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Unformatted text preview: FACTOR LTD RUSSIA, MOSCOW "Green" Energy production in Russia. Russian Bio Energy Unit. "GREEN" Energy potential of the Volga Federal Region of Russia. WASTES 450 000 T =POWER 30 GW= 75 HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS From ecology and energy problems through GREEN TECHNOLOGIES to Sustainable development. The best way to prevent negative influence on the nature and to get an independent renewable energy source is to recycle organic wastes and to stop continuous damage of environment. The methane fermentation technology is the most interesting for such purposes as it provides unique advantages: realization of non-waste technology production from wastes of two useful products: liquid organic fertilizer and combustible gas named biogas. Typical Bio Energy Unit Bio Energy Unit (BEU) is designed to treat organic wastes of different origin (manure, dung, meat processing wastes, brewing wastes etc.) with the use of the methane fermentation process. The aims of the treatment are the follows: A) Production of ecologically pure organic fertilizers of a natural type , B) Creation of renewable power resources, C) Wastes utilization and improvement of ecological situation in the agricultural areas and zones of food manufacturing and processing, D) The above listed is the foundation for creation of ecologically pure intensive closed cycles of agricultural industry, organic farming. As a basis, a well-known process of methane fermentation in a biogas reactor is used. Specific characteristics and innovations of the technology : the bioreactor original construction the system of biogas pressure stabilization without a gasholder application of modified ferment on the basis of specific methane-producing bacteria cultures application of the special activators of the process All this enables to intensify the process significantly and to increase the efficiency of the technology of an organic wastes treatment. Any organic waste could be used as a source: manure, dung, meat processing wastes, brewing wastes and others. As a result of the waste treatment two useful products are received: biogas and organic fertilizer. High degrees of organic substance conversion in wastes allow getting the biogas output increase. Process flowsheet of BEU The BEU could operate under thermophilic and mezophilic conditions. In the first case the temperature is 50-55 C in the second case 40-42 C. The design makes the treatment process consequent, without interruptions. A control system provides monitoring and optimization of the operating parameters of the unit. Raw material runs into the tank where it is purified of hard dashes , than it is mixed and moved to bioreactor. The methane fermentation process continues for 5-10 days. Before the start of process the microbiological culture must be added in raw material. Liquid product from bioreactor- fertilizer flows to the tank.. Biogas is composed of the mixture of methane (4) up to 70% and the carbonic acid (2). Specific heat of combustion is 5500-6500 kcal/ cubic meter. The gas can be used for its own needs, power production or it can be liquefied and pumped into reservoirs. Proceeding from the operational experience not more than 30% of the produced gas is used to cover energy needs of the unit. 70% of gas output can be used for external consumption. Thus, the bioenergetic unit is power independent. Some technical characteristics of different Bio Energy Units Company/plant Reactor volume, m3 m3 per day Biogas output Specific Specific output, m3 per output, m3 per m3 of reactor m3 of raw volume material 8.00 1.50 1.16 40.0 25.0 33.1 Sumsy, Russia Skinnerup, Denmark Howmarken, Denmark 25 200 150 200 300 175 The developed technology exceeds the others both in production cost and ecology of the process. The comparative analysis shows that the biogas specific output on the BEU experimental unit is in 1.2 1.5 times more, than the output of the analogue. Modular biogas unit The design of modular biogas unit provides suitable transportation and installation of unit. Expenses for installation and adjustment works are reduced. This version of biogas unit is economically more profitable. We are ready to produce such units for different customers and for different wastes processing. The technical parameters of typical units are representing below: Volume of bioreactor, m3 Raw material daily loading, t Output of fertilizer t/day Output of biogas m3/day Biogas equivalent heat power, kW Mode of operation 5 1 1 60 15 10 2 2 120 30 25 5 5 300 75 50 10 10 600 150 automatic 150 30 30 1800 450 300 60 60 