Chapt16 fall 07 - Chemistry 1035 General Chemistry Chapter...

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Chemistry 1035 - General Chemistry Chapter 16 Fall 2007 Professor John G. Dillard 406A Davidson Hall 231-6926 [email protected] Review Sessions: Tuesday, 6:30-8:00 pm Wednesday, 8:30-10:00 pm Davidson Hall - Room 3
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Chapter 16 Chemical kinetics – rates (speed) of reactions Reaction rates Rate laws determining the rate law first order half-life – first order rates second order zero order Reaction mechanisms Catalysis heterogeneous – two phases homogeneous – one phase
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The importance of ‘kinetics” – rates of reactions human processes – enzyme kinetics rate of aging rate of breathing rate of healing rate of drug effectiveness environmental rates – rate of ozone depletion rate of iceberg melting rate of metal ion deposition/removal rate of organic carbon & CO 2 production chemical processes - rate of product formation rate of product production & catalysis rate of product degradation rate of combustion rate of radioactive decay
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The importance of ‘kinetics” – rates of reactions Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions thermodynamics vs rates Rates as a function of temperature activation energy catalysis Reaction mechanisms stoichiometry details of the conversion process the specific steps
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The principal factors affecting rates of reactions A. Concentration: moles/molecules per unit volume reactants must collide to react; reaction rate is proportional to reactant concentration B. Physical state: to collide molecules must mix reactants collide in solution or in the gas phase; gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid reactions require interaction/contact at the interface C. Temperature: colliding molecules must have sufficient energy to react increasing the temperature increases the number of collisions and the energy of the colliding molecules
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1.0 0.5 0 C + D A + B time relative concentration Complete conversion of A & B to C & D 1.0 0.5 0 C + D A + B time relative concentration Incomplete conversion of A & B to C & D or Reaction: A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)
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Concentration vs time plot for the oxidation of ethylene by ozone
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Types of reactions a) Hydrolysis/substitution C 4 H 9 Cl + H 2 O C 4 H 9 OH + HCl [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] 2+ + H 2 O [Co(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] 3+ + Cl - dissociation occurs in the process b) addition R CH=CH 2 + Br 2 RCHBr CH 2 Br R CH=CH 2 + H 2 RCH 2 CH 3 c) chain reaction CH 3 CH 3 + Br 2 CH 3 CH 2 Br + HBr initiation propagation termination
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Types of reactions d) heterogeneous/homogeneous processes heterogeneous – two phases N 2 + H 2 NH 3 SO 2 + O 2 SO 3 dissociative adsorption; reaction; product desorption homogeneous – one phase TiCl 4 + Al(C 2 H 5 ) 3 + CH 2 = CH 2 olefin polymerization: Ziegler - Natta Fe V 2 O 5 CH 2 CH 2 n
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Ti CH 2 CH 2 H Ti CH 2 CH 3 + C 2 H 4 Ti CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Ti CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ; etc. Olefin polymerization the mechanism: Ziegler - Natta TiCl 4 + Al(C 2 H 5 ) 3
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Some considerations in making rate measurements .
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