Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Textbook: 1. Describe the idea of...

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Textbook: 1. Describe the idea of "The Allegory of the Cave" in Plato's Republic. "The Allegory of The Cave" in Plato's Republic depicts our ordinary sense of reality as beings like prisoners in a cave. The prisoners are tethered together since childhood, bound to face only the wall in front of them, and all they are able to see are the shadows on the wall in front of them. This is their reality, and this depiction is meant to show how much of our conception of reality depends on what we can learn about the world through our senses. 2. Explain the mechanism of adaptation and provide an example. Adaptation is a reduction in response caused by prior or continuing stimulation. For instance, upon arrival at a loud stadium, one might notice the increase in noise level, but soon after, the observer adapts to it, not noticing it anymore. 3. What are sensory transducers and how are they related to perception? Sensory transducers are receptors that convert physical energy from the environment into neural activity. According to Democritus, our perception is based on information passed through these receptors from the outside world. 4. What is nativism? Nativism is the idea that the mind produces ideas that are not derived from external sources. Rather, all our abilities are innate and not learned through experience. 5. Explain how Descartes is known as a dualist. Descartes is known as a dualist because he believed in the idea that both mind and body exist. In fact, he considered the mind to be quite separate from the body. For instance, the mind is unextended (takes up no space), and has no substance. It is distinct from the body and survives the death of the body, like a soul. 6. Describe empiricism and provide an example of one empiricist. Empiricism is the idea that experience from the senses is the only source of knowledge. Hobbes was an empiricist who believed that everything that could ever be known or even imagined had to be learned through the senses. 7. Explain the notion of "tabula rasa." "Tabula rasa," or "blank slate" is the famous concept formulated by John Locke, who proposed that the newborn's mind is blank, waiting to be filled with information. This is done through experience, which is the essence of empiricism. 8. What is psychophysics?
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Psychophysics is the science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological (subjective) events. 9. What is the "just noticeable difference" (JND) and why is it important in psychophysics? The JND is the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, or the minimum
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Exam 1 Study Guide - Textbook: 1. Describe the idea of...

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