, bones Endoderm: esophagus o Pouches (4) o Grooves (4) o Membranes (4) Week 4 it appears Pharyngeal arch 1 gives rise to face bones Middle part gives rise to muscles, blood vessels, connective tissue, and bones in ossciles of ears. Groove 1: future auditory canal Membrane 1: future auditory tympanic membrane All endocrine glands origin is form pouch or from endoderm: such as thyroid gland Pharyngeal arches Consist of somitomeric mesoderm and neural cells. Each arch has a CN associated with it o Somiometic mesoderm differentiates into Artery (aortic arches 1-6) Muscle tissue o Neural crest differentiates into Skeletal components Connective tissue Non-neural parts as well Pharyngeal pouches Are diverticula of the endodermal lining of the foregut Pharyngeal grooves Are the invaginations of ectoderm b/w each pharyngeal arch
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Fate of the pharyngeal grooves Groove 1: external acoustic meatus Other grooves: obliterate as pharyngeal arch 2 overgrows pharyngeal arches 3 and 4 Pharyngeal membranes Structures consisting of o Ectoderm o Intervening mesoderm o Neural crest o Endoderm b/w each pharyngeal arch Pharyngeal membrane 1: gives rise to tympanic membrane of ear Other membranes form no definitive adult structures
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