Final Notes - Karl Pearson The loose application of...

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Karl Pearson The loose application of Darwin's biological concepts to the social world, where they did not apply, also buttressed imperialism, racism, nationalism, and militarism—doctrines that preached relentless conflict. Social Darwinists insisted that nations and races were engaged in a struggle for survival in which only the fittest survive and deserve to survive. In their view, war was nature's way of eliminating the unfit. Karl Pearson, a British professor of mathematics, stated in National Life from the Standpoint of Science (1900) : History shows me only one way, and one way only in which a higher state of civilization has been produced, namely the struggle of race with race, and the survival of the physically and mentally fitter race…The path of progress is strewn with the wrecks of nations; traces are everywhere to be seen of the sacrifice of interior races, and of victims who found not the narrow way to perfection. Yet these dead ppl are, in very truth, the stepping stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today. Karl Marx The most important of the radical Young Hegelians was Karl Marx. Marx retained Hegel’s overarching principles that history contains an inner logic, that it is an intelligible process, and that a dialectical struggle propels history from a lower stage to a higher stage. The thought of the early socialists influenced Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who, in the second half of the 19 th , became the most influential formulators and propagators of socialism. There were also Christian communitarians, who protested the treatment of the poor and the unsettling conditions caused by industrialization. These Christian “socialists” urged believers to share their property and labor and live together in model communities. For Marx, by necessity a new social order entailed the destruction of the bourgeoisie. Interpreting history in economic terms, Marx predicted that socialism would replace capitalism. He called for the proletariat to overthrow capitalism and to establish a classless society. Karl Marx (1818-1883) was born of German-Jewish parents (both descendants of prominent rabbis). To save his job as a layer, Marx’s father converted to Protestantism. Enrolled at a university to study law, Marx switched to philosophy. In 1842, he was editing a newspaper, which was soon suppressed by the Prussian authorities for its outspoken ideas. Leaving his native Rhineland, Marx went to Paris, where he met another German, Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), who was the son of a prosperous textile manufacturer. Marx and Engels entered into a lifelong collaboration an became members of socialist groups. In Feb 1848 , they published the Communist Manifesto , which called for a working-class revolution to overthrow the capitalist system. Forced to leave France in 1849 because of his polit views, Marx moved to London, where he spent the rest of his life. Short of funds, sometimes wife and daughters lived in dreadful poverty. In London, Marx spent
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Final Notes - Karl Pearson The loose application of...

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