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Unformatted text preview: 201- X-FILES SCIENCEPARAPSYCHOLOGYVG 1PARANORMAL PHENOMENA are anomalous phenomena which conflict with accepted scientific opinion as to what is physically possible.The phenomena are generally known as PSI Phenomena.VG 2ESP or Extra Sensory Perception involves the transmission of information by no known sensory channel;Telepathy:mind to mind transmissionClairvoyance: mind to matter transmissionPrecognition: Transmission backwards in timeParakinesis or PK: the ability of mind to affect matter by paranormal means.VG 3More exotic paranormal phenomena: mediumship and Spirit writing, Near Death and Out of Body Experiences, repressed memory experiences of former lives, alternative medicine (acupuncture, faith healing, homeopathy, etc), remote viewing (Ingo Swann's visit to Venus - spying work at SRI)), teleportation, channelling, animal ESP, ghosts, Alien Abduction, Crop circles, ganzfeld, divination, stigmata.A bit of history: First reported paranormal phenomenon was that of Fox sisters in Upstate new York in 1840.In 1882, Society for Psychical Research formed in London by Victorian Scientific Naturalists, people like Oliver Lodge and William Crookes.VG 4Some dates in the history of Parapsychology:Fox Sisters Upstate New York 1840SPR, 1882J.B. Rhine Duke 1930sPA, 1954Oliver Lodge and his photographs of "Ectoplasm" - work with mediums. In this case it was alleged that Lodge was having an affair with the medium and this is why she duped him.In the 1930s an attempt was made to put the subject on a scientific footing by a psychologist at Duke University, J.B. Rhine.He invented standardized procedures with cards with symbols on them known as Zener cards. Used ordinary subjects as opposed to spirit mediums. His results were controversial on grounds of randomization, sensory cueing, inadequate statistics - eventually the only allegation that was left was Fraud.Rhine ran first "blind" experiments - when the subject doesn't know she is in an ESP experiment and then "double blind" experiments when the experimenter doesn't know what counts as a success. This will eliminate unconscious sensory cueing....
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This note was uploaded on 11/06/2007 for the course S&TS 2011 taught by Professor Pinch,t. during the Spring '06 term at Cornell.
- Spring '06