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Unformatted text preview: Fact:​ ​a​ ​thing​ ​that​ ​is​ ​known​ ​or​ ​proved​ ​to​ ​be​ ​true Biogeography:​​ ​the​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​biology​ ​that​ ​deals​ ​with​ ​the​ ​geographical​ ​distribution​ ​of​ ​plants​ ​and animals Gradualism:​​ ​the​ ​hypothesis​ ​that​ ​evolution​ ​proceeds​ ​chiefly​ ​by​ ​the​ ​accumulation​ ​of​ ​gradual changes​ ​(in​ ​contrast​ ​to​ ​the​ ​punctuationist​ ​model) Uniformitarianism:​​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​the​ ​earth's​ ​crust​ ​during​ ​geological​ ​history​ ​have resulted​ ​from​ ​the​ ​action​ ​of​ ​continuous​ ​and​ ​uniform​ ​processes Theory:​ ​a​ ​supposition​ ​or​ ​a​ ​system​ ​of​ ​ideas​ ​intended​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​something,​ ​especially​ ​one​ ​based on​ ​general​ ​principles​ ​independent​ ​of​ ​the​ ​thing​ ​to​ ​be​ ​explained Galapagos​ ​Islands:​ ​islands​ ​are​ ​known​ ​for​ ​their​ ​vast​ ​number​ ​of​ ​endemic​ ​species​ ​and​ ​were studied​ ​by​ ​Charles​ ​Darwin​ ​during​ ​the​ ​voyage​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Beagle,​ ​as​ ​his​ ​observations​ ​and​ ​collections contributed​ ​to​ ​the​ ​inception​ ​of​ ​Darwin's​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​evolution​ ​by​ ​natural​ ​selection Evolution:​ ​the​ ​process​ ​by​ ​which​ ​different​ ​kinds​ ​of​ ​living​ ​organism​ ​are​ ​believed​ ​to​ ​have developed​ ​from​ ​earlier​ ​forms​ ​during​ ​the​ ​history​ ​of​ ​the​ ​earth Homologus​ ​structures:​ ​while​ ​a​ ​species​ ​may​ ​use​ ​structures​ ​for​ ​different​ ​purposes,​ ​the​ ​species shared​ ​a​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​and​ ​these​ ​structures​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​those​ ​that​ ​were​ ​derived​ ​from​ ​ancestrally similar​ ​structures Natural​ ​selection:​ ​the​ ​process​ ​whereby​ ​organisms​ ​better​ ​adapted​ ​to​ ​their​ ​environment​ ​tend​ ​to survive​ ​and​ ​produce​ ​more​ ​offspring Analogous​ ​structures:​ ​similar​ ​features​ ​of​ ​different​ ​animals​ ​that​ ​have​ ​evolved​ ​due​ ​to​ ​convergent evolution Divergent​ ​evolution:​ ​the​ ​process​ ​by​ ​which​ ​an​ ​interbreeding​ ​population​ ​or​ ​species​ ​diverges​ ​into two​ ​or​ ​more​ ​descendant​ ​species,​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​once​ ​similar​ ​or​ ​related​ ​species​ ​to​ ​become​ ​more​ ​and more​ ​dissimilar Convergent​ ​evolution:​ ​a​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​evolution​ ​wherein​ ​organisms​ ​evolve​ ​structures​ ​that​ ​have similar​ ​(analogous)​ ​structures​ ​or​ ​functions​ ​in​ ​spite​ ​of​ ​their​ ​evolutionary​ ​ancestors​ ​being​ ​very dissimilar​ ​or​ ​unrelated Parallel​ ​evolution:​ ​an​ ​evolutionary​ ​process​ ​by​ ​which​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more​ ​separate​ ​species​ ​in​ ​the​ ​same environment​ ​develop​ ​similar​ ​adaptation​ ​or​ ​characteristic​ ​for​ ​survival Darwin:​ ​English​ ​natural​ ​historian​ ​and​ ​geologist,​ ​proponent​ ​of​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​evolution​ ​by​ ​natural selection Vertebrate​ ​limb​ ​structure:​​ ​develops​ ​in​ ​a​ ​similar​ ​way​ ​under​ ​homologous​ ​influences Species​ ​population:​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​all​ ​the​ ​organisms​ ​of​ ​the​ ​same​ ​group​ ​or​ ​species,​ ​which​ ​live​ ​in a​ ​particular​ ​geographical​ ​area,​ ​and​ ​have​ ​the​ ​capability​ ​of​ ​interbreeding Individual:​ ​a​ ​single,​ ​separate​ ​organism​ ​(animal​ ​or​ ​plant)​ ​distinguished​ ​from​ ​others​ ​of​ ​a​ ​same kind. Variability:​ ​the​ ​tendency​ ​of​ ​individual​ ​genetic​ ​characteristics​ ​in​ ​a​ ​population​ ​to​ ​vary​ ​from​ ​one another Paleontology:​ ​the​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​science​ ​concerned​ ​with​ ​fossil​ ​animals​ ​and​ ​plants. Malthus:​ ​the​ ​first​ ​economist​ ​to​ ​propose​ ​a​ ​systematic​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​population Population​ ​size:​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​people​ ​inhabiting​ ​a​ ​specified​ ​area Environment:​ ​the​ ​natural​ ​biological​ ​factors​ ​(such​ ​as​ ​wild​ ​animals​ ​and​ ​plants​ ​or​ ​bacteria)​ ​that affect​ ​human​ ​life​ ​(as​ ​in​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​place​ ​or​ ​period) Fit​ ​Individuals: Fossil​ ​record:​ ​term​ ​used​ ​by​ ​paleontologists​ ​to​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​the​ ​total​ ​number​ ​of​ ​fossils​ ​that​ ​have​ ​been discovered,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​to​ ​the​ ​information​ ​derived​ ​from​ ​them. Embryology:​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​biology​ ​that​ ​deals​ ​with​ ​the​ ​formation,​ ​early​ ​growth,​ ​and​ ​development​ ​of living​ ​organisms Taxonomy:​ ​the​ ​science​ ​of​ ​defining​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​biological​ ​organisms​ ​on​ ​the​ ​basis​ ​of​ ​shared characteristics​ ​and​ ​giving​ ​names​ ​to​ ​those​ ​groups Selective​ ​(domestic)​ ​breeding:​ ​intentional​ ​breeding​ ​of​ ​organisms​ ​with​ ​desirable​ ​trait​ ​in​ ​an attempt​ ​to​ ​produce​ ​offspring​ ​with​ ​similar​ ​desirable​ ​characteristics​ ​or​ ​with​ ​improved​ ​traits​ ​and​ ​it involves​ ​breeding​ ​techniques​ ​such​ ​as​ ​inbreeding,​ ​linebreeding​ ​and​ ​outcrossing Limited​ ​resources:​ ​is​ ​something​ ​an​ ​entire​ ​species​ ​needs;​ ​however,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​not​ ​enough​ ​of​ ​it​ ​for everyone Struggle​ ​for​ ​existence:​ ​the​ ​competition​ ​in​ ​nature​ ​among​ ​organisms​ ​of​ ​a​ ​population​ ​to​ ​maintain themselves​ ​in​ ​a​ ​given​ ​environment​ ​and​ ​to​ ​survive​ ​to​ ​reproduce​ ​others​ ​of​ ​their​ ​kind Reproduction:​ ​the​ ​biological​ ​process​ ​by​ ​which​ ​new​ ​individual​ ​organisms​ ​–​ ​"offspring"​ ​–​ ​are produced​ ​from​ ​their​ ​"parents" Extinction:​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​an​ ​organism​ ​or​ ​of​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​organisms​ ​(taxon),​ ​normally​ ​a​ ​species ...
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