Week 2 Discussion #1.docx - NURS 6512-24 Week 2 Discussion#1 Post Initial Post Cynthia Nwokocha June 5 2017 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests

Week 2 Discussion #1.docx - NURS 6512-24 Week 2...

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NURS 6512-24 Week 2 Discussion #1 Post – Initial Post Cynthia Nwokocha June 5, 2017 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests – Prostate-Specific Antigen Test According to the National Cancer Institute (2012), Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland, and the PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood. Often, the blood level of PSA is elevated in men with prostate cancer and benign prostate conditions. The FDA first approved the test in 1986 to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in men already diagnosed with the disease (NCI, 2012). However, in 1994, the FDA approved the use of the PSA test in conjunction with the digital rectal exam (DRE) to test asymptomatic men for prostate cancer (NCI, 2012). It is recommended that men age 50 years and older routinely perform the PSA test annually. Also, men as you as 40 years old with higher risk, especially the African Americans, are recommended to take the test as well. This week’s discussion post will research and determine the validity and reliability of using the PSA test. Validity and Reliability of PSA Test There is no specificity in PSA levels in the blood. Most health providers consider normal PSA levels to be 4.0 ng/mL and lower. Health providers
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would often recommend a prostate biopsy to determine whether prostate cancer was present when one has a PSA level greater than 4.0 ng/mL. There have been several studies carried out to determine the validity and reliability of using PSA test in prostate cancer screening. Many randomized clinical trials of prostate cancer screening were conducted. One of the largest clinical trials done is that of the Prostate, Lung,
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