2017 Nat'l Trade Estimates on Foreign Trade Barriers, 080917.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: 2017 National Trade Estimate Report on FOREIGN TRADE BARRIERS Office of the United States Trade Representative ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is responsible for the preparation of this report. Acting U.S. Trade Representative Stephen Vaughn gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Justice, State, Transportation, and the U.S. International Trade Commission. In preparing the report, substantial information was solicited from U.S. Embassies abroad. Drafts of the report were circulated through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee. Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Trade Policy and Economies: Ed Gresser Project Director: Donald W. Eiss Project Staff: Dorothea E. Cheek Caper Gooden Mark C. Jordan Katherine Standbridge Yvonne Jamison LIST OF FREQUENTLY USED ACRONYMS AD ................................................................................... AGOA ............................................................................. APEC .............................................................................. ASEAN ........................................................................... ATC ................................................................................ ATPA .............................................................................. ATPDEA ......................................................................... BIA.................................................................................. BIT .................................................................................. BOP ................................................................................. CACM ............................................................................. CAFTA ........................................................................... CARICOM ...................................................................... CBERA ........................................................................... CBI .................................................................................. CFTA .............................................................................. CITEL ............................................................................. COMESA ........................................................................ CTE ................................................................................. CTG ................................................................................ CVD ................................................................................ DDA ................................................................................ DOL ................................................................................ DSB ................................................................................. EAI .................................................................................. DSU ................................................................................ EU ................................................................................... EFTA .............................................................................. FTAA .............................................................................. FOIA .............................................................................. GATT .............................................................................. GATS .............................................................................. GDP ................................................................................ GEC ................................................................................ GSP ................................................................................. GPA ................................................................................ IFI.................................................................................... IPR .................................................................................. ITA .................................................................................. LDBDC ........................................................................... MAI ................................................................................. MEFTA ........................................................................... MERCOSUL/MERCOSUR ............................................ MFA ................................................................................ MFN ................................................................................ MOSS.............................................................................. Antidumping African Growth and Opportunity Act Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Association of Southeast Asian Nations Agreement on Textiles and Clothing Andean Trade Preferences Act Andean Trade Promotion & Drug Eradication Act Built-In Agenda Bilateral Investment Treaty Balance of Payments Central American Common Market Central American Free Trade Area Caribbean Common Market Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act Caribbean Basin Initiative Canada Free Trade Agreement Telecommunications division of the OAS Common Market for Eastern & Southern Africa Committee on Trade and the Environment Council for Trade in Goods Countervailing Duty Doha Development Agenda Department of Labor Dispute Settlement Body Enterprise for ASEAN Initiative Dispute Settlement Understanding European Union European Free Trade Association Free Trade Area of the Americas Freedom of Information Act General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade General Agreements on Trade in Services Gross Domestic Product Global Electronic Commerce Generalized System of Preferences Government Procurement Agreement International Financial Institution Intellectual Property Rights Information Technology Agreement Least-Developed Beneficiary Developing Country Multilateral Agreement on Investment Middle East Free Trade Area Southern Common Market Multifiber Arrangement Most Favored Nation Market-Oriented, Sector-Selective MOU ............................................................................... MRA ............................................................................... NAFTA ........................................................................... NEC ................................................................................ NIS .................................................................................. NSC ................................................................................. NTR ................................................................................ OAS ................................................................................ OECD.............................................................................. OPIC ............................................................................... PNTR .............................................................................. ROU ................................................................................ SACU .............................................................................. SADC .............................................................................. SME ................................................................................ SPS .................................................................................. SRM ............................................................................... TAA ................................................................................ TABD.............................................................................. TACD.............................................................................. TAEVD ........................................................................... TALD .............................................................................. TBT ................................................................................. TEP ................................................................................. TIFA................................................................................ TPRG .............................................................................. TPP.................................................................................. TPSC ............................................................................... TRIMS ............................................................................ TRIPS.............................................................................. T-TIP ............................................................................... UAE ................................................................................ UNCTAD ........................................................................ UNDP.............................................................................. URAA ............................................................................. USDA.............................................................................. USITC ............................................................................. USTR .............................................................................. VRA ............................................................................... WAEMU ........................................................................ WB ................................................................................. WTO .............................................................................. Memorandum of Understanding Mutual Recognition Agreement North American Free Trade Agreement National Economic Council Newly Independent States National Security Council Normal Trade Relations Organization of American States Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Overseas Private Investment Corporation Permanent Normal Trade Relations Record of Understanding Southern African Customs Union Southern African Development Community Small and Medium Size Enterprise Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Specified Risk Material Trade Adjustment Assistance Trans-Atlantic Business Dialogue Trans-Atlantic Consumer Dialogue Trans-Atlantic Environment Dialogue Trans-Atlantic Labor Dialogue Technical Barriers to Trade Transatlantic Economic Partnership Trade & Investment Framework Agreement Trade Policy Review Group Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Policy Staff Committee Trade Related Investment Measures Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership United Arab Emirates United Nations Conference on Trade & Development United Nations Development Program Uruguay Round Agreements Act U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. International Trade Commission United States Trade Representative Voluntary Restraint Agreement West African Economic & Monetary Union World Bank World Trade Organization TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................. 1 ALGERIA ....................................................................................................................................... 7 ANGOLA ...................................................................................................................................... 13 ARAB LEAGUE .......................................................................................................................... 17 ARGENTINA ............................................................................................................................... 23 AUSTRALIA ................................................................................................................................ 35 BAHRAIN .................................................................................................................................... 39 BANGLADESH ........................................................................................................................... 41 BRAZIL ........................................................................................................................................ 47 BRUNEI DARUSSALAM ........................................................................................................... 59 CAMBODIA ................................................................................................................................. 61 CANADA ..................................................................................................................................... 65 CHILE ........................................................................................................................................... 73 CHINA .......................................................................................................................................... 77 COLOMBIA ................................................................................................................................. 97 COSTA RICA ............................................................................................................................. 105 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ......................................................................................................... 111 ECUADOR ................................................................................................................................. 115 EGYPT ........................................................................................................................................ 123 EL SALVADOR ......................................................................................................................... 129 ETHIOPIA .................................................................................................................................. 135 EUROPEAN UNION ................................................................................................................. 139 GHANA ...................................................................................................................................... 185 GUATEMALA ........................................................................................................................... 191 HONDURAS .............................................................................................................................. 195 HONG KONG ............................................................................................................................ 199 INDIA ......................................................................................................................................... 201 INDONESIA ............................................................................................................................... 219 ISRAEL....................................................................................................................................... 239 JAPAN ........................................................................................................................................ 243 JORDAN ..................................................................................................................................... 259 KAZAKHSTAN ......................................................................................................................... 261 KENYA....................................................................................................................................... 267 KOREA ....................................................................................................................................... 275 KUWAIT .................................................................................................................................... 289 LAOS .......................................................................................................................................... 293 MALAYSIA ............................................................................................................................... 297 MEXICO ..................................................................................................................................... 303 MOROCCO ................................................................................................................................ 311 NEW ZEALAND........................................................................................................................ 315 NICARAGUA............................................................................................................................. 317 NIGERIA .................................................................................................................................... 323 NORWAY................................................................................................................................... 329 OMAN ........................................................................................................................................ 333 PAKISTAN ................................................................................................................................. 337 PANAMA ................................................................................................................................... 343 PARAGUAY .............................................................................................................................. 347 PERU .......................................................................................................................................... 351 THE PHILIPPINES .................................................................................................................... 355 QATAR ....................................................................................................................................... 363 RUSSIA ...................................................................................................................................... 367 SAUDI ARABIA ........................................................................................................................ 385 SINGAPORE .............................................................................................................................. 391 SOUTH AFRICA........................................................................................................................ 395 SRI LANKA ............................................................................................................................... 403 SWITZERLAND ........................................................................................................................ 409 TAIWAN .................................................................................................................................... 413 THAILAND ................................................................................................................................ 421 TUNISIA..................................................................................................................................... 431 TURKEY .................................................................................................................................... 435 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES..................................................................................................... 443 UKRAINE................................................................................................................................... 449 VENEZUELA ............................................................................................................................. 455 VIETNAM ...................
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