NeuroAssessment2017.pptx - Neurologic Assessment CHAPTER 24...

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Neurologic Assessment CHAPTER 24
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Outline Anatomy and physiology of the neurologic system Developmental considerations when conducting a neurologic exam Subjective data collection Objective data collection Stroke Documentation of the neurologic assessment
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Nervous System Purpose: Regulation of all body systems Regulation of all body functions Physical activity Physiological activity Coordination Voluntary/involuntary actions
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Nervous System Central Brain Spinal cord Peripheral Cranial nerves Spinal nerves
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Anatomy: Central Nervous System CNS Structures Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain stem Spinal cord Protective structure Meninges Dura mater Arachnoid Pia mater Cerebral spinal fluid
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Cerebrum
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Cerebellum Coordinates muscle movement and sensory input Controls balance and equilibrium Affects locomotion and posture Synchronizes muscle action Vital to controlling rapid muscle activity
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Brain stem Diencephalon Thalamus Gateway to cerebrum Epithalamus Mood Sleep Hypothalamus Homeostasis Temperature Food intake
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Brain stem (cont.) Midbrain Origin of cranial nerves III and IV Location of the reticular activating system: wakefulness, focus of attention Pons Origin of cranial nerves V-VII Contains the pneumotaxic center: rhythm of breathing Medulla Origin of cranial nerves VIII – XII Centers for swallowing, vomiting, sneezing & coughing Centers for cardiac and respiratory involvement
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Spinal Cord Continuation of the medulla Approximately 42 cm (17 inches) long Ends at L-1 Covered by meninges
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Spinal Cord Spinothalamic tract Originates in the spinal cord Transmits impulses from the spine to the thalamus on pain, temperature, itch, vibration and crude touch Corticospinal tract Sends signals from the brain to spine and effector organs Originates in cerebral cortex Corticospinal tract is concerned specifically with discrete voluntary skilled movements, such as precise movement of the fingers and toes. The signals cross in the medulla oblongata, this process is also known as decussation. The left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body, while the right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body.
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Spinal cord The neuronal cell bodies in the motor cortex, together with their axons that travel down through the brain stem and spinal cord are commonly referred to as upper motor neurons Upper motor neurons do not leave the CNS In the spinal cord, the axons of the upper motor neuron connect with the lower motor neurons of the spinal cord.
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