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quiz 5 study guide

quiz 5 study guide - Instrumental Conditioning contingency...

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Instrumental Conditioning- contingency arranged between response and outcome (reward, omission, punishment, avoidance) Non-reward contingencies- response not followed by positive reinforcer o Extinction- reward is omitted in relation to response o Omission- temporary removal of a positive stimulus (ie: time-out) o Punishment- an application of an aversive event in response to an aversive stimulus, action= consequences (ie: cheating gets you suspended) Avoidance learning- instrumental response prevents aversive stimulus, aka negative reinforcement o Negative reinforcement- removal of a stimulus increases frequency of a response (ie: to get kids to stop watching TV, parents remove TV); often confused with punishment Extinction- positive reinforcement is simply withheld following each occurrence of the instrumental behavior, with the expectation that the response will extinguish Resistance to extinction- how persistent a response is, even though the response is now nonrewarded o Ie: people buying lottery tickets every week even though chances are they won’t win Discrimination hypothesis- the onset of extinction is readily discriminated from the previous continuous schedule of rewards o Ie: people ignore the fact they probably won’t win by focusing on those who have won Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE)- after instrumental training with a partial reinforcement schedule (so only, say, 15% of ppl in group will get reinforcement), extinction is slower o Basically, those that got the reinforcer before have higher anticipation of getting the reinforcer again, but overall, since most people did not receive the reinforcer, extinction is slower o Ie: rewarding the top 10 speeds in a PE class with a free lunch. Those that won the first time will continue to work hard while the overall class will be disgruntled and hinder the overall improvement of the class Sequential Hypothesis- at the start of a new trial, the participant remembers the outcome of the previous trial and associates it with the outcome of the current trial o How it differs from Frustration Trial: Fewer acquisition trials required Trials can be spaced apart because the memory of nonreward is thought to persist longer than the frustration produced by nonreward Punishment- a target response is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus o Defined by a Response-Consequence Contingency o Suppresses responding b/c administration of noxious stimulus can arouse emotional or motivational states like fear and avoidance
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o Intensity: studies show a stronger shock creates responses more quickly and permanently than weaker shocks (don’t introduce weak punishments and slowly increase it to harshers ones because those generally don’t work!) o Delay of Punishment: punishment is more effective if applied immediately after target behavior and decreases effectiveness the longer it is delayed o Schedule of Punishment: punishment following each instance of unwanted
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