Chem1330ClassNotesfor21August2017 (1).pdf

Chem1330ClassNotesfor21August2017 (1).pdf - Chapter 12...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Physical Properties of Solutions max/M H 9+ 6%“ mm“ x6667 (ME 7 Solutions w» Jifi?f% 66 gm ”amid/7 6 Examples of Solutions State of Solution State of Solvent State of Solute Example Gas Gas Gas Air Liquid Liquid Gas Oxygen if; water Liquid Liquid Liquid Alcohol in water Liquid Liquid Soiid Sah in water Solid Solid Gas Hydrogen in palladium Solid Solid Liquid Mercury in silver 305d. Solid Sofid Silver in gold WM/WWMM«Maw,WWW/Mmmmwwwmvwwyw‘ WWMWWMWMMMWWMWWWWWWWMAwwwmm/memmm(WWWWWMWWWKWMWWWWWNWWd/W Supersaturated Solution flW-S ‘WW 5/0/44? WW“ VW/WW/ flwj ii 944% by W Wé M W W WW? How does a solution form? Z/ZQZ ,ZLLZZ ZZZ Z46 ZZZWZZJZZ [WU Mi 54:75:“ {vhf/73 ggZ ZZZ/ZZZ ‘Z/Z/WZZ’WZWZZ “/3 ZZLZZfli/y Zwflflj m7? Z, 6’9in [ZZZ L> 6w W W Wm WM (EZVVZ‘L’ZZVOZZZ/ ZZZZ MAM“ ZS?" Solute-Solvent Interactions 511 > y ‘ “/2 9%} 99969 [xi/i £511.». (:3, (frté’fi {iv/Ly 3”! pwggfi {fld (gig/V E W< $111617 52 191W: 1/11 If Xi 969“” €3.11 111%) 1921119 319 fig Wk fling/£111!” {A9, xwyflm 9w wawfim (a) Ion—dipole 1 S</H W“ 99 9:1 ’/ 9:“ KH\ 1 1 11/ 1:911” (b) Dipole- induced dipole 1,_._. f )5}; 1,1191%? (/111119? 162111 fzzicw 2411514769 541/9? 151M141 WM”? «H 17113311 1611» (Tieiwyéfi wk ”FL/@111- grim/g (/ ”9.199111 141.19! ("fit/€179 ‘ . xvi/1’91 121/1. 1%511cfl4699999999 139 (c) Ion-incigcigd di 81121129 1935419? iwfw; Law/r1111 £1 1111441 1:5? ”i 51%;? /> Gagarflrw m Mm w: of‘éqskm KLWV Maggi/rm}; Or 4/ - AHfiM< O A HQ“ >0- Nacemho) C'NHqNofi m H20) Factors Affecting Solubility M3 LIX/WE (”W/mg} {TM/M §%fi§gf<§&t§k%mca5'afi$%@fiuflfi VM¥ §wgfiffl PW% gfiw/%fl%MWQJQM%flm%am,WMMMWW w» V, ”H a; % %%W%@ \MQLMa/y C5: gm} Lad/9&5“ W {yar‘j/Zk fl égé/Léy‘y L ' i j i r V5 7‘1» x3 x , ., ,y “ ,, " W: ir’e/L 6%“ 42¢ 6M? {9ng “W fl” 0 ¢ fi/«H‘J’VMESJ <+ WVQWV/ P51; m7?“ ' {fl'a-iflMVM—W 7W“ 4:1, 4 6’”; ,{ w? Selubility Salubility AiCOhOi in H20 in C6H1 41, CH30H (methanol) 00 0.12 CHgCHZGH (ethanol) 00 0Q CHgCHZCI-IZOH (propanmi) 00 0c» CH3CH2CH2CH2C3H (butanai) 0.11 00 CH3CH2CH2CH2CHQOH (pentanol) 0.030 06:2 CH3CH2CH2CH2CHECHQOH {hexanofi} 0.0058 00 WWW/WWW W MW WM(««mmWWWWMWMW/WWMWWMW vii/AMWWW/Afivxw»ww~«mW/VMWI *Expmgsed in ma! alwholj 109 g advent a? 20 C. The infinity symbol (CG) indicates that the a§mhal is (0511;339wa miscible with the advent, Predicting Relative Solubilities PROBLEM: Predict which solvent will dissolve more of the given solute. (a) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) in methanol (CH3OH) or in propanol (CH3CH2CH20H). m MWM W9 MM [2” of (£6553 ME: ZZ Z5 (M 4%ka [Whig/Z: ELé flag) (b) Ethylene glycol (HOCH2 CHZOH) in hexane (CH3CH2CH2 CH2 CH 2CH3) or in water. . ~ , l <1 1 if M [piggy WM“? ZWZ M” :E Z Qflflb (c) Diethyl ether (CH3CH20CH2CH3) in water or in ethanol (CH3CHZOH). " I '~ a ”W ””1‘ T eff” ; a ”Wag; Z. Z. , "lg/MN w Z/ZZZZZZ Z EZ/Zmz/WH W" Z Z Z Z W Z i Z a A, Z‘» "’fZ‘WZiZLZiZ/Zfii) (A my} I; MHZ/20¢» 3 Gases in Solution W. n Temperature E fleets L9 gt: 1;, Mm m (riff Eff a, Pressure Effects L5, 5 ,; Mgr-17 0% g} Lu; [(1% it [MUQA Mfl 415%??? {mt/z (A (/1, 12% \ ffljg WC}? Henry’sLaw w~> ,l/(u/ gammfdflj (£54 a {34%) [W (9K LWLJ {g PWWfWUt/fl 7LT fifty] Using Henry’s Law to Calculate Gas Solubility The partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas (C02) inside a bottle of cola is 4 atm at 25°C. What is the solubility of C02? The Henry’s law constant for 002 dissolved in water is 3.3 x10'2 mol/L-atm at 25°C. arr-fl? i... (3 57415 W/MQG a“) w; ...
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