CHPT 4-6.pdf - Untitled Saved to Dropbox 10>21 AM Module 1...

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Module 1: Lecture 2 Advanced Nutrition Chapters 4-6 Structure and Properties of CHO, Proteins and Lipids Structure and Properties of Carbohydrates Untitled.pdf Saved to Dropbox • Aug 31, 2017, 10>21 AM
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Carbohydrates (CHO) Most abundant organic component of fruits, vegetable, legumes (dried beans, peas-pulses), cereal grains (wheat, corn) Major source of energy-absorbed in small intestine Added for texture or flavor in processed foods Major source of energy (4 kcal/g) (Food with 5 grams of carbohydrate would have 20 kcals for carb) Glucose main fuel for human tissues- some cells can only use glucose Carbohydrates (CHO) Chemical Classification:
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CHO are defined chemically as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) and ketones (ketoses); hydrophilic nature (like water) and allows inclusion of other types of CHOs; Monosaccharides Sugar alcohols Sugar acids Glycosides Polymerized products Aldoses and ketoses are monosaccharides (simplest) The number of carbon atoms in their structure – triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5) hexoses (6) etc The hexoses are predominant glucose, fructose and galactose
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(glucose and galactose) Sugars that vary at one carbon are called epimers Glucose and galactose are epimers Needs an enzyme to catalyze conversion (epimerase) Ketoses (Fructose) Ketoses have a carbonyl group (C=O) Fructose Others have suffix – ulose
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Aldoses and ketoses (reducing sugars) can react with amines (proteins) = Maillard Reaction Reactive dicarbonyls and crosslinking of proteins – part of the browning reaction in cooking process of meats Important part of diabetes and aging for details see box on page 56 Examples of Maillard reactions Food processing PLUS In the body :
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Glucose reacts with hemoglobin indicates exposure of patient to glucose over the life of the erythrocyte = HgA1C (helps determine compliance and diabetes control) Stiffening of artery walls, lung tissue, joints and others with aging. Hyperglycemia (Maillard reaction) related to increased vascular changes in diabetes and glycation of the lens – speeds up cataract formation (see picture) Alditols Sugar alcohol Used as artificial sweeteners in gum Not used by mouth (non-cariogenic-doesn’t cause cavities) Some metabolized by liver- so not calorie free Excess in colon, pulls water into intestines which causes diarrhea- don’t binge on it Sweetness varies with type Xylitol sweetest similar to sucrose Called sugar free but not calorie free Glucose is 3.8 cal/gm Sorbitol is 2.6 cal/gm
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Other CHOs/Hurler Disease
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