3600 900 500 100 100 6000 1500 The other result of the process is the very interesting product bioorganic fertilizer Fertilizer "UROZHAI-C" Patent of RF No 2248955 of December 26, 2002. Advantages of fertilizer: Universality: the fertilizer can be used for all soils and crops. Effectiveness: the fertilizer increases significantly all crops capacity on all soils (from 20 up to 250%). Economy: the fertilizer is used diluted with water in the following proportion: from1:10 up to 1:30 and in doses from 300 kg up to 1 t per 1 hectare. Low price: the cost is significantly lower than mineral fertilizers' one. Purity: it does not contain pathogen microflora and germinating seed of weeds. The fertilizer restores and increases the fertility of soils. Fertilizer "UROZHAI-C" It contains living microorganisms and the products of their existence: giberrelins, auxins, cinins, humins acids,vitamins, amino acids, etc. These substances are well known as stimulators of plant growth; Nitrogen contained in the initial raw remains practically in the total amount in the fertilizers in ammonium or organic forms, which are better accessible for feeding the plant roots. The coefficient of usage achieves 80%, compared to 30% for non-processed raw. The microbiologic cultures contained in fertilizers provide formation of humus materials and improve the soil qualitative characteristics: aeration degree, infiltration and water-holding capacity. Complete "disinfection". The treatment of wastes results in complete destroying of weeds seed, pathogens etc. Deodorization effect. Intensity of specific wastes smell is significantly decreased. Compared to traditionally applied manure the produced fertilizer is much more efficient, because only fresh manure with 24-hours shelflife is used and the ammonia nitrogen losses are minimal. Microbiological processing gives specific properties to the product: the whole set macroand microelements of hen's excrement are combined with the live microorganisms culture allied to soil bacteria. The fertilizer includes the products of metabolism of the used microbiologic cultures substances stimulating the development. It also contains humic and fulic acids and their compounds. The degree of the nutrients assimilation by the plants is significantly improved. Soils and mixtures Bio organic fertilizer is a component of soils and peat mixtures that are applied for growing of ecologically clean products. The fertilizer in a liquid form may be added into the soil or granulated if necessary. If it is mixed in definite proportions with different components, composts soil mixtures for hothouses can be made. Composition of bio organic fertilizer "Urozhai -C." 9849-002-25603567-02 Index Moisture , % Acidity of the medium , Content of macroelements in % for Total nitrogen Ammonia nitrogen phosphorus, converting into 25 potassium, converting into 2 Content of microelements in mg/l Copper Cobalt Nickel Zink ( coli-index) Eggs of helminths (viable) Pathogene microorganisms 0,14 0,23 0.20 1,8 1-9 none none 4-7 2.5-4 7-12 1-3 90 7-8 Application of these fertilizers provides the crop increase of 20% to 360% for different cultures and decreases the necessity to apply mineral fertilizers (may replace them completely) and pesticides that enables to cultivate different crops more efficiently and to get ecologically pure food products. Influence of fertilizer "Urozhai-C" on corn yield. Field tests' results in farms of Volga region Year Norm of fertilizer application Crop yield, Centner per hectare Comparison 2000 Without fertilizers 80 100% 2000 Urozhai- 700 kg/hectare 290 360 % 2001 Ammonium nitrate, 200 kg/hectare 113 140% 2002 Urozhai- 600 kg/hectare 200 250% The use of little quantity of this fertilizer leads to the maximum efficiency. This unusual effect has been confirmed with other tests for other plants. Wasteless technology of fertilizers production Organic agriculture and environmental protection Fertilizers production is an industrial wasteless technology free from drains and emissions that enables also to receive "green" energy from renewable sources and get rid of wastes. This technology can serve as a basis for creation of environmentally friendly closed loops of intensive agricultural production. The principle scheme of arranging the agricultural closed loops is shown below: Factor Ltd We will be happy to cooperate with you Tkatskaya str. 1, Moscow 105 318, Russia e-mail: [email protected] www.enf.ru ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2008 for the course CTARA TD 611 taught by Professor Prof.shah during the Fall '08 term at IIT Bombay.

